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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify and map current literature describing the center of rotation locations and migration paths during lumbar spine movements. INTRODUCTION: The importance of lumbar spine kinematics has been described and altered kinematics has been associated with pain and injury. Intervertebral segments' center of rotations, the point around which spinal segments rotate, are important for determining the lumbar spine kinematics features and the potential for increased injury risk during movements. Although many studies have investigated the center of rotations of humans' lumbar spine, no review has summarized and organized the state of the science related to center of rotation locations and migration paths of the lumbar spine during lumbar spine movements. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies that include human lumbar spines of any age and status condition (e.g. heathy, pathological) during lumbar spine movements. Quantitative study designs, including clinical, observational, laboratory biomechanical experimental studies, mathematical and computer modelling studies will be considered. Only studies published in English will be included, and there will be no limit on dates of publication. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library Controlled Register of Trials, CINAHL, ACM Digital Library, Compendex, Inspec, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and dissertation and theses repositories will be searched. After titles and abstracts screening of identified references, two independent reviewers will screen the full-text of identified studies and extract data. Data will be summarized and categorized, and a comprehensive narrative summary will be presented with the respective results.

2.
Australas J Ageing ; 38(4): 249-257, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and profile of chiropractors who frequently manage people aged 65 years and older. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey collected practitioner characteristics, practice settings and clinical management characteristics. Multiple logistic regression was conducted on 1903 chiropractors to determine the factors associated with the frequent treatment of people 65 years and older. RESULTS: In total, 73.5% of participants report "often" treating those aged 65 years and older. These chiropractors were associated with treating degenerative spine conditions (OR [odds ratio] 2.25; 95% [confidence interval] CI 1.72-2.94), working in a non-urban area (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.35-2.54), treating low back pain (referred/radicular) (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.26-2.40) and lower limb musculoskeletal disorders (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.15-1.96). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of chiropractors report often providing treatment to older people. Our findings call for more research to better understand older patient complaints that are common to chiropractic practice and the care provided by chiropractors for this patient group.

3.
Eur Spine J ; 28(2): 259-269, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our prior study revealed that people with non-specific low back pain (LBP) who self-reported a > 30% improvement in disability after SMT demonstrated significant post-treatment improvements in spinal stiffness, dynamic muscle thickness and disc diffusion, while those not having self-reported improvement did not have these objective changes. The mechanism underlying this differential post-SMT response remains unknown. This exploratory secondary analysis aimed to determine whether persons with non-specific LBP who respond to spinal SMT have unique lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings compared to SMT non-responders. METHODS: Thirty-two participants with non-specific LBP received lumbar MRI before and after SMT on Day 1. Resulting images were assessed for facet degeneration, disc degeneration, Modic changes and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). SMT was provided again on Day 4 without imaging. SMT responders were classified as having a ≥ 30% reduction in their modified Oswestry disability index at Day 7. Baseline MRI findings between responders and non-responders were compared. The associations between SMT responder status and the presence/absence of post-SMT increases in ADC values of discs associated with painful/non-painful segments as determined by palpation were calculated. In this secondary analysis, a statistical trend was considered as a P value between 0.05 and 0.10. RESULTS: Although there was no significant between-group difference in all spinal degenerative features (e.g. Modic changes), SMT responders tended to have a lower prevalence of severely degenerated facets (P = 0.05) and higher baseline ADC values at the L4-5 disc when compared to SMT non-responders (P = 0.09). Post hoc analyses revealed that 180 patients per group should have been recruited to find significant between-group differences in the two features. SMT responders were also characterized by significant increases in post-SMT ADC values at discs associated with painful segments identified by palpation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The current secondary analysis suggests that the spines of SMT responders appear to differ from non-responders with respect to degeneration changes in posterior joints and disc diffusion. Although this analysis was preliminary, it provides a new direction to investigate the mechanisms underlying SMT and the existence of discrete forms of treatment-specific LBP. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

