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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
3.
Ultrasonics ; 117: 106545, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343758

RESUMO

We demonstrate a variable-focus optoacoustic lens (VFOL) by pneumatically controlling a flexible polymer nano-composite membrane, which can produce laser-generated focused ultrasound (LGFU) with a high peak amplitude (>30 MPa) and a tight focal dimension (several hundred µm) over a wide dynamic range of focus variation (>20 mm) together with a long focal length up to 60 mm, each of which is widest and longest among optoacoustic lenses developed so far. Two different designs in lens dimension have been fabricated and characterized: VFOL-L with a 40-mm diameter and VFOL-S with 10 mm. VFOL-L exhibits a wide dynamic range of focal length variation from 38.52 to 60.39 mm with a center frequency near ~ 10 MHz, which is proper for practical long-range applications with several-cm depth. In comparison, VFOL-S covers a focal variation range from 6.75 to 11.1 mm with ~ 14 MHz, producing a relatively higher-pressure amplitude, which allows the inception of acoustic cavitation at an impedance-mismatched boundary. The nano-composite membrane of VFOL is actuated from a planar to deeply curved shape by externally injecting liquid into the VFOL, resulting in a focal gain up to 255 and a positive peak pressure of > 30 MPa in the VFOL-L case. The minimum-geometrical f-number as low as 0.963 is achieved at the shortest focal length (38.52 mm) with 6-dB lateral and axial spot dimensions of 304 µm and 2.86 mm, respectively. We expect that the proposed VFOL-based LGFU with a high peak pressure, a wide dynamic axial range, and a tight focal dimension are suitably applied for depth-dependent characterization of tissues and shockwave treatment, taking advantages of optoacoustic pulses as input with inherent broadband high-frequency characteristics.

4.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686282

RESUMO

Tethered and battery-powered devices that interface with neural tissues can restrict natural motions and prevent social interactions in animal models, thereby limiting the utility of these devices in behavioural neuroscience research. In this Review Article, we discuss recent progress in the development of miniaturized and ultralightweight devices as neuroengineering platforms that are wireless, battery-free and fully implantable, with capabilities that match or exceed those of wired or battery-powered alternatives. Such classes of advanced neural interfaces with optical, electrical or fluidic functionality can also combine recording and stimulation modalities for closed-loop applications in basic studies or in the practical treatment of abnormal physiological processes.

6.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731359

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D), submillimeter-scale constructs of neural cells, known as cortical spheroids, are of rapidly growing importance in biological research because these systems reproduce complex features of the brain in vitro. Despite their great potential for studies of neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling, 3D living objects cannot be studied easily using conventional approaches to neuromodulation, sensing, and manipulation. Here, we introduce classes of microfabricated 3D frameworks as compliant, multifunctional neural interfaces to spheroids and to assembloids. Electrical, optical, chemical, and thermal interfaces to cortical spheroids demonstrate some of the capabilities. Complex architectures and high-resolution features highlight the design versatility. Detailed studies of the spreading of coordinated bursting events across the surface of an isolated cortical spheroid and of the cascade of processes associated with formation and regrowth of bridging tissues across a pair of such spheroids represent two of the many opportunities in basic neuroscience research enabled by these platforms.

7.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277263

RESUMO

Therapeutic compression garments (TCGs) are key tools for the management of a wide range of vascular lower extremity conditions. Proper use of TCGs involves application of a minimum and consistent pressure across the lower extremities for extended periods of time. Slight changes in the characteristics of the fabric and the mechanical properties of the tissues lead to requirements for frequent measurements and corresponding adjustments of the applied pressure. Existing sensors are not sufficiently small, thin, or flexible for practical use in this context, and they also demand cumbersome, hard-wired interfaces for data acquisition. Here, we introduce a flexible, wireless monitoring system for tracking both temperature and pressure at the interface between the skin and the TCGs. Detailed studies of the materials and engineering aspects of these devices, together with clinical pilot trials on a range of patients with different pathologies, establish the technical foundations and measurement capabilities.

