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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the best machine learning (ML) model using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluating metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLNs) in non-small cell lung cancer, and compare the diagnostic results with those of nuclear medicine physicians. METHODS: A total of 1329 MedLNs were reviewed. Boosted decision tree, logistic regression, support vector machine, neural network, and decision forest models were compared. The diagnostic performance of the best ML model was compared with that of physicians. The ML method was divided into ML with quantitative variables only (MLq) and adding clinical information (MLc). We performed an analysis based on the 18F-FDG-avidity of the MedLNs. RESULTS: The boosted decision tree model obtained higher sensitivity and negative predictive values but lower specificity and positive predictive values than the physicians. There was no significant difference between the accuracy of the physicians and MLq (79.8% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.067). The accuracy of MLc was significantly higher than that of the physicians (81.0% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.009). In MedLNs with low 18F-FDG-avidity, ML had significantly higher accuracy than the physicians (70.0% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Although there was no significant difference in accuracy between the MLq and physicians, the diagnostic performance of MLc was better than that of MLq or of the physicians. The ML method appeared to be useful for evaluating low metabolic MedLNs. Therefore, adding clinical information to the quantitative variables from 18F-FDG PET/CT can improve the diagnostic results of ML. KEY POINTS: • Machine learning using two-class boosted decision tree model revealed the highest value of area under curve, and it showed higher sensitivity and negative predictive values but lower specificity and positive predictive values than nuclear medicine physicians. • The diagnostic results from machine learning method after adding clinical information to the quantitative variables improved accuracy significantly than nuclear medicine physicians. • Machine learning could improve the diagnostic significance of metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes, especially in mediastinal lymph nodes with low 18F-FDG-avidity.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 417-423, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of ABCG5 or ABCG8-as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain. METHODS: We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8, and evaluated the associations of these ABCG5 or ABCG8 LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in ABCG5 or ABCG8. RESULTS: In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in ABCG5 and 2 pedigrees in ABCG8. Homozygous LoF variants in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of ABCG5 LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 and in ABCG8 was ≈0.1% each. ABCG5 heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; P=1.1×10-6) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; P=0.004). By contrast, ABCG8 heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in ABCG5 had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.

3.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 117, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical guidelines related to the primary prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on the management of vascular risk factors. However, the link between vascular risk factors and AD in older adults remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between vascular risk factors and subsequent AD in 178,586 older adults (age ≥ 65 years). METHODS: Participants were recruited from 2009 through 2010 and followed up for 6 years. We assessed various vascular risk factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], fasting glucose [FG], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], and body mass index [BMI]) and their association with AD incidence, categorizing each vascular factor using current clinical guidelines. RESULTS: AD was observed in 6.0% of participants at follow-up. All lipid profiles (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG) were positively associated with the risk of AD. SBP and PP were in negative associations with AD, and DBP was positively associated with AD. BMI exhibited a negative association with AD incidence. We found no significant association between FG and AD risk. The sex difference was observed to have effects on vascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we comprehensively investigated the association between eight vascular risk factors and the risk of incident AD. Our findings suggest that multiple vascular risk factors are related to the development of AD in older adults. These results can help inform future guidelines for reducing AD risk.

4.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917698

RESUMO

Adverse side effects often account for the failure of drug clinical trials. We evaluated whether a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of 1167 phenotypes in >360,000 U.K. Biobank individuals, in combination with gene expression and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in 48 tissues, can inform prediction of drug side effects in clinical trials. We determined that drug target genes with five genetic features-tissue specificity of gene expression, Mendelian associations, phenotype- and tissue-level effects of genome-wide association (GWA) loci driven by eQTL, and genetic constraint-confer a 2.6-fold greater risk of side effects, compared to genes without such features. The presence of eQTL in multiple tissues resulted in more unique phenotypes driven by GWA loci, suggesting that drugs delivered to multiple tissues can induce several side effects. We demonstrate the utility of PheWAS and eQTL data from multiple tissues for informing drug side effect prediction and highlight the need for tissue-specific drug delivery.