4.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(4): 676-686, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spine deformity in adolescent patients. Although structural deformity may affect spinal biomechanics of patients with AIS, little is known regarding various period prevalence proportions of back pain and chronic back pain and factors associated with back pain in such patients. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the period prevalence rates of back pain among teenagers with AIS? (2) Is back pain in patients with AIS associated with curve severity? METHODS: A total of 987 patients with AIS who were treated without surgery were recruited from a single center's scoliosis clinic. Between December 2016 and July 2017, this center treated 1116 patients with suspected AIS. During that time, patients were offered surgery when their Cobb angle was at least 50° and had evidence of curve progression between two visits, and most of the patients who were offered surgery underwent it; other patients with AIS were managed nonsurgically with regular observation, brace prescription, posture training, and reassurance. To be included in this prospective, cross-sectional study, a patient needed to be aged between 10 and 18 years with a Cobb angle > 10°. No followup data were required. A total of 1097 patients with AIS were managed nonsurgically (98.3% of the group seen during the period in question). After obtaining parental consent, patients provided data related to their demographics; physical activity levels; lifetime, 12-month, 30-day, 7-day, and current thoracic pain and low back pain (LBP); chronic back pain (thoracic pain/LBP); brace use; and treatments for scoliosis/back pain. Pain was rated on a 10-point numeric rating scale for pain. The Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were also assessed. These features and radiologic study parameters between patients with and without back pain were also compared. Factors associated with current and 12-month back pain as well as chronic back pain were analyzed by multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Depending on the types of period prevalence, the prevalence of thoracic pain ranged from 6% (55 of 987) within 12 months to 14% (139 of 987) within 7 days, whereas that of LBP ranged from 6% (54 of 987) to 29% (289 of 987). Specifically, chronic thoracic pain or LBP had the lowest prevalence. Compared with the no pain group, patients with current back pain had more severe insomnia (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; p = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.93) and daytime sleepiness (OR, 2.41; p < 0.001, 95% CI, 1.43-4.07). Those with chronic back pain had the same problems along with moderate depression (OR, 2.49; p = 0.03; 95% CI, 1.08-5.71). Older age (OR range, 1.17-1.42; all p values ≤ 0.030) and Cobb angle > 40° (OR range, 2.38-3.74; all p values ≤ 0.015), daytime sleepiness (OR range, 2.39-2.41; all p values ≤ 0.011), and insomnia (OR range, 1.76-2.31; all p values ≤ 0.001) were associated with episodic and/or chronic back pain. Females were more likely to experience back pain in the last 12 months than males. Moderate depression (OR, 3.29; 1.45-7.47; p = 0.004) and wearing a brace (OR, 3.00; 1.47-6.15; p = 0.003) were independently associated with chronic back pain. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsychosocial factors are associated with the presence and severity of back pain in the AIS population. Our results highlight the importance of considering back pain screening/management for patients with AIS with their psychosocial profile in addition to curve magnitude monitoring. In particular, sleep quality should be routinely assessed. Longitudinal changes and effects of psychotherapy should be determined in future studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Criança , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Escoliose/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Gait Posture ; 67: 230-235, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Static sitting is thought to be related to low back pain. Of various common seated postures, slouched sitting has been suggested to cause viscoelastic creep. This, in turn, may compromise trunk muscle activity and proprioception, and heightening the risk of low back pain. To date, no research has evaluated immediate and short-term effects of brief exposures to different sitting postures on spinal biomechanics and trunk proprioception. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to compare the impacts of 20 min of static slouched, upright and supported sitting with a backrest on trunk range of motion, muscle activity, and proprioception immediately after and 30 min after the sitting tasks. METHODS: Thirty-seven adults were randomly assigned to the three sitting posture groups. Surface electromyography of six trunk muscles during maximum voluntary contractions were measured at baseline for normalization. Pain intensity, lumbar range of motion, and proprioceptive postural control strategy were assessed at baseline, 20 min (immediately post-test) and at 50 min (recovery). Trunk muscle activity during sitting was continuously monitored by surface electromyography. RESULTS: While the slouched sitting group demonstrated the lowest bilateral obliquus internus/transversus abdominis activity as compared to other sitting postures (F = 4.87, p < 0.05), no significant temporal changes in pain intensity, lumbar range of motion nor proprioceptive strategy were noted in any of the groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Sitting for 20 min of duration appears to have no adverse effects on symptoms or spinal biomechanics regardless of the posture adopted. Future research should determine if there is a point at which does slouched sitting cause significant changes in pain/spinal biomechanics in people both with and without low back pain.


