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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand determinants of oral health inequalities, multilevel modelling is a useful manner to study contextual factors in relation to individual oral health. Several studies outside Europe have been performed so far, however, contextual variables used are diverse and results conflicting. Therefore, this study investigated whether neighbourhood level differences in oral health exist, and whether any of the neighbourhood characteristics used were associated with oral health. METHODS: This study is embedded in The Generation R Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in The Netherlands. In total, 5 960 6-year-old children, representing 158 neighbourhoods in the area of Rotterdam, were included. Data on individual and neighbourhood characteristics were derived from questionnaires, and via open data resources. Caries was assessed via intraoral photographs, and defined as decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft). RESULTS: Differences between neighbourhoods explained 13.3% of the risk of getting severe caries, and 2% of the chance of visiting the dentist yearly. After adjustments for neighbourhood and individual characteristics, neighbourhood deprivation was significantly associated with severe dental caries (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.02-2.15), and suggestive of a low odds of visiting the dentist yearly (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.56-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood caries and use of dental services differs between neighbourhoods and living in a deprived neighbourhood is associated with increased dental caries and decreased yearly use of dental services. This highlights the importance of neighbourhoods for understanding differences in children's oral health, and for targeted policies and interventions to improve the oral health of children living in deprived neighbourhoods.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low folic acid, folate and vitamin B12 might affect tooth formation and mineralization. The conversion of folic acid into folate is catalysed by the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) enzyme which is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Among 3728 mothers and their 10-year-old children from the Generation R Study, we investigated associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and prenatal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations with child dental development. Secondly, we checked the modifying effect of MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. METHODS: Information on folic acid supplementation was obtained by questionnaires. Concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were measured from venous samples taken in early pregnancy. Developmental stages of teeth were defined by the Demirjian method at the age-10 assessment. In addition, dental age of the children was calculated using the Dutch standard. GLM and multivariate linear regression models were built to study the associations. RESULTS: Folic acid supplementation started when pregnancy was known (ß = -0.09; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.01) and folic acid supplementation started prior to known pregnancy (ß = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04) were both associated with decelerated dental development by 1-2 months lower dental age of 10-year-old children. Folate (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.02) and vitamin B12 (ß = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.00, 0.06) were not associated with dental age. MTHFR-C677T did not modify the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folic acid supplementation delays dental development of children by 1-2 months dental age, whereas maternal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in early pregnancy do not affect the timing of child dental development.

3.
J Craniofac Surg ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405445

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is a novel imaging technique that has gained popularity in the medical field as a reliable, non-invasive, and radiation-free imaging modality. It uses optical sensors to acquire multiple 2D images from different angles which are reconstructed into a 3D digital model of the subject's surface. The technique proved to be especially useful in craniofacial applications, where it serves as a tool to overcome the limitations imposed by conventional imaging modalities and subjective evaluation methods. The capability to acquire high-dimensional data in a quick and safe manner and archive them for retrospective longitudinal analyses, provides the field with a methodology to increase the understanding of the morphological development of the cranium, its growth patterns and the effect of different treatments over time.This review describes the role of 3D stereophotogrammetry in the evaluation of craniosynostosis, including reliability studies, current and potential clinical use cases, and practical challenges. Finally, developments within the research field are analyzed by means of bibliometric networks, depicting prominent research topics, authors, and institutions, to stimulate new ideas and collaborations in the field of craniofacial 3D stereophotogrammetry.We anticipate that utilization of this modality's full potential requires a global effort in terms of collaborations, data sharing, standardization, and harmonization. Such developments can facilitate larger studies and novel deep learning methods that can aid in reaching an objective consensus regarding the most effective treatments for patients with craniosynostosis and other craniofacial anomalies, and to increase our understanding of these complex dysmorphologies and associated phenotypes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify if certain types of craniosynostosis and/or surgical procedures are more likely to require a secondary intracranial procedure because of insufficient correction of skull shape or raised ICP after initial surgery. METHODS: All consecutive cases with craniosynostosis that were operated at our center between January 2010 and January 2019 were included and the number of secondary operations of the vault were determined, as well as diagnosis, the indication and type and timing of initial surgery. Monobloc and facial bipartition procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Over a nine year period, 790 vault corrections were performed in 780 patients of which 38 procedures were reoperations in 35 patient because of raised intracranial pressure or an insufficient esthetic result of the skull shape. Particularly patients with a multisutural or syndromic craniosynostosis are represented in this group, as well as three surgical procedures: 1. biparietal outfracturing for sagittal synostosis; 2. endoscopic stripcraniectomy with helmet therapy for unicoronal, multisutural or syndromic craniosynostosis; 3. conventional occipital expansion for syndromic craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of a second intracranial correction for insufficient outcome of skull shape or for raised ICP is related to type of synostosis and type of initial surgical technique. Particularly multisutural and syndromic craniosynostosis are more likely to require repeat surgery for these indications. Concerning initial technique, biparietal outfracturing does not correct sagittal synostosis sufficiently, stripcraniectomy with helmet therapy appears to undercorrect unicoronal, multisutural and syndromic synostosis, and conventional occipital expansion for multisutural and syndromic synostosis has poorer outcome than occipital expansion with distraction.