5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835660

RESUMO

Variation in skin pigmentation can be affected by both environmental factors and intrinsic factors such as age, gender, and genetic variation. Recent GWASs revealed that genetic variants of genes functionally related to a pigmentation pathway were associated with skin pigmentary traits. However, these GWASs focused on populations with European ancestry, and only a few studies have been performed on Asian populations, limiting our understanding of the genetic basis of skin pigmentary traits in Asians. To evaluate the genetic variants associated with facial pigmented spots, we conducted a GWAS analysis of objectively measured facial pigmented spots in 17,019 Korean women. This large-scale GWAS identified several genomic loci that were significantly associated with facial pigmented spots (five previously reported loci and two previously unreported loci, to our knowledge), which were detected by UV light: BNC2 at 9p22 (rs16935073; P-value = 2.11 × 10-46), PPARGC1B at 5q32 (rs32579; P-value = 9.04 × 10-42), 10q26 (rs11198112; P-value = 9.66 × 10-38), MC1R at 16q24 (rs2228479; P-value = 6.62 × 10-21), lnc01877 at 2q33 (rs12693889; P-value = 1.59 × 10-11), CDKN2B-AS1 at 9p21 (rs643319; P-value = 7.76 × 10-9), and MFSD12 at 19p13 (rs2240751; P-value = 9.70 × 10-9). Further functional characterization of the candidate genes needs to be done to fully evaluate their contribution to facial pigmented spots.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9179, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514006

RESUMO

Increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels cause gout and are associated with multiple diseases, including chronic kidney disease. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 180 loci that contribute to SUA levels. Here, we investigated genetic determinants of SUA level in the Korean population. We conducted a GWAS for SUA in 6,881 Korean individuals, calculated polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for common variants, and validated the association of low-frequency variants and PRS with SUA levels in 3,194 individuals. We identified two low-frequency and six common independent variants associated with SUA. Despite the overall similar effect sizes of variants in Korean and European populations, the proportion of variance for SUA levels explained by the variants was greater in the Korean population. A rare, nonsense variant SLC22A12 p.W258X showed the most significant association with reduced SUA levels, and PRSs of common variants associated with SUA levels were significant in multiple Korean cohorts. Interestingly, an East Asian-specific missense variant (rs671) in ALDH2 displayed a significant association on chromosome 12 with the SUA level. Further genetic epidemiological studies on SUA are needed in ethnically diverse cohorts to investigate rare or low-frequency variants and determine the influence of genetic and environmental factors on SUA.

7.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 52, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a potential risk factor for dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between SCD and subsequent dementia in a nationwide population-based cohort in South Korea. METHODS: This cohort included 579,710 66-year-old adults who were followed for a total of 3,870,293 person-years (average 6.68 ± 1.33 years per person). All subjects completed a questionnaire about subjective memory impairment, the Pre-screening Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire (KDSQ-P), which included a validated 5-item derivative, and were determined to have SCD based on a single question assessing memory decline. Depressive symptoms were assessed in all subjects using a 3-item modified geriatric depression scale. Hazard ratios were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and compared between subjects with and without SCD. RESULTS: Compared to subjects without SCD, those with SCD were more likely to develop dementia (incidence per 1000 person-years: non-SCD, 5.66; SCD, 8.59). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the risk of subsequent dementia significantly increased in subjects with SCD, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34 to 1.41). The risk of subsequent dementia was greatly increased in subjects with higher KDSQ-P scores (aHR = 2.77, 95% CI 2.35 to 3.27). A significant association between SCD and dementia was observed in both depressive and non-depressive symptom groups (aHR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.57 in subjects with depressive symptoms; aHR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.37 in subjects without depressive symptoms; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of 66-year-old individuals, SCD was significantly associated with an increased risk of subsequent dementia. This association was found in both depressive and non-depressive groups, with an increased risk of dementia in the presence of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that SCD indicates a risk for dementia. Further studies are needed to delineate potential approaches to preventing the development of dementia in individuals with SCD.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 85: 155.e5-155.e8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217084