Assuntos
Postura/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Tronco/fisiologia
6.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 81, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of various chronic diseases, low back pain (LBP) is the most common and debilitating musculoskeletal condition among older adults aged 65 years or older. While more than 17 million older adults in the USA suffer from at least one episode of LBP annually, approximately six million of them experience chronic LBP that significantly affects their quality of life and physical function. Since many older adults with chronic LBP may also have comorbidities and are more sensitive to pain than younger counterparts, these older individuals may face unique age-related physical and psychosocial problems. While some qualitative research studies have investigated the life experiences of older adults with chronic LBP, no systematic review has integrated and synthesized the scientific knowledge regarding the influence of chronic LBP on the physical, psychological, and social aspects of lives in older adults. Without such information, it may result in unmet care needs and ineffective interventions for this vulnerable group. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to synthesize knowledge regarding older adults' experiences of living with chronic LBP and the implications on their daily lives. METHODS/DESIGN: Candidate publications will be sought from databases: PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Qualitative research studies will be included if they are related to the experiences of older adults with chronic LBP. Two independent reviewers will screen the titles, abstracts, and full-text articles for eligibility. The reference lists of the included studies will be checked for additional relevant studies. Forward citation tracking will be conducted. Meta-ethnography will be chosen to synthesize the data from the included studies. Specifically, the second-order concepts that are deemed to be translatable by two independent reviewers will be included and synthesized to capture the core of the idiomatic translations (i.e., a translation focusing on salient categories of meaning rather than the literal translation of words or phrases). DISCUSSION: This systematic review of qualitative evidence will enable researchers to identify potential unmet care needs, as well as to facilitate the development of effective, appropriate, person-centered health care interventions targeting this group of individuals. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018: CRD42018091292.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Idoso , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
7.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 26: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441194

RESUMO

In an evidence-based health care environment, healthcare professions require a sustainable research culture to remain relevant. At present however, there is not a mature research culture across the chiropractic profession largely due to deficiencies in research capacity and leadership, which may be caused by a lack of chiropractic teaching programs in major universities. As a response to this challenge the Chiropractic Academy for Research Leadership, CARL, was created with the aim of develop a global network of successful early-career chiropractic researchers under the mentorship of three successful senior academics from Australia, Canada, and Denmark. The program centres upon an annual week-long program residential that rotates continental locations over the first three-year cycle and between residentials the CARL fellows work on self-initiated research and leadership initiatives. Through a competivite application process, the first cohort was selected and consists of 13 early career researchers from five professions in seven countries who represent diverse areas of interests of high relevance for chiropractic. The first residential was held in Odense, Denmark, with the second being planned in April 2018 in Edmonton, Canada, and the final residential to be held in Sydney, Australia in 2019.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Quiroprática/educação , Terapias Complementares/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Austrália , Canadá , Quiroprática/tendências , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Comportamento Cooperativo , Dinamarca , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Mentores
8.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(2): 125-144, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although individual studies have reported high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among construction workers, no systematic review has summarized their prevalence rates. Accordingly, this systematic review/meta-analysis aimed to synthesize MSS prevalence in different construction trades, gender and age groups, which may help develop specific ergonomic interventions. METHODS: Nine databases were searched for articles related to the research objective. Two reviewers independently screened citations, extracted information and conducted quality assessment of the included studies. Meta-analyses were conducted on clinical and statistical homogenous data. RESULTS: Thirty-five out of 1130 potential citations were included reporting diverse types of period prevalence and case definitions. Only the 1-year prevalence rates of MSS (defined as at least one episode of pain/MSS in the last year) at nine anatomical regions had sufficient homogeneous data for meta-analysis. Specifically, the 1-year prevalence of MSS was 51.1% for lower back, 37.2% for knee, 32.4% for shoulder, 30.4% for wrist, 24.4% for neck, 24.0% for ankle/foot, 20.3% for elbow, 19.8% for upper back, and 15.1% for hip/thigh. Female workers demonstrated a higher prevalence of MSS while there was insufficient information on the prevalence of trade-specific or age-related MSS. The quality assessments revealed that many included studies estimated prevalence solely based on self-reported data, and did not report non-respondents' characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar, knee, shoulder, and wrist MSS are the most common symptoms among construction workers. Future studies should standardize the reporting of period prevalence of MSS in different construction trades to allow meta-analyses and to develop relevant MSS prevention program.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9681, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851924