8.
Nat Mater ; 19(6): 590-603, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461684

RESUMO

Engineered systems that can serve as chronically stable, high-performance electronic recording and stimulation interfaces to the brain and other parts of the nervous system, with cellular-level resolution across macroscopic areas, are of broad interest to the neuroscience and biomedical communities. Challenges remain in the development of biocompatible materials and the design of flexible implants for these purposes, where ulimate goals are for performance attributes approaching those of conventional wafer-based technologies and for operational timescales reaching the human lifespan. This Review summarizes recent advances in this field, with emphasis on active and passive constituent materials, design architectures and integration methods that support necessary levels of biocompatibility, electronic functionality, long-term stable operation in biofluids and reliability for use in vivo. Bioelectronic systems that enable multiplexed electrophysiological mapping across large areas at high spatiotemporal resolution are surveyed, with a particular focus on those with proven chronic stability in live animal models and scalability to thousands of channels over human-brain-scale dimensions. Research in materials science will continue to underpin progress in this field of study.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Eletrônica , Próteses e Implantes , Animais , Humanos
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(538)2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269166

RESUMO

Long-lasting, high-resolution neural interfaces that are ultrathin and flexible are essential for precise brain mapping and high-performance neuroprosthetic systems. Scaling to sample thousands of sites across large brain regions requires integrating powered electronics to multiplex many electrodes to a few external wires. However, existing multiplexed electrode arrays rely on encapsulation strategies that have limited implant lifetimes. Here, we developed a flexible, multiplexed electrode array, called "Neural Matrix," that provides stable in vivo neural recordings in rodents and nonhuman primates. Neural Matrix lasts over a year and samples a centimeter-scale brain region using over a thousand channels. The long-lasting encapsulation (projected to last at least 6 years), scalable device design, and iterative in vivo optimization described here are essential components to overcoming current hurdles facing next-generation neural technologies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Roedores , Animais , Encéfalo , Eletrodos Implantados , Microeletrodos , Primatas
10.
Cell ; 181(1): 115-135, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220309

RESUMO

Techniques for neuromodulation serve as effective routes to care of patients with many types of challenging conditions. Continued progress in this field of medicine will require (1) improvements in our understanding of the mechanisms of neural control over organ function and (2) advances in technologies for precisely modulating these functions in a programmable manner. This review presents recent research on devices that are relevant to both of these goals, with an emphasis on multimodal operation, miniaturized dimensions, biocompatible designs, advanced neural interface schemes, and battery-free, wireless capabilities. A future that involves recording and modulating neural activity with such systems, including those that exploit closed-loop strategies and/or bioresorbable designs, seems increasingly within reach.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Sistema Nervoso , Próteses e Implantes , Animais , Humanos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos
11.
Lab Chip ; 20(1): 84-92, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776526

RESUMO

Eccrine sweat is a rich and largely unexplored biofluid that contains a range of important biomarkers, from electrolytes, metabolites, micronutrients and hormones to exogenous agents, each of which can change in concentration with diet, stress level, hydration status and physiologic or metabolic state. Traditionally, clinicians and researchers have used absorbent pads and benchtop analyzers to collect and analyze the biochemical constituents of sweat in controlled, laboratory settings. Recently reported wearable microfluidic and electrochemical sensing devices represent significant advances in this context, with capabilities for rapid, in situ evaluations, in many cases with improved repeatability and accuracy. A limitation is that assays performed in these platforms offer limited control of reaction kinetics and mixing of different reagents and samples. Here, we present a multi-layered microfluidic device platform with designs that eliminate these constraints, to enable integrated enzymatic assays with demonstrations of in situ analysis of the concentrations of ammonia and ethanol in microliter volumes of sweat. Careful characterization of the reaction kinetics and their optimization using statistical techniques yield robust analysis protocols. Human subject studies with sweat initiated by warm-water bathing highlight the operational features of these systems.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Etanol/análise , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Suor/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cinética , Suor/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(31): 15398-15406, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308234

RESUMO

Flexible biocompatible electronic systems that leverage key materials and manufacturing techniques associated with the consumer electronics industry have potential for broad applications in biomedicine and biological research. This study reports scalable approaches to technologies of this type, where thin microscale device components integrate onto flexible polymer substrates in interconnected arrays to provide multimodal, high performance operational capabilities as intimately coupled biointerfaces. Specificially, the material options and engineering schemes summarized here serve as foundations for diverse, heterogeneously integrated systems. Scaled examples incorporate >32,000 silicon microdie and inorganic microscale light-emitting diodes derived from wafer sources distributed at variable pitch spacings and fill factors across large areas on polymer films, at full organ-scale dimensions such as human brain, over ∼150 cm2 In vitro studies and accelerated testing in simulated biofluids, together with theoretical simulations of underlying processes, yield quantitative insights into the key materials aspects. The results suggest an ability of these systems to operate in a biologically safe, stable fashion with projected lifetimes of several decades without leakage currents or reductions in performance. The versatility of these combined concepts suggests applicability to many classes of biointegrated semiconductor devices.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 10972-10979, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124670