RESUMO

There is a genetic overlap among various neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia. We analyzed dementia-related gene variants in 60 apolipoprotein E ε4 non-carrying Korean patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Thirty-one dementia-related genes were screened by exome sequencing. Among the 60 patients, three likely pathogenic variants (LPVs) and 1 variant of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified in PSEN1. In addition, two LPVs in TYROBP (c.141del) and PINK1 (c.1220G>A) and 17 VUS were found in other dementia-causing genes. Two variants in SORL1 and TREM2 were identified that were associated with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we identified 5 (8.3%) LPVs and 18 (30%) VUSs in known dementia-related genes in apolipoprotein E ε4 noncarrying Korean patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Demência/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Presenilina-1/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Idade de Início , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650369

RESUMO

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis of large intracranial arteries and a hazy network of basal collaterals called moyamoya vessels. A polymorphism (R4810K) in the Ring Finger Protein 213 (RNF213) gene, at chromosome 17q25.3, is the strongest genetic susceptibility factor for MMD in East Asian populations. MMD was regarded prevalent in childhood and in East Asian populations. However, the so-called MMD could represent only the tip of the iceberg. MMD is increasingly reported in adult patients and in Western populations. Moreover, the RNF213 variant was recently reported to be associated with non-MMD disorders, such as intracranial atherosclerosis and systemic vasculopathy (e.g., peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis and renal artery stenosis). In this review, we summarize the spectrums of RNF213 vasculopathy in terms of clinical and genetic phenotypes. Continuous efforts are required for pathophysiology-based diagnoses and treatment, which will benefit from collaboration between clinicians and researchers, and between stroke and vascular physicians.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14360, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591475

RESUMO

Differentiating between inherited renal hypouricemia and transient hypouricemic status is challenging. Here, we aimed to describe the genetic background of hypouricemia patients using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and assess the feasibility for genetic diagnosis using two founder variants in primary screening. We selected all cases (N = 31) with extreme hypouricemia (<1.3 mg/dl) from a Korean urban cohort of 179,381 subjects without underlying conditions. WES and corresponding downstream analyses were performed for the discovery of rare causal variants for hypouricemia. Two known recessive variants within SLC22A12 (p.Trp258*, pArg90His) were identified in 24 out of 31 subjects (77.4%). In an independent cohort, we identified 50 individuals with hypouricemia and genotyped the p.Trp258* and p.Arg90His variants; 47 of the 50 (94%) hypouricemia cases were explained by only two mutations. Four novel coding variants in SLC22A12, p.Asn136Lys, p.Thr225Lys, p.Arg284Gln, and p.Glu429Lys, were additionally identified. In silico studies predict these as pathogenic variants. This is the first study to show the value of genetic diagnostic screening for hypouricemia in the clinical setting. Screening of just two ethnic-specific variants (p.Trp258* and p.Arg90His) identified 87.7% (71/81) of Korean patients with monogenic hypouricemia. Early genetic identification of constitutive hypouricemia may prevent acute kidney injury by avoidance of dehydration and excessive exercise.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 413-420, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress symptoms are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and medical illness. Although psychological distress is influenced by environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status, lifetime events, or interpersonal relationships, substantial interindividual variation also exists. However, heritability and genetic determinants of distress are poorly understood. METHODS: In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study sample (n = 12,680), we estimated the heritability of individual psychological distress symptoms using the GCTA-REML method and carried out a genome-wide association study of individual psychological distress symptoms showing significant heritability. RESULTS: We found three psychological distress items showing significant heritability: subjective well-being (9%), fatigue and appetite (11%), and enjoying daily life (8%). Additionally, we found genome-wide significant associations of rs6735649 located between STEAP3 and C1QL2 on chromosome 2 with subjective well-being (P = 1.32 × 10-8, odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.25) and rs35543418 located between SYT16 and KCNH5 on chromosome 14 with enjoying daily life (P = 1.33 × 10-8, OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.35-1.86). LIMITATIONS: The lack of replication in independent cohorts and longitudinal assessment of distress may limit generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that distress symptoms are partly heritable. Further analysis in larger cohorts investigating gene-environment interactions is required to identify genetic variants that explain the proportion of variation in distress.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Complemento C1q/genética , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Oxirredutases/genética , Sinaptotagminas/genética
13.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002725, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown strong positive associations between serum urate (SU) levels and chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk; however, whether the relation is causal remains uncertain. We evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with a causal impact of SU level on the risk of CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Mendelian randomization (MR) methods to evaluate the presence of a causal effect. We used aggregated genome-wide association data (N = 110,347 for SU, N = 69,374 for gout, N = 133,413 for eGFR, N = 117,165 for CKD), electronic-medical-record-linked UK Biobank data (N = 335,212), and population-based cohorts (N = 13,425), all in individuals of European ancestry, for SU levels and CKD. Our MR analysis showed that SU has a causal effect on neither eGFR level nor CKD risk across all MR analyses (all P > 0.05). These null associations contrasted with our epidemiological association findings from the 4 population-based cohorts (change in eGFR level per 1-mg/dl [59.48 µmol/l] increase in SU: -1.99 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI -2.86 to -1.11; P = 8.08 × 10(-6); odds ratio [OR] for CKD: 1.48; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.65; P = 1.52 × 10(-11)). In contrast, the same MR approaches showed that SU has a causal effect on the risk of gout (OR estimates ranging from 3.41 to 6.04 per 1-mg/dl increase in SU, all P < 10-3), which served as a positive control of our approach. Overall, our MR analysis had >99% power to detect a causal effect of SU level on the risk of CKD of the same magnitude as the observed epidemiological association between SU and CKD. Limitations of this study include the lifelong effect of a genetic perturbation not being the same as an acute perturbation, the inability to study non-European populations, and some sample overlap between the datasets used in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from our series of causal inference approaches using genetics does not support a causal effect of SU level on eGFR level or CKD risk. Reducing SU levels is unlikely to reduce the risk of CKD development.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Leukemia ; 33(6): 1439-1450, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555164