5.
Phys Sportsmed ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216663

RESUMO

Objectives Up to 68% of field hockey players have experienced at least one orodental injury in their sport career. Therefore, the Royal Dutch Hockey Association (KNHB) made mouthguard use mandatory for field hockey players during competition and training from August 2015 onwards. This study evaluates the effects of the new regulations on mouthguard use and the occurrence of injuries in Dutch field hockey. Methods A 35-item online questionnaire about mouthguard use and orodental injuries was sent to 13 field hockey clubs in the Netherlands. Absolute numbers and percentages of mouthguard ownership, mouthguard use, number and type of injuries were assessed. The results were related to comparable data before mandatory mouthguard use. Associations of gender and training frequency with the number of injuries were analysed with logistic regression. Results In total, 1169 hockey players were included in the study and almost all owned a mouthguard (females:99.6%, males:93.7%), which significantly increased after implementation (p < 0.001). 90.6% of the respondents wore a mouthguard during matches and 70.1% during training. Of the 1169 players, 68(5.8%) experienced at least one orodental injury after the implementation with a total of 100 injuries. Injuries happened more often during matches (63.2%) than during training (36.8%). Lip cuts account for most of the injuries, the number of broken (p = 0.116) and knocked out teeth (p = 0.026) decreased. Conclusion Although mouthguard use already increased in recent years, the new regulations led to an additional increase and a successful change of attitude towards mouthguard use. Most importantly, the severity of orodental injuries decreased measurable.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Behavioural and lifestyle factors, as oral hygiene and diet, are well-established risk factors in the pathogenesis of dental caries, though displaying large differences in susceptibility across individuals. Since enamel formation already starts in utero, pregnancy course and outcome may eventually play a role in enamel strength and caries susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association between history of pregnancy complications and the caries experience in their six-year-old children. The pregnancy complications included small for gestational age (SGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), individually, and a combination of those, designated as placental syndrome. METHODS: This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective longitudinal Dutch multiethnic pregnancy cohort study. Information about pregnancy complications was obtained from questionnaires completed by midwives and obstetricians with cross-validation in medical records. These included SGA, sPTB, GH and PE. Caries experience was assessed with the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index at a mean age of six years. The association between dental caries experience and a history of pregnancy complications was studied by using hurdle negative binomial (HNB) models. RESULTS: We were able to assess the dmft index in 5323 six-year-old children (mean age 6.2 years, SD 0.5). We did not find an association between the different pregnancy complications and dental caries experience in childhood, whether for SGA, sPTB, GH, PE, or for the combined outcome placental syndrome (HNB estimates: OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.87 - 1.19; RR 0.90, 95%CI 0.78 - 1.04). Further adjustment of the models with different confounders did not alter the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is expected that prenatal stress can be a risk factor for caries development later in life, our findings do not support this hypothesis. Therefore, we believe disparities in caries experience between children are probably not explained by early life events during a critical intrauterine period of development.