RESUMO

Sensors that reproduce the complex characteristics of cutaneous receptors in the skin have important potential in the context of artificial systems for controlled interactions with the physical environment. Multimodal responses with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range are essential for many such applications. This report introduces a simple, three-dimensional type of microelectromechanical sensor that incorporates monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes as piezoresistive elements in a configuration that enables separate, simultaneous measurements of multiple mechanical stimuli, such as normal force, shear force, and bending, along with temperature. The technology provides high sensitivity measurements with millisecond response times, as supported by quantitative simulations. The fabrication and assembly processes allow scalable production of interconnected arrays of such devices with capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping. Integration with wireless data recording and transmission electronics allows operation with standard consumer devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Fenômenos Físicos , Pele/metabolismo , Tato/fisiologia , Eletrônica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pele/química , Temperatura , Tato/genética
14.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(1): 37-46, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932064

RESUMO

Pressures in the intracranial, intraocular and intravascular spaces are clinically useful for the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, glaucoma and hypertension, respectively. Conventional devices for measuring these pressures require surgical extraction after a relevant operational time frame. Bioresorbable sensors, by contrast, eliminate this requirement, thereby minimizing the risk of infection, decreasing the costs of care and reducing distress and pain for the patient. However, the operational lifetimes of bioresorbable pressure sensors available at present fall short of many clinical needs. Here, we present materials, device structures and fabrication procedures for bioresorbable pressure sensors with lifetimes exceeding those of previous reports by at least tenfold. We demonstrate measurement accuracies that compare favourably to those of the most sophisticated clinical standards for non-resorbable devices by monitoring intracranial pressures in rats for 25 days. Assessments of the biodistribution of the constituent materials, complete blood counts, blood chemistry and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility confirm the biodegradability and clinical utility of the device. Our findings establish routes for the design and fabrication of bioresorbable pressure monitors that meet requirements for clinical use.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Doença Crônica , Pressão Intracraniana , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura , Cicatrização , Animais , Feminino , Cinética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
ACS Nano ; 13(1): 660-670, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608642

RESUMO

Actively multiplexed, flexible electronic devices represent the most sophisticated forms of technology for high-speed, high-resolution spatiotemporal mapping of electrophysiological activity on the surfaces of the brain, heart, and other organ systems. Materials that simultaneously serve as long-lived, defect-free biofluid barriers and sensitive measurement interfaces are essential for chronically stable, high-performance operation. Recent work demonstrates that conductively coupled electrical interfaces of this type can be achieved based on the use of highly doped monocrystalline silicon electrical " via" structures embedded in insulating nanomembranes of thermally grown silica. A limitation of this approach is that dissolution of the silicon in biofluids limits the system lifetimes to 1-2 years, projected based on accelerated testing. Here, we introduce a construct that extends this time scale by more than a factor of 20 through the replacement of doped silicon with a metal silicide alloy (TiSi2). Systematic investigations and reactive diffusion modeling reveal the details associated with the materials science and biofluid stability of this TiSi2/SiO2 interface. An integration scheme that exploits ultrathin, electronic microcomponents manipulated by the techniques of transfer printing yields high-performance active systems with excellent characteristics. The results form the foundations for flexible, biocompatible electronic implants with chronic stability and Faradaic biointerfaces, suitable for a broad range of applications in biomedical research and human healthcare.


Assuntos
Eletrodos Implantados , Líquido Extracelular/química , Silicatos/química , Titânio/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Semicondutores , Dióxido de Silício/química
16.
Nature ; 565(7739): 361-365, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602791

RESUMO

The fast-growing field of bioelectronic medicine aims to develop engineered systems that can relieve clinical conditions by stimulating the peripheral nervous system1-5. This type of technology relies largely on electrical stimulation to provide neuromodulation of organ function or pain. One example is sacral nerve stimulation to treat overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and interstitial cystitis (also known as bladder pain syndrome)4,6,7. Conventional, continuous stimulation protocols, however, can cause discomfort and pain, particularly when treating symptoms that can be intermittent (for example, sudden urinary urgency)8. Direct physical coupling of electrodes to the nerve can lead to injury and inflammation9-11. Furthermore, typical therapeutic stimulators target large nerve bundles that innervate multiple structures, resulting in a lack of organ specificity. Here we introduce a miniaturized bio-optoelectronic implant that avoids these limitations by using (1) an optical stimulation interface that exploits microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes to activate opsins; (2) a soft, high-precision biophysical sensor system that allows continuous measurements of organ function; and (3) a control module and data analytics approach that enables coordinated, closed-loop operation of the system to eliminate pathological behaviours as they occur in real-time. In the example reported here, a soft strain gauge yields real-time information on bladder function in a rat model. Data algorithms identify pathological behaviour, and automated, closed-loop optogenetic neuromodulation of bladder sensory afferents normalizes bladder function. This all-optical scheme for neuromodulation offers chronic stability and the potential to stimulate specific cell types.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética/instrumentação , Optogenética/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Eletrônica , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Humanos , Neurônios/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/citologia
17.
Small ; 14(45): e1802876, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300469