RESUMO

Achieving a deep molecular response (DMR) to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains challenging and at present, there is no biomarker to predict DMR in this setting. Herein, we report that an HMGCLL1 genetic variant located in 6p12.1 can be used as a predictive genetic biomarker for intrinsic sensitivity to imatinib (IM) therapy. We measured DMR rate according to HMGCLL1 variant in a discovery set of CML patients (n = 201) and successfully replicated it in a validation set (n = 270). We also investigated the functional relevance of HMGCLL1 blockade with respect to response to TKI therapy and showed that small interfering RNA mediated blockade of HMGCLL1 isoform 3 results in significant decrease in viability of BCR-ABL1-positive cells including K562, CML-T1 or BaF3 cell lines with or without ABL1 kinase domain mutations such as T315I mutation. Decreased cell viability was also demonstrated in murine CML stem cells and human hematopoietic progenitor cells. RNA sequencing showed that blockade of HMGCLL1 was associated with G0/G1 arrest and the cell cycle. In summary, the HMGCLL1 gene polymorphism is a novel genetic biomarker for intrinsic sensitivity to IM therapy in CML patients that predicts DMR in this setting.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Mutação , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sobrevivência Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Eye Res ; 43(4): 534-538, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 gene polymorphisms with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the South Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 700 South Korean subjects were recruited: 146 patients with NTG, 174 patients with POAG, and 380 healthy adults. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3918429, rs2274755, rs3787268, rs3918261, and rs3918270) of MMP-9 were analyzed in all subjects. The association with each disease was tested using an allelic χ2 test and p values were corrected by permutation tests with 100 000 permutations. RESULTS: Among the five SNPs, rs2274755 showed a significant association with NTG (p = 0.021). The T allele of rs2274755 had an allelic odds ratio of 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.50). The association remained significant after correction using permutation tests (p = 0.039). It was also significant in an association analysis for genotype frequency (p = 0.011). The SNP was predicted to be found within a splicing site and a conserved region. No SNPs analyzed were significantly associated with POAG (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The rs2274755 SNP in the MMP-9 gene was significantly associated with NTG. This supports a possible role of the MMP-9 gene in NTG pathogenesis.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Glaucoma de Baixa Tensão/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Glaucoma de Baixa Tensão/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Baixa Tensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Stroke ; 48(10): 2819-2826, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke patients often have intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS), despite heterogeneity in the cause of stroke. We tested the hypothesis that ICAS burden can independently reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing data from a prospective stroke registry enrolling consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A total of 1081 patients were categorized into no ICAS, single ICAS, and advanced ICAS (ICAS ≥2 different intracranial arteries) groups. Primary and secondary end points were time to occurrence of recurrent ischemic stroke and composite vascular outcome, respectively. Study end points by ICAS burden were compared using Cox proportional hazards models in overall and propensity-matched patients. RESULTS: ICAS was present in 405 patients (37.3%). During a median 5-year follow-up, recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome occurred in 6.8% and 16.8% of patients, respectively. As the number of ICAS increased, the risk for study end points increased after adjustment of potential covariates (hazard ratio per 1 increase in ICAS, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.42 for recurrent ischemic stroke and hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33 for composite vascular outcome). The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for recurrent stroke and composite vascular outcome in patients with advanced ICAS compared with those without ICAS were 1.56 (0.88-2.74) and 1.72 (1.17-2.53), respectively, in the overall patients. The corresponding values in the propensity-matched patients were 1.28 (0.71-2.30) and 1.95 (1.27-2.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ICAS burden was independently associated with the risk of subsequent composite vascular outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. These findings suggest that ICAS burden can reflect the risk of long-term vascular outcome.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Circ Res ; 121(1): 81-88, 2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506971

