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1.
Appl Clin Inform ; 9(3): 704-713, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Holistic, ubiquitous support of patient-centered health care (eHealth) at all health care institutions and in patients' homes through information processing is increasingly supplementing institution-centered care. While eHealth indicators may measure the transition from institution-centered (e.g., hospital-centered) information processing to patient-centered information processing, collecting relevant and timely data for such indicators has been difficult. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to design some basic eHealth indicators, which are easily collected and measure how well information processing supports holistic patient-centered health care, and to evaluate penetrance of patient-centered health as measured by the indicators internationally via an expert survey. METHODS: We identified six basic indicators that measure access of health care professionals, patients, and caregivers to the patient's health record data and the ability of providers, patients, and caregivers to add information in the patient's record. In a survey of international informatics experts, these indicators' penetrance were evaluated for Austria, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States in the summer of 2017. RESULTS: The eHealth status measured by the indicators varied significantly between these seven countries. In Finland, most practices measured by the indicators were fully implemented whereas in Germany only one practice was partially realized. CONCLUSION: Progress in the implementation of practices that support patient-centered care could mainly be observed in those countries where the "political will" focused on achieving patient-centered care as opposed to an emphasis on institution-centered care. The six eHealth indicators seem to be useful for measuring national progress in patient-centered care. Future work will extend the number of countries analyzed.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Cuidadores , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 38: 29-37, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633829

RESUMO

An ultrasonic method is employed to synthesize the Sn doped Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots with green light emission. Sn2+ and Sn4+ ions are used to create different optical defects inside Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots and the changing trend of oxygen concentration under different ultrasonic irradiation power are investigated. The photoluminescence spectra are employed to characterize the optical defects of Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots. The UV-vis spectra are used to study the band gap of Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots, which is influenced by their sizes. The results indicate that ultrasonic power would influence the size of Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots as well as the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Changing trends in size of Sn2+ and Sn4+ doped Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots are quite similar with each other, while the changing trends in optical defects types and concentration of Sn2+ and Sn4+ doped Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots are different. The difference of the optical defects concentration changing between Sn2+ doped Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots (VO defects) and Sn4+ doped Zn0.95Sn0.05O quantum dots (OZn and Oi defects) shows that the formation process of ZnO under ultrasonic irradiation wiped oxygen out.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(10): 8437-8442, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244729

RESUMO

As microelectronics are trending toward smaller packages and integrated circuit (IC) stacks nowadays, underfill, the polymer composite filled in between the IC chip and the substrate, becomes increasingly important for interconnection reliability. However, traditional underfills cannot meet the requirements for low-profile and fine pitch in high density IC stacking packages. Post-applied underfills have difficulties in flowing into the small gaps between the chip and the substrate, while pre-applied underfills face filler entrapment at bond pads. In this report, we present a self-patterning underfilling technology that uses selective wetting of underfill on Cu bond pads and Si3N4 passivation via surface energy engineering. This novel process, fully compatible with the conventional underfilling process, eliminates the issue of filler entrapment in typical pre-applied underfilling process, enabling high density and fine pitch IC die bonding.

4.
Nanoscale ; 8(36): 16292-16301, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714086

RESUMO

The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg-1 and 47.5 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 400 W kg-1, respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

5.
Osteoporos Int ; 27(10): 3091-101, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189604

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. INTRODUCTION: Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. METHODS: Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. CONCLUSIONS: Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies utilizing mice as preclinical models for osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Temperatura , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Nanoscale ; 7(34): 14401-12, 2015 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26248645

RESUMO

Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 600 W kg(-1). The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.