RESUMO

Sweat excretion is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, environmental factors, and health status. Conventional means for measuring the properties of sweat yield accurate results but their requirements for sampling and analytics do not allow for use in the field. Emerging wearable devices offer significant advantages over existing approaches, but each has significant drawbacks associated with bulk and weight, inability to quantify volumetric sweat rate and loss, robustness, and/or inadequate accuracy in biochemical analysis. This paper presents a thin, miniaturized, skin-interfaced microfluidic technology that includes a reusable, battery-free electronics module for measuring sweat conductivity and rate in real-time using wireless power from and data communication to electronic devices with capabilities in near field communications (NFC), including most smartphones. The platform exploits ultrathin electrodes integrated within a collection of microchannels as interfaces to circuits that leverage NFC protocols. The resulting capabilities are complementary to those of previously reported colorimetric strategies. Systematic studies of these combined microfluidic/electronic systems, accurate correlations of measurements performed with them to those of laboratory standard instrumentation, and field tests on human subjects exercising and at rest establish the key operational features and their utility in sweat analytics.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Animais , Eletrólitos/química , Humanos , Pele/química , Suor/química
18.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1830-1836, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297910

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injuries represent a significant problem in public health, constituting 2-5% of all trauma cases1. For severe nerve injuries, even advanced forms of clinical intervention often lead to incomplete and unsatisfactory motor and/or sensory function2. Numerous studies report the potential of pharmacological approaches (for example, growth factors, immunosuppressants) to accelerate and enhance nerve regeneration in rodent models3-10. Unfortunately, few have had a positive impact in clinical practice. Direct intraoperative electrical stimulation of injured nerve tissue proximal to the site of repair has been demonstrated to enhance and accelerate functional recovery11,12, suggesting a novel nonpharmacological, bioelectric form of therapy that could complement existing surgical approaches. A significant limitation of this technique is that existing protocols are constrained to intraoperative use and limited therapeutic benefits13. Herein we introduce (i) a platform for wireless, programmable electrical peripheral nerve stimulation, built with a collection of circuit elements and substrates that are entirely bioresorbable and biocompatible, and (ii) the first reported demonstration of enhanced neuroregeneration and functional recovery in rodent models as a result of multiple episodes of electrical stimulation of injured nervous tissue.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Implantes Absorvíveis/normas , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Tecnologia sem Fio
19.
Adv Mater ; 30(30): e1800534, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855089

RESUMO

Technologies capable of establishing intimate, long-lived optical/electrical interfaces to neural systems will play critical roles in neuroscience research and in the development of nonpharmacological treatments for neurological disorders. The development of high-density interfaces to 3D populations of neurons across entire tissue systems in living animals, including human subjects, represents a grand challenge for the field, where advanced biocompatible materials and engineered structures for electrodes and light emitters will be essential. This review summarizes recent progress in these directions, with an emphasis on the most promising demonstrated concepts, materials, devices, and systems. The article begins with an overview of electrode materials with enhanced electrical and/or mechanical performance, in forms ranging from planar films, to micro/nanostructured surfaces, to 3D porous frameworks and soft composites. Subsequent sections highlight integration with active materials and components for multiplexed addressing, local amplification, wireless data transmission, and power harvesting, with multimodal operation in soft, shape-conformal systems. These advances establish the foundations for scalable architectures in optical/electrical neural interfaces of the future, where a blurring of the lines between biotic and abiotic systems will catalyze profound progress in neuroscience research and in human health/well-being.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas
20.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 4164-4171, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641889

RESUMO

Recently developed approaches in deterministic assembly allow for controlled, geometric transformation of two-dimensional structures into complex, engineered three-dimensional layouts. Attractive features include applicability to wide ranging layout designs and dimensions along with the capacity to integrate planar thin film materials and device layouts. The work reported here establishes further capabilities for directly embedding high-performance electronic devices into the resultant 3D constructs based on silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) as the active materials in custom devices or microscale components released from commercial wafer sources. Systematic experimental studies and theoretical analysis illustrate the key ideas through varied 3D architectures, from interconnected bridges and coils to extended chiral structures, each of which embed n-channel Si NM MOSFETs (nMOS), Si NM diodes, and p-channel silicon MOSFETs (pMOS). Examples in stretchable/deformable systems highlight additional features of these platforms. These strategies are immediately applicable to other wide-ranging classes of materials and device technologies that can be rendered in two-dimensional layouts, from systems for energy storage, to photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and others.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Silício/química , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Iluminação , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Metais/química , Óxidos/química , Dióxido de Silício
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