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Therapies that inhibit CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) have failed to demonstrate a reduction in risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Human DNA sequence variants that truncate the CETP gene may provide insight into the efficacy of CETP inhibition. OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein-truncating variants (PTVs) at the CETP gene were associated with plasma lipid levels and CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced the exons of the CETP gene in 58 469 participants from 12 case-control studies (18 817 CHD cases, 39 652 CHD-free controls). We defined PTV as those that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift frame. We also genotyped 1 Japanese-specific PTV in 27561 participants from 3 case-control studies (14 286 CHD cases, 13 275 CHD-free controls). We tested association of CETP PTV carrier status with both plasma lipids and CHD. Among 58 469 participants with CETP gene-sequencing data available, average age was 51.5 years and 43% were women; 1 in 975 participants carried a PTV at the CETP gene. Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at CETP had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (effect size, 22.6 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 18-27; P<1.0×10-4), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-12.2 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -23 to -0.98; P=0.033), and lower triglycerides (-6.3%; 95% confidence interval, -12 to -0.22; P=0.043). CETP PTV carrier status was associated with reduced risk for CHD (summary odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.90; P=5.1×10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at CETP displayed higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower triglycerides, and lower risk for CHD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nature ; 544(7649): 235-239, 2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406212

RESUMO

A major goal of biomedicine is to understand the function of every gene in the human genome. Loss-of-function mutations can disrupt both copies of a given gene in humans and phenotypic analysis of such 'human knockouts' can provide insight into gene function. Consanguineous unions are more likely to result in offspring carrying homozygous loss-of-function mutations. In Pakistan, consanguinity rates are notably high. Here we sequence the protein-coding regions of 10,503 adult participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS), designed to understand the determinants of cardiometabolic diseases in individuals from South Asia. We identified individuals carrying homozygous predicted loss-of-function (pLoF) mutations, and performed phenotypic analysis involving more than 200 biochemical and disease traits. We enumerated 49,138 rare (<1% minor allele frequency) pLoF mutations. These pLoF mutations are estimated to knock out 1,317 genes, each in at least one participant. Homozygosity for pLoF mutations at PLA2G7 was associated with absent enzymatic activity of soluble lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; at CYP2F1, with higher plasma interleukin-8 concentrations; at TREH, with lower concentrations of apoB-containing lipoprotein subfractions; at either A3GALT2 or NRG4, with markedly reduced plasma insulin C-peptide concentrations; and at SLC9A3R1, with mediators of calcium and phosphate signalling. Heterozygous deficiency of APOC3 has been shown to protect against coronary heart disease; we identified APOC3 homozygous pLoF carriers in our cohort. We recruited these human knockouts and challenged them with an oral fat load. Compared with family members lacking the mutation, individuals with APOC3 knocked out displayed marked blunting of the usual post-prandial rise in plasma triglycerides. Overall, these observations provide a roadmap for a 'human knockout project', a systematic effort to understand the phenotypic consequences of complete disruption of genes in humans.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deleção de Genes , Genes/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Homozigoto , Fenótipo , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/deficiência , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/genética , Apolipoproteína C-III/deficiência , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Exoma/genética , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Neurregulinas/genética , Paquistão , Linhagem , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Período Pós-Prandial , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Genética Reversa/métodos , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 27(5): 197-200, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277331