RESUMO

Does feeling back stiffness actually reflect having a stiff back? This research interrogates the long-held question of what informs our subjective experiences of bodily state. We propose a new hypothesis: feelings of back stiffness are a protective perceptual construct, rather than reflecting biomechanical properties of the back. This has far-reaching implications for treatment of pain/stiffness but also for our understanding of bodily feelings. Over three experiments, we challenge the prevailing view by showing that feeling stiff does not relate to objective spinal measures of stiffness and objective back stiffness does not differ between those who report feeling stiff and those who do not. Rather, those who report feeling stiff exhibit self-protective responses: they significantly overestimate force applied to their spine, yet are better at detecting changes in this force than those who do not report feeling stiff. This perceptual error can be manipulated: providing auditory input in synchrony to forces applied to the spine modulates prediction accuracy in both groups, without altering actual stiffness, demonstrating that feeling stiff is a multisensory perceptual inference consistent with protection. Together, this presents a compelling argument against the prevailing view that feeling stiff is an isomorphic marker of the biomechanical characteristics of the back.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Percepção , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
10.
PM R ; 9(8): 816-830, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993736

RESUMO

Abnormal spinal segmental motion/stiffness is purported to be a cause, or an effect of, low back pain. Therefore, the assessment of posteroanterior segmental spinal stiffness is a common practice in clinical and research settings. In clinical settings, manipulative practitioners routinely assess spinal stiffness manually to guide clinical decision-making. Unfortunately, the reliability of manual segmental spinal stiffness assessment is poor. As a result, various spinal stiffness-testing devices have been developed to improve the reliability and accuracy of spinal stiffness measures. Although previous critical and systematic reviews have summarized the evidence regarding the reliability and confounding factors of manual and/or instrumented spinal stiffness measurements, no available review has summarized the principles of various spinal stiffness measurement methods nor pragmatic recommendations to optimize these measurements. Importantly, although posteroanterior segmental spinal stiffness is hypothesized to be related closely to low back pain or clinical outcomes after treatments, no review has been conducted to summarize evidence related to these premises and to discuss factors that can confound these relations. Against this background, this narrative review revisits the concept of both manual and instrumented spinal stiffness assessments, summarizes the pragmatic recommendations for minimizing measurement errors, reviews the potential relations between segmental spinal stiffness and low back pain, and provides future clinical research directions that can benefit clinicians and researchers alike. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/reabilitação , Exame Físico/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Espasmo/reabilitação , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Narração , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espasmo/diagnóstico
11.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 34: 45-52, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some patients with low back pain demonstrate increased spinal stiffness that decreases as pain subsides, this observation is inconsistent. Currently, the relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of experimental low back pain on temporal changes in posteroanterior spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle activity. METHOD: In separate sessions five days apart, nine asymptomatic participants received equal volume injections of hypertonic or isotonic saline in random order into the L3-L5 interspinous ligaments. Pain intensity, spinal stiffness (global and terminal stiffness) at the L3 level, and the surface electromyographic activity of six trunk muscles were measured before, immediately after, and 25-minute after injections. These outcome measures under different saline conditions were compared by generalized estimating equations. FINDINGS: Compared to isotonic saline injections, hypertonic saline injections evoked significantly higher pain intensity (mean difference: 5.7/10), higher global (mean difference: 0.73N/mm) and terminal stiffness (mean difference: 0.58N/mm), and increased activity of four trunk muscles during indentation (P<0.05). Both spinal stiffness and trunk muscle activity returned to baseline levels as pain subsided. INTERPRETATION: While previous clinical research reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between spinal stiffness and low back pain, our study revealed that experimental pain caused temporary increases in spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle co-contraction during indentation, which helps explain the temporal relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain observed in some clinical studies. Our results substantiate the role of spinal stiffness assessments in monitoring back pain progression.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 40(17): 1329-37, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020851