7.
Oral Oncol ; 111: 104940, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Depth of invasion (DOI) is the most important predictor for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer. The aim of this study is to validate the cut-off value of 4 mm on which the decision to perform an Elective Neck Dissection (END) is made. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in patients with pathologically proven early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) without clinical or radiological signs of LNM, who were treated between 2013 and 2018. An END was performed when DOI was ≥ 4 mm and a watchful waiting protocol was applied in patients with DOI < 4 mm. RESULTS: Three hundred patients were included. END was performed in 77% of patients with DOI ≥ 4 mm, of which 36% had occult LNM (pN+). Patients in the watchful waiting group (48%) developed a regional recurrence in 5.2% for DOI < 4 mm and 24.1% for DOI ≥ 4 mm. For DOI ≥ 4 mm, regional recurrence free survival was higher for patients who were treated with END compared to watchful waiting (p = 0.002). A Receiver-Operator-Curve -analysis showed that a DOI cut-off value of 4.0 mm was the optimal threshold for the prediction of occult LNM (95.1% sensitivity, 52.9% specificity). CONCLUSION: A DOI of ≥ 4 mm is an accurate cut-off value for performing an END in early stage OCSCC. END results in higher survival rates and lower regional recurrence rates in patients with DOI ≥ 4 mm.

8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(6): 764-772.e4, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many studies have investigated the impact of orthodontic treatment need (OTN) on children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). However, few studies have explored the impact of deviant occlusal traits on OHRQOL regarding the severity of OTN. This cross-sectional study aims to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: This study was conducted within the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. We assessed OTN with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and OHRQOL with a parental short-form of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile in 3048 children at a median age of 9.74 years (9.5-10.0). We also further assessed individual malocclusion traits in a subsample of 2714 children. We investigated the association between OTN, malocclusion traits, and OHRQOL using multiple regression analysis with weighted least squares. RESULTS: Children with definite (adjusted effect estimate = -0.81; 95% confidence interval -1.12 to -0.50) or borderline (adjusted effect estimate = -0.34; 95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.08) OTN experienced significant decreases in their OHRQOL than those with no need. An impacted tooth, increased overjet, or crowding had significant negative impacts on children's OHRQOL. Children with an overjet experienced negative impacts on OHRQOL even when orthodontic treatment was not necessary. CONCLUSIONS: Progressively greater OTN has increasingly negative impacts on parent's perception of children's OHRQOL. In particular, children presenting with large overjets and impacted teeth have lower OHRQOL. These perspectives add to better patient-clinician communication and understanding of patient expectations around OTN, which may potentially lead to improvements in quality of care from the patient perspective.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 35(2): 406-414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: When encountering a buccal bone defect during implant placement, guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a well-accepted method for bone reconstruction. However, it is still unclear if the esthetic and patient-reported outcomes are comparable to implants placed in native bone. The purpose of this prospective trial was to compare implants placed with a GBR procedure for a small (≤ 4 mm) buccal defect with implants placed completely in native bone (control). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were allocated to the GBR group or control group during implant placement in the esthetic zone. Implants were placed after at least 12 weeks of healing of the extraction sockets. A buccal bone defect of ≤ 4 mm resulted in allocation to the GBR group. Follow-up was performed until 12 months after loading. Outcome measurements were as follows: esthetic scores, patient-reported outcome measurements, implant survival and complications, clinical indices, and radiographic measurements. RESULTS: In total, 45 patients were included, of which 23 underwent a GBR procedure after implant placement, and in 22 patients no GBR was necessary. No significant differences in esthetic outcomes were seen between the two groups. At the final follow-up, a mean pink esthetic score (PES) of 7.8 (SD: 1.5) was seen for the GBR group and 8.4 (SD: 1.4) for the control group. Regarding the white esthetic score (WES), a mean of 9.1 (SD: 1.0) was found for both groups. Patients of both groups were equally satisfied with their mucosa and crown. A mean visual analog score (VAS) for the soft tissues of 8.6 (SD: 1.0) in the GBR group and 8.8 (SD: 0.9) for the control group was noted. A mean VAS of 9.2 (SD: 0.8) was noted for the crown in the GBR group and 8.6 (SD: 2.0) in the control group. Implant survival was 100%, and there were no significant differences in complications, plaque/bleeding/gingiva indices, width of attached mucosa, and marginal bone loss. CONCLUSION: Implants placed in the esthetic zone with GBR or complete native bone coverage showed successful esthetic outcomes and satisfied patients with predictable clinical and radiographic parameters after more than 1 year of loading. Within the limits of this study, GBR for a small buccal bone defect seems to be a reliable technique with good esthetics and patient-reported outcomes.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Implantes Dentários , Regeneração Óssea , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Estética , Estética Dentária , Seguimentos , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 26(9-10): 490-502, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797740