RESUMO

Thiopurines have a narrow therapeutic range because of frequent toxicity (i.e. marrow suppression), which is only partly explained by TPMT genetic polymorphisms, especially within Asian populations. Recent studies have identified NUDT15 variation as another important factor affecting thiopurine metabolism. In this study, a total of four NUDT15 coding variants (p.Arg139Cys, p.Arg139His, p.Val18Ile, and p.Val18_Val19insGlyVal) were genotyped in 920 Korean individuals using direct sequencing of NUDT15 for the first time in a Korean population. The allele frequencies were 86.7% for NUDT15*1, and 4.4, 6.9, 0.4, 1.1, and 0.50% for *2, *3, *4, *5, and *6, respectively. The NUDT15 phenotypes based on diplotypes included normal activity (n=692), intermediate activity (n=209), and low activity (n=19), occurring in 75.2, 22.7, and 2.1% of the population, respectively. This study was the first to report NUDT15 variants other than NUDT15*3 in the Korean population and more individuals who were categorized as having intermediate or low NUDT15 activity in our study than in previously reported studies in the Korean population (24.8 vs. 19.4%, P<0.05). This study is useful for future clinical studies on thiopurine pharmacogenetics and dosage adjustment in the Korean population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA ; 317(9): 937-946, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267856

RESUMO

Importance: The activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the rate-determining step in clearing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation. Mutations that damage the LPL gene (LPL) lead to lifelong deficiency in enzymatic activity and can provide insight into the relationship of LPL to human disease. Objective: To determine whether rare and/or common variants in LPL are associated with early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cross-sectional study, LPL was sequenced in 10 CAD case-control cohorts of the multinational Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium and a nested CAD case-control cohort of the Geisinger Health System DiscovEHR cohort between 2010 and 2015. Common variants were genotyped in up to 305 699 individuals of the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium and up to 120 600 individuals of the CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortium between 2012 and 2014. Study-specific estimates were pooled via meta-analysis. Exposures: Rare damaging mutations in LPL included loss-of-function variants and missense variants annotated as pathogenic in a human genetics database or predicted to be damaging by computer prediction algorithms trained to identify mutations that impair protein function. Common variants in the LPL gene region included those independently associated with circulating triglyceride levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Circulating lipid levels and CAD. Results: Among 46 891 individuals with LPL gene sequencing data available, the mean (SD) age was 50 (12.6) years and 51% were female. A total of 188 participants (0.40%; 95% CI, 0.35%-0.46%) carried a damaging mutation in LPL, including 105 of 32 646 control participants (0.32%) and 83 of 14 245 participants with early-onset CAD (0.58%). Compared with 46 703 noncarriers, the 188 heterozygous carriers of an LPL damaging mutation displayed higher plasma triglyceride levels (19.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, 4.6-34.6 mg/dL) and higher odds of CAD (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.35-2.51; P < .001). An analysis of 6 common LPL variants resulted in an odds ratio for CAD of 1.51 (95% CI, 1.39-1.64; P = 1.1 × 10-22) per 1-SD increase in triglycerides. Conclusions and Relevance: The presence of rare damaging mutations in LPL was significantly associated with higher triglyceride levels and presence of coronary artery disease. However, further research is needed to assess whether there are causal mechanisms by which heterozygous lipoprotein lipase deficiency could lead to coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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