7.
Diabet Med ; 32(12): 1658-61, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26103794

RESUMO

AIM: This pilot study evaluated the short-term benefits of a telemonitoring-supplemented focused diabetic education compared with education alone in participants with Type 2 diabetes who were fasting during Ramadan. METHODS: In this pilot mixed-method study, we identified 37 participants and randomly allocated them to either a telemonitoring group (n = 18) or a group receiving Ramadan-focused pre-education only (usual care; n = 19). The telemonitoring group received goal-setting and personalized feedback. RESULTS: The telemonitoring group was less likely to experience hypoglycaemia than the usual care group (odds ratio: 0.1273; 95% confidence interval: 0.0267-0.6059). No significant differences were noted in glycaemic control at the end of study. Participants viewed telemedicine as a more convenient alternative although technological barriers remain a concern. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study reinforce the need for monitoring as well as educational initiatives for Muslims with diabetes who fast during Ramadan. Telemonitoring offers an attractive option requiring further research. (Clinical Trial Registry No. NCT02189135).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta para Diabéticos/efeitos adversos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta para Diabéticos/etnologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Objetivos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Islamismo , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Preferência do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Health Informatics J ; 21(1): 46-56, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24352596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop an automated risk prediction model to identify elderly patients at high risk of emergency admission to medical wards within 28 days following an index hospital visit. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of 41 hospitals and 48 specialist outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study subjects were elderly patients aged 65 years or above, who had index hospital visit(s) in the year of 2005, which included hospitalizations at medical wards and attendances at the accident and emergency departments or specialist outpatient clinics for medical conditions. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of emergency medical admission in 28 days after an index hospital visit. Model validation was performed against the complete cohort in 2006. RESULTS: Over a million of episodes were included in the derivation cohort. A total of 14 predictor variables included patient socio-demographics, service utilization in the previous year, presence and number of chronic diseases and type of index episode. The model has a good discriminative ability with the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve at 0.819 and 0.824 for the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The model has a sensitivity of 70.3 per cent, specificity of 78.4 per cent, positive predictive value of 21.7 per cent and negative predictive value of 96.9 per cent. CONCLUSION: This simple, accurate and objective risk prediction model has been computerized into an automated screening tool to recruit high-risk elderly patients discharged from all public hospitals in Hong Kong into the Community Health Call Centre service with an aim to prevent avoidable hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Readmissão do Paciente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Nanoscale ; 6(20): 12120-9, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25201446

RESUMO

Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.

10.
Dis Esophagus ; 26(3): 231-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22624653

RESUMO

Achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of esophagus; treatments include endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy (LC). This study compared EBD versus LC for treatment of achalasia with focus on quality of life (QoL) and prevalence of post-treatment gastroesophageal reflux disease. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with achalasia older than 16 treated with either EBD or LC from January 1998 to April 2008. Patients' demographic data, comorbidities, postintervention GERD symptoms, QoL, recurrence of dysphagia, reintervention rate, hospital stay, and time to resumption of diet were collected. Sixty-eight patients were recruited into the study (EBD n= 50; LC n= 18). A significant improvement in QoL was found in patients undergoing LC (0.917 vs. 0.807, P= 0.006). A higher proportion of patients treated with EBD developed post-treatment gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (60.5% vs. 43.8%) when compared with LC, although statistically insignificant (P= 0.34). Patients treated with balloon dilatation had a greater percentage of recurrence of dysphagia (55.1% vs. 26.7%; P= 0.235) and need of reintervention (42.1% vs. 9.1%; P= 0.045). However, these patients had a shorter median hospital stay (1d [range 0-4]) and earlier resumption of diet (0d [range 0-3]). Although EBD is associated with a quicker perioperative recovery, LC accomplished a better QoL, lower incidence of recurrence of dysphagia, and need of reintervention after treatment for achalasia.


Assuntos
Cárdia/cirurgia , Cateterismo/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/prevenção & controle , Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Dilatação/métodos , Acalasia Esofágica/psicologia , Acalasia Esofágica/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Recidiva , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nanotechnology ; 23(43): 435706, 2012 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23060008

RESUMO

The properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites are strongly dependent on the dispersion and orientation of CNTs in the host matrix. Quantification of the dispersion and orientation of CNTs by means of microstructure observation and image analysis has been demonstrated as a useful way to understand the structure-property relationship of CNT/polymer composites. However, due to the various morphologies and large amount of CNTs in one image, automatic and accurate identification of CNTs has become the bottleneck for dispersion/orientation analysis. To solve this problem, shape identification is performed for each pixel in the filler identification step, so that individual CNTs can be extracted from images automatically. The improved filler identification enables more accurate analysis of CNT dispersion and orientation. The dispersion index and orientation index obtained for both synthetic and real images from model compounds correspond well with the observations. Moreover, these indices help to explain the electrical properties of CNT/silicone composite, which is used as a model compound. This method can also be extended to other polymer composites with high-aspect-ratio fillers.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 4(8): 3959-64, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22764733

RESUMO

Tuning the surface wettability is of great interest for both scientific research and practical applications. We demonstrated reversible transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite film. The epoxy resin serves as an adhesion and stress relief layer. The ZnO nanorods were exposed after oxygen reactive ion etching of the epoxy matrix. A subsequent chemcial treatment with fluoroalkyl and alkyl silanes resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to 158.4° and a hysteresis as low as 1.3°. Under UV irradiation, the water contact angle decreased gradually, and the surface eventually became superhydrophilic because of UV induced decomposition of alkyl silanes and hydroxyl absorption on ZnO surfaces. A reversible transition of surface wettability was realized by alternation of UV illumination and surface treatment. Such ZnO nanocomposite surface also showed improved mechanical robustness.