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Nonrandomized controlled study. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with low back pain (LBP) who respond to spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) differ biomechanically from nonresponders, untreated controls or asymptomatic controls. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Some but not all patients with LBP report improvement in function after SMT. When compared with nonresponders, studies suggest that SMT responders demonstrate significant changes in spinal stiffness, muscle contraction, and disc diffusion. Unfortunately, the significance of these observations remains uncertain given methodological differences between studies including a lack of controls. METHODS: Participants with LBP and asymptomatic controls attended 3 sessions for 7 days. On sessions 1 and 2, participants with LBP received SMT (+LBP/+SMT, n = 32) whereas asymptomatic controls did not (-LBP/-SMT, n = 57). In these sessions, spinal stiffness and multifidus thickness ratios were obtained before and after SMT and on day 7. Apparent diffusion coefficients from lumbar discs were obtained from +LBP/+SMT participants before and after SMT on session 1 and from an LBP control group that did not receive SMT (+LBP/-SMT, n = 16). +LBP/+SMT participants were dichotomized as responders/nonresponders on the basis of self-reported disability on day 7. A repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to compare apparent diffusion coefficients among responders, nonresponders, and +LBP/-SMT subjects, as well as spinal stiffness or multifidus thickness ratio among responders, nonresponders, and -LBP/-SMT subjects. RESULTS: After the first SMT, SMT responders displayed statistically significant decreases in spinal stiffness and increases in multifidus thickness ratio sustained for more than 7 days; these findings were not observed in other groups. Similarly, only SMT responders displayed significant post-SMT improvement in apparent diffusion coefficients. CONCLUSION: Those reporting post-SMT improvement in disability demonstrated simultaneous changes between self-reported and objective measures of spinal function. This coherence did not exist for asymptomatic controls or no-treatment controls. These data imply that SMT impacts biomechanical characteristics within SMT responders not present in all patients with LBP. This work provides a foundation to investigate the heterogeneous nature of LBP, mechanisms underlying differential therapeutic response, and the biomechanical and imaging characteristics defining responders at baseline. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Manipulação da Coluna/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Pain ; 15(4): 377.e1-35, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184573

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Previous research describes an inconsistent relation between temporal changes in transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus and temporal changes in clinical outcomes. Unfortunately, a relevant systematic review is unavailable. As a result, this systematic review was designed to summarize evidence regarding the association between temporal changes in muscle morphometry and activity in response to treatment, and temporal changes in clinical outcomes. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic databases. Fifteen articles were included after scrutinization by 2 reviewers using predetermined selection criteria. The methodological quality of these articles was appraised using a standard tool. These methods revealed strong evidence that temporal alterations in transversus abdominis thickness change during contraction (as measured by B-mode or M-mode ultrasound) or feedforward activation of transversus abdominis (assessed via electromyography, tissue Doppler imaging, or M-mode ultrasound) were unrelated to temporal changes in low back pain (LBP)/LBP-related disability. There was limited evidence that temporal changes in transversus abdominis lateral sliding or lumbar multifidus endurance were unrelated to temporal changes in LBP intensity. Conflicting evidence was found for the relation between temporal changes in lumbar multifidus morphometry and temporal changes in LBP/LBP-related disability. This review highlights that temporal changes in transversus abdominis features tend to be unrelated to the corresponding LBP/LBP-related disability improvements, whereas the relation between multifidus changes and clinical improvements remains uncertain. PERSPECTIVE: This systematic review highlighted that changes in morphometry or activation of transversus abdominis following conservative treatments tend not to be associated with the corresponding changes in clinical outcomes. The relation between posttreatment changes in characteristics of lumbar multifidus and clinical improvements remains uncertain.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/patologia , Músculos Paraespinais/patologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Pain ; 154(12): 2589-602, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23867731