RESUMO

Implantation of chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) leads to bone formation in vivo through the process of endochondral ossification. The use of allogeneic MSCs for this purpose may be a promising new approach to replace the current gold standard of bone regeneration. However, the success of using allogeneic cells depends on the interaction between the implanted cells and the host's endogenous immune cells. Th17 T cells and other CD4 helper T cell subtypes have been shown to negatively impact chondrogenesis, however, it is unclear how the interaction between these cells affects bone regeneration mediated by these cells. The aim of the current work was to assess the effect of chondrogenic MSC pellets on Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells in vitro. Human MSCs were nonchondrogenic (-TGFß3) and chondrogenically (+TGFß3) differentiated for 7 or 21 days. Memory T cells (sorted from the CD4 population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]), as well as total PBMCs were cocultured with allogeneic nonchondrogenic and chondrogenic MSC pellets for 3 days. Seven-day differentiated allogeneic nonchondrogenic and chondrogenic MSC pellets that were cocultured with memory T cells resulted in a significant increase in Th2 and a decrease in Th1 T cells. Furthermore, the co-culture of 21-day differentiated nonchondrogenic and chondrogenic MSC pellets with memory T cells resulted in a significant increase in Th2 and Th17 T cells, as well as a decrease in Th1 and regulatory T cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 was identified as a predominant cytokine involved in this interaction between allogeneic chondrogenically differentiated MSC pellets and memory CD4 T cells, with high levels of IL-6 being secreted in the supernatants of this cocultured condition. The findings of this study highlight the potential of chondrogenically differentiated MSC pellets to alter the ratio of Th1 and Th2 as well as Th17 and regulatory T cell subsets. Additional analysis investigating bone formation by chondrogenically differentiated MSCs in an allogeneic setting may identify a novel role of these T cell subsets in bone regeneration processes mediated by chondrogenically differentiated MSCs. Impact statement Allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to be an off-the-shelf treatment for bone repair. However, the lack of knowledge of the immune cells involved in this process has hampered the progression to the clinic. The current study has shown that allogeneic chondrogenic MSCs have the potential to skew the ratio of specific helper CD4 T cell subsets in vitro. This has now provided insight for future in vivo experiments to investigate the role of these T cell subsets in the early stages of bone regeneration mediated by allogeneic chondrogenic MSCs.

11.
Bone ; 132: 115180, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786375

RESUMO

Ethnicity is a well-established determinant of pediatric maturity, but the underlying genetic and environmental contributions to these ethnic differences are poorly comprehended. We aimed to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on skeletal age (SA), an assessment of pediatric maturation widely used in clinical settings. We included children from the Generation R Study, a multiethnic population-based pregnancy cohort, assessed at a mean age of 9.78 (±0.33) years. SA was evaluated by a trained observer on hand DXA scans using the Greulich and Pyle method. Ethnic background was defined as geographic ancestry (questionnaire-based assessment) (N = 5325) and genetic ancestry (based on admixture analysis) (N = 3413). Associations between the ethnic background and SA were investigated separately in boys and girls, using linear regression models adjusted for age, height and BMI. Based on geographic ancestry, 84% of the children were classified as European, 6% as Asian and 10% as African. Children of European background had on average younger SA than those of Asian or African descent. Asian boys had 0.46 (95% CI 0.26-0.66, p-value < 0.0001) and African boys 0.36 years (95% CI 0.20-0.53, p-value < 0.0001) older SA as compared to European boys. Similarly, Asian girls showed 0.64 (95% CI 0.51-0.77, p-value < 0.0001) and African girls 0.38 years (95% CI 0.27-0.48, p-value < 0.0001) older SA as compared to European girls. A similar pattern was observed in the analysis with genetically-defined ancestry. Furthermore, an increase in the proportion of Asian or African component was associated with older SA in both boys (log[Non-European/European]proportion = 0.10, 95% CI 0.06-0.13, p-value < 0.0001) and girls (log[Non-European/European]proportion = 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08, p-value < 0.0001). In summary, children of Asian and African backgrounds have on average older SA as compared to children of European descent, partially explained by a genetic component.