Assuntos
Nanotubos/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Absorção , Resinas Epóxi/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanocompostos/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Silanos/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta , Água/química , Molhabilidade
13.
Nanotechnology ; 23(25): 255703, 2012 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22652604

RESUMO

Large-scale porous SiC was fabricated by a combination of Pt-assisted etching and reactive ion etching. It was found that the surface roughness of combined etchings increased dramatically in comparison with metal-assisted etching or reactive ion etching only. To reduce the surface energy, the porous SiC surface was functionalized with perfluorooctyl trichlorosilane, resulting in a superhydrophobic SiC surface with a contact angle of 169.2° and a hysteresis of 2.4°. The superhydrophobicity of the SiC surface showed a good long-term stability in an 85 °C/85% humidity chamber. Such superhydrophobicity was also stable in acidic or basic solutions, and the pH values showed little or no effect on the SiC surface status. In addition, enhancement of porosity-induced photoluminescence intensity was found in the superhydrophobic SiC samples. The robust superhydrophobic SiC surfaces may have a great potential for microfluid device, thermal ground plane, and biosensor applications.


Assuntos
Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Compostos de Silício/química , Temperatura Alta , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Platina/química , Porosidade , Água
14.
Nanotechnology ; 23(21): 215303, 2012 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22551592

RESUMO

Scalable fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles is essential to future advances in several applications. Here, we report on the development of a simple, two-step method for fabricating vertically aligned and periodically distributed CNT bundles and periodically porous CNT films at the sub-micron scale. The method involves laser interference ablation (LIA) of an iron film followed by CNT growth via iron-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition. CNT bundles with square widths ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 µm in width, and 50-200 µm in length, are grown atop the patterned catalyst over areas spanning 8 cm(2). The CNT bundles exhibit a high degree of control over square width, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity. This simple scalable method of producing well-placed and oriented CNT bundles demonstrates a high application potential for wafer-scale integration of CNT structures into various device applications, including IC interconnects, field emitters, sensors, batteries, and optoelectronics, etc.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Lasers , Membranas Artificiais , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Gases/química , Teste de Materiais , Nanotubos de Carbono/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade
15.
Hong Kong Med J ; 17(4): 297-300, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21813898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For diagnosing neuropathic pain, a simple 6-item patient-completed identification pain questionnaire has been validated among Caucasians. We aimed to study the validity and reliability of this questionnaire among Hong Kong Chinese patients. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey. SETTING: Two pain clinics and two neurology clinics in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: Patients with either neuropathic pain or nociceptive pain were recruited randomly from the four clinics. The patients completed the questionnaire themselves and the diagnosis of neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain was made by the pain specialists. We determined the optimal cutoff, positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and test-retest reliability of the translated version. RESULTS: Among the 92 participants, 60 (65%) had neuropathic pain and 32 (35%) had nociceptive pain. At an optimal cutoff score of 3 or higher, the positive predictive value was 87% while the negative predictive value was 55%, and it correctly classified 71% of cases. The specificity and sensitivity were 81% and 65%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.78 (P<0.001). Test-retest reliability in the 10 randomly selected patients showed a good intraclass correlation of 0.72. CONCLUSION: The Chinese Identification Pain Questionnaire is a valid and reliable scale that may be used as an initial diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain among Hong Kong Chinese patients.