RESUMO

Although individual reports suggest that baseline morphometry or activity of transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP), a related systematic review is unavailable. Therefore, this review summarized evidence regarding the predictive value of these muscular characteristics. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic medical databases. After review, 5 cohort studies were included. Although this review intended to encompass studies using different muscle assessment methods, all included studies coincidentally used ultrasound imaging. No research investigated the relation between static morphometry and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis showed limited evidence supporting poor baseline transversus abdominis contraction thickness ratio as a treatment effect modifier favoring motor control exercise. Limited evidence supported that high baseline transversus abdominis lateral slide was associated with higher pain intensity after various exercise interventions at 1-year follow-up. However, there was limited evidence for the absence of relation between the contraction thickness ratio of transversus abdominis or anticipatory onset of lateral abdominal muscles at baseline and the short- or long-term LBP intensity after exercise interventions. There was conflicting evidence for a relation between baseline percent thickness change of lumbar multifidus during contraction and the clinical outcomes of patients after various conservative treatments. Given study heterogeneity, the small number of included studies and the inability of conventional greyscale B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure muscle activity, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale prospective studies that use appropriate technology (ie, electromyography to assess muscle activity) should be conducted to investigate the predictive value of morphometry or activity of these muscles with respect to LBP-related outcomes measures.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Músculos Paraespinais/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Região Lombossacral , Medição da Dor/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Man Ther ; 18(5): 395-402, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23465962

RESUMO

Instrumented spinal stiffness measurements have shown high test-retest reliability. However, factors that may affect reliability have yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the: 1) within- and between-day reliability of a mechanical indentation device (MID) in measuring spinal stiffness, 2) measurement precision of averaging multiple measurements, and 3) reliability of stiffness measurements between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). The spinal stiffness of 26 volunteers with and without LBP was measured 3 times by MID in each of two visits 1-4 days apart. Two stiffness measures were calculated from the resulting force-displacement data: global stiffness and terminal stiffness. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to estimate reliability. Measurement precision was measured by minimal detectable changes, bias and 95% limits of agreement. Using the mean of three spinal stiffness measurements, the measurement precision was improved by 33.7% over a single measurement. Averaging three measurements, the within- and between-day reliability point estimates of both global and terminal stiffness were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The reliability estimates of spinal stiffness measurement using MID were not significantly altered by the participants' LBP status across all circumstances (95% confidence intervals overlapped). With our experimental protocol, averaging three spinal stiffness measurements using MID produces reliable stiffness measurements regardless of individuals' LBP status.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Manipulação da Coluna/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tono Muscular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 43(4): 251-62, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23221501

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Reliability study. OBJECTIVES: To compare the within- and between-day intrarater reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) using static images (static RUSI) and video clips (video RUSI) to quantify multifidus muscle thickness at rest and while contracted. Secondary objectives were to compare the measurement precision of averaging multiple measures and to estimate reliability in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND: Although intrarater reliability of static RUSI in measuring multifidus thickness has been established, using video RUSI may improve reliability estimates, as it allows examiners to select the optimal image from a video clip. Further, multiple measurements and LBP status may affect RUSI reliability estimates. METHODS: Static RUSI and video RUSI were used to quantify multifidus muscle thickness at rest and during contraction and percent thickness change in 27 volunteers (13 without LBP and 14 with LBP). Three static RUSI images and 3 video RUSI video clips were collected in each of 2 sessions 1 to 4 days apart. Reliability and precision were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, bias, and 95% limits of agreement. RESULTS: Using an average of 2 measures yielded optimal measurement precision for static RUSI and video RUSI. Based on the average of 2 measures obtained under the same circumstance, there was no significant difference in the reliability estimates between static RUSI and video RUSI across all testing conditions. Reliability point estimates (intraclass correlation coefficient model 3,2) of multifidus thickness were 0.99 for within-day comparisons and ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 for between-day comparisons. The within- and between-day intraclass correlation coefficients (model 3,2) of percent thickness change ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 and from 0.80 to 0.90, respectively. The exploratory analysis showed no significant difference in the reliability estimates between asymptomatic and LBP participants across most testing conditions. CONCLUSION: Both RUSI methods yielded high reliability estimates for multifidus muscle measurements. Using an average of 2 measures obtained optimal measurement precision. Overall, video RUSI is a reliable surrogate for static RUSI for multifidus muscle measurements and has the additional advantage of requiring shorter data collection time.


Assuntos
Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
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