12.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 7(9): e2419, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741814

RESUMO

Children with syndromic craniosynostosis (sCS) often suffer from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and intracranial hypertension (ICH). Both OSA and ICH might disrupt sleep architecture. However, it is unclear how surgically treating OSA or ICH affects sleep architecture. The aim of this study was twofold: to explore the usefulness of sleep architecture analysis in detecting disturbed sleep and to determine whether surgical treatment can improve it. Methods: Eighty-three children with sCS and 35 control subjects, who had undergone a polysomnography (PSG), were included. Linear-mixed models showed the effects of OSA and ICH on sleep architecture parameters. In a subset of 19 patients, linear regression models illustrated the effects of OSA-indicated and ICH-indicated surgery on pre-to-postoperative changes. Results: An increase in obstructive-apnea/hypopnea index (oAHI) was significantly associated with an increase in N2-sleep, arousal index, and respiratory-arousal index and a decrease in REM-sleep, N3-sleep, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality. ICH and having sCS were not related to any change in sleep architecture. OSA-indicated surgery significantly increased the total sleep time and sleep efficiency and decreased the arousal index and respiratory-arousal index. ICH-indicated surgery significantly decreased REM-sleep, N1-sleep, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality. Conclusions: For routine detection of disturbed sleep in individual subjects, PSG-assessed sleep architecture is currently not useful. OSA does disrupt sleep architecture, but ICH does not. OSA-indicated surgery improves sleep architecture, which stresses the importance of treating OSA to assure adequate sleep. ICH-indicated surgery affects sleep architecture, although it is not clear whether this is a positive or negative effect.

14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(2): 229-237.e4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The growth of the craniofacial complex is important for establishing a balanced relationship among the teeth, jaws, and other facial structures. However, there is still a lack of information about craniofacial parameters that are affected by the rate of dental development. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental development and craniofacial morphology in school-age children. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. In 3,896 children aged 8 to 11 years, dental development was assessed from panoramic radiographs and craniofacial morphology was assessed by combining cephalometric parameters into 9 uncorrelated principal components, each representing a distinct skeletal or dental craniofacial pattern. The statistical analysis was performed using linear and nonlinear regression model. RESULTS: Dental development was positively associated with the bimaxillary growth (ß = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.08). Children with above-average dental development had a tendency toward Class II jaw relationship (ß = -0.08; 95% CI -0.13 to -0.04). Regarding dental parameters, the proclination increased for incisors and lips with advanced dental development (ß = 0.15 [95% CI 0.10 to 0.19] and ß = 0.13 [95% CI 0.09 to 0.17], respectively), but the incisor proclination remained more pronounced in children that had above-average dental development. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this large population-based study show that dental development is associated with specific dental and skeletal cephalometric characteristics in school-age children. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm the observed effects over time.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Odontogênese , Cefalometria , Criança , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Faciais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Má Oclusão , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Países Baixos , Radiografia Panorâmica
15.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the long-term outcome of their treatment protocol for Muenke syndrome, which includes a single craniofacial procedure. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study of Muenke syndrome patients who underwent surgery for craniosynostosis within the first year of life. Symptoms and determinants of intracranial hypertension were evaluated by longitudinal monitoring of the presence of papilledema (fundoscopy), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; with polysomnography), cerebellar tonsillar herniation (MRI studies), ventricular size (MRI and CT studies), and skull growth (occipital frontal head circumference [OFC]). Other evaluated factors included hearing, speech, and ophthalmological outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 38 patients; 36 patients underwent fronto-supraorbital advancement. The median age at last follow-up was 13.2 years (range 1.3-24.4 years). Three patients had papilledema, which was related to ophthalmological disorders in 2 patients. Three patients had mild OSA. Three patients had a Chiari I malformation, and tonsillar descent < 5 mm was present in 6 patients. Tonsillar position was unrelated to papilledema, ventricular size, or restricted skull growth. Ten patients had ventriculomegaly, and the OFC growth curve deflected in 3 patients. Twenty-two patients had hearing loss. Refraction anomalies were diagnosed in 14/15 patients measured at ≥ 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Muenke syndrome treated with a single fronto-supraorbital advancement in their first year of life rarely develop signs of intracranial hypertension, in accordance with the very low prevalence of its causative factors (OSA, hydrocephalus, and restricted skull growth). This illustrates that there is no need for a routine second craniofacial procedure. Patient follow-up should focus on visual assessment and speech and hearing outcomes.

16.
Int Orthod ; 17(3): 488-496, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the accuracy of soft tissue prediction models with Dolphin Imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Lateral cephalograms (LCG) of patients undergoing Le Fort I, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) or bimaxillary osteotomy (Bimax) between 2006 and 2009 were retrospectively collected. A hard tissue virtual surgery was performed on the preoperative LCG to match the hard tissue of the 1-year postoperative LCG. The soft tissue changes were then modelled by Dolphin Imaging (version 11.5b) and the differences in x- and y-coordinates of 11 hard tissue and 14 soft tissue landmarks between the predicted model and 1-year postoperative LCG were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-tailed, one-sample t-test for both soft- and hard tissue differences, and a Bland-Altman plot for interobserver bias. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were included, the mean age was 30 years and 23% were male. The virtual treatment was considered accurate; all hard tissue landmark differences were less than 1mm. The soft tissue model by Dolphin Imaging showed significant differences of more than 2mm for several landmarks, including the vertical positioning of Stomion Inferius (P=0.007), Lower lip (P=0.005) and Pogonion (P=0.03) in the Bimax group and horizontal positioning of Stomion Inferius (P<0.001) in the BSSO group. CONCLUSIONS: Dolphin Imaging gives reasonable predictions of postoperative outcome. There is, however, room for improvement, especially regarding the vertical prediction in the lower lip region.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Cirurgia Ortognática/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cefalometria/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Maxila/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245368

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells from pediatric patients (pMSCs) are an attractive cell source in regenerative medicine, due to their higher proliferation rates and better differentiation abilities compared to adult MSCs (aMSCs). We have previously characterized the immunomodulatory abilities of pMSCs on T cells under co-culture. It has also been reported that aMSCs can inhibit B cell proliferation and maturation under inflammatory conditions. In this study, we therefore aimed to clarify the immunomodulatory effect of pMSCs toward T and B cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. Bone marrow derived pMSCs were primed to simulate inflammatory conditions by exposure with 50 ng/mL of IFN-γ for 3 days. To analyze the interaction between pMSCs and T cells, CD3/CD28 stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with primed or unprimed pMSCs. To investigate B cell responses, quiescent B cells obtained from spleens by CD43 negative selection were stimulated with anti-IgM, anti-CD40, IL-2, and co-cultured with either IFN-γ primed or unprimed pMSC. pMSC phenotype, B and T cell proliferation, and B cell functionality were analyzed. Gene expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenease (IDO), as well as the expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was upregulated on pMSCs upon IFN-γ priming. IFN-γ did not alter the immunomodulatory abilities of pMSCs upon CD4+ nor CD8+ stimulated T cells compared to unprimed pMSCs. IFN-γ primed pMSCs but not unprimed pMSCs strongly inhibited naïve (CD19+CD27-), memory (CD19+CD27+), and total B cell proliferation. Antibody-producing plasmablast (CD19+CD27highCD38high) formation and IgG production were also significantly inhibited by IFN-γ primed pMSCs compared to unprimed pMSCs. Collectively, these results show that pMSCs have immunomodulatory effects upon the adaptive immune response which can be potentiated by inflammatory stimuli. This knowledge is useful in regenerative medicine and allogeneic transplantation applications toward tailoring pMSCs function to best modulate the immune response for a successful implant engraftment and avoidance of a strong immune reaction.

18.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 3(4): nzy100, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931425

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D influences the formation and mineralization of teeth. Objective: To investigate the association of maternal and neonatal vitamin D concentrations with the dental development of 10-y-old children, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,770 mothers and children in the Netherlands. Methods: Maternal venous blood samples were collected in the second trimester (median 20.4 weeks of gestation; range: 18.5-23.2 wk) whereas umbilical cord blood samples were collected immediately after delivery (median 40.1 weeks of gestation; range 35.9-42.3 wk). Dental development was defined using the Demirjian method. Multivariate regression models were built to analyze the studied associations. Results: High concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] during midpregnancy (ß: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01) and at birth (ß: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02) were associated with a lower dental age in children. The children of mothers with severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <25.0 nmol/L] during midpregnancy exhibited a higher dental age (ß: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.24) and higher developmental stages of the mandibular first premolar (ß: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.60) compared with the children of mothers with optimal values of 25(OH)D (≥75.0 nmol/L). Children with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D 25.0-49.9 nmol/L] at birth exhibited a higher dental age (ß: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.20), higher developmental stages of the mandibular second premolar (ß: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.51), and higher developmental stages of the mandibular second molar (ß: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.48) compared with children with sufficient-to-optimal values of 25(OH)D (≥50.0 nmol/L) at birth. Conclusion: Higher maternal and neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with decelerated dental development in childhood. The lower the vitamin D level during midpregnancy or at birth, the higher the dental age of children, and the higher the developmental stages of the mandibular teeth.

19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(5): 1467-1476, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniofacial microsomia is characterized by an asymmetric hypoplasia of derivatives of the first and second pharyngeal arch, leading to a variety of phenotypic presentations. Studies on surgical correction of patients with craniofacial microsomia have small cohorts, leaving controversial opinions on the optimal treatment modality, the indication for surgery, and the optimal timing of surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the types of, timing of, and total number of surgical corrections performed and the number of surgical procedures in correlation to the severity of the phenotype. METHODS: A retrospective chart study was conducted including patients diagnosed with craniofacial microsomia from three large craniofacial units. Demographic, radiographic, and clinical information was obtained, including type and number of surgical procedures and age at the time of surgery. RESULTS: A total of 565 patients were included. In total, 443 (78.4 percent) of all patients underwent some form of surgery during their life, varying from skin tag removal to major craniofacial operations. The number of surgical interventions was higher with increasing severity of phenotype, bilateral presentation, and a younger age at the first intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple surgical corrections are frequently seen in patients with a more severe or bilateral presentation. Furthermore, those who are treated earlier in life for correction of asymmetry of the mandible will undergo significantly more surgical procedures to correct the asymmetry later on, independent of the Pruzansky-Kaban type mandible. A prospective international multicenter study is designed with a uniform registration and outcome measurement tool to identify the optimal treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Assimetria Facial/cirurgia , Síndrome de Goldenhar/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Boston , Criança , Assimetria Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Assimetria Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Síndrome de Goldenhar/complicações , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Londres , Masculino , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Bone ; 122: 150-155, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798002

RESUMO

Bone modeling is an important process in the growing skeleton. An inadequate bone modeling in response to mechanical loads would lead some children to develop weaker bones than others. The resulting higher stresses in the bones would render them more susceptible to fracture. We aimed to examine the association between femoral stress (FS) derived from structural parameters and BMD in relation to incident fractures in children. Bone stress was evaluated at the medial femoral neck, a skeletal site subject to large forces during normal locomotion. This study comprises 1840 children from the Generation R Study, with whole body and hip DXA scans at a mean age of 6.01 years. Hip structural analysis (HSA) was used to measure femur geometry for the FS calculation. Data on fractures occurring over the following 4 years after the DXA assessment were obtained by questionnaire. Incident fracture was observed in 7.6% of the participating children. Cox-multivariate regression analysis, described as hazard ratios (HR), showed that after adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age, weight and lean mass fraction, there was a significant increase in the risk of incident fracture for every standard deviation (SD) decrease in total body BMD (HR: 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.74, p-value = 0.021), femoral neck BMD (HR: 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.58, p-value = 0.005) and narrow neck BMD (HR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.68, p-value = 0.001). Whereas, every increment of one SD in femoral stress resulted in 1.33 increased risk of incident fractures (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57, p-value = 0.001). This association remained (borderline) significant after the adjustment for DXA derived BMD measurements. Our results show that increased bone stress may underlie greater susceptibility to traumatic fractures in children (partially independent of BMD) and underscore the utility of hip DXA scans for the assessment of paediatric bone health and specifically fracture risk.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fêmur/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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