Assuntos
Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Methods Inf Med ; 50(4): 386-91, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21792467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify health record background information in the Asia-Pacific region, for planning and evaluation of medical information systems. METHODS: The survey was carried out in the summer of 2009. Of the 14 APAMI (Asia-Pacific Association for Medical Informatics) delegates 12 responded which were Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. RESULTS: English is used for records and education in Australia, Hong Kong, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Most of the countries/regions are British Commonwealth. Nine out of 12 delegates responded that the second purpose of medical records was for the billing of medical services. Seven out of nine responders to this question answered that the second purpose of EHR (Electronic Health Records) was healthcare cost cutting. In Singapore, a versatile resident ID is used which can be applied to a variety of uses. Seven other regions have resident IDs which are used for a varying range of purposes. Regarding healthcare ID, resident ID is simply used as healthcare ID in Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand. In most cases, disclosure of medical data with patient's name identified is allowed only for the purpose of disease control within a legal framework and for disclosure to the patient and referred doctors. Secondary use of medical information with the patient's identification anonymized is usually allowed in particular cases for specific purposes. CONCLUSION: This survey on the health record background information has yielded the above mentioned results. This information contributes to the planning and evaluation of medical information systems in the Asia-Pacific region.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Privacidade , Linguagens de Programação , Ásia , Austrália , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Ilhas do Pacífico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Seizure ; 20(7): 546-53, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21530324

RESUMO

Approximately one third of newly treated epilepsy patients do not respond to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter has been proposed to have a critical role in causing resistance to AEDs. P-gp is a product of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible link between ABCB1 rs3789243 C>T, C1236T, G2677T/A, rs6949448 C>T, and C3435T haplotypes with response to carbamazepine (CBZ) or sodium valproate (VPA) monotherapy in Malaysian epilepsy patients. No ABCB1 haplotype association was found with response to either CBZ or VPA monotherapy in the Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. C3435 allele carriers of the Indian males with cryptogenic epilepsy were more prone to resistance to either CBZ or VPA than carriers of T allele. Moreover, rs3789243T allele carriers of Malay females with symptomatic epilepsy were more resistant to either CBZ or VPA than C allele carriers. Our findings suggest that the ABCB1 rs3789243 C>T, C1236T, G2677T/A, rs6949448 C>T, and C3435T haplotypes do not contribute to response to AED treatment in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Loci Gênicos , Haplótipos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Alelos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
18.
Seizure ; 20(5): 387-94, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21316268

RESUMO

It is proposed that overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) gene, is involved in resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in about 30% of patients with epilepsy. Genetic variation and haplotype patterns are population specific which may cause different phenotypes such as response to AEDs. Although several studies examined the link between the common polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene with resistance to AEDs, the results have been conflicting. This controversy may be caused by the effect of some confounders such as ethnicity and polytherapy. Moreover, expression of the ABCB1 gene is under the control of pregnane X receptor (PXR). Evidence showed that PXR gene contribute to the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the association of ABCB1 and PXR genetic polymorphisms with response to the carbamazepine (CBZ) or sodium valproate (VPA) monotherapy in epilepsy. Genotypes were assessed in 685 Chinese, Indian, and Malay epilepsy patients for ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T, C3435T) and PXR (G7635A) polymorphisms. No association between these polymorphisms and their haplotypes, and interaction between them, with response to treatment was observed in the overall group or in the Chinese, Indian, and Malay subgroups. Our data showed that these polymorphisms may not contribute to the response to CBZ or VPA monotherapy treatment in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Pregnano X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(43): 14459-61, 2010 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20882223

RESUMO

This communication describes a new surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active silver substrate prepared by iodination of the evaporated silver foil. After iodination, the morphology of the silver substrate undergoes a self-evolution process in which it displays accordingly the UV-vis absorption shift as well as the AFM topological test. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is used as the probe molecule to evaluate the enhancement efficiency of the silver substrate at different self-evolution time intervals. The SERS intensity of R6G increases up to ∼29-fold and reaches a maximum after the substrate evolved for 24 h. This method is feasible for the production of an efficient SERS silver substrate.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 2(9): 2637-45, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20735013

RESUMO

We show the fast preparation of printable highly conductive polymer nanocomposites for future low-cost electronics. Highly conductive polymer nanocomposites, consisting of an epoxy resin, silver flakes, and incorporated silver nanoparticles, have been prepared by fast sintering between silver flakes and the incorporated silver nanoparticles. The fast sintering is attributed to: 1) the thermal decomposition of silver carboxylate-which is present on the surface of the incorporated silver flakes-to form in situ highly reactive silver nanoparticles; 2) the surface activation of the incorporated silver nanoparticles by the removal of surface residues. As a result, polymer nanocomposites prepared at 230 °C for 5 min, at 260 °C for 10 min, and using a typical lead-free solder reflow process show electrical resistivities of 8.1×10(-5), 6.0×10(-6), and 6.3×10(-5) Ω cm, respectively. The correlation between the rheological properties of the adhesive paste and the noncontact printing process has been discussed. With the optimal rheological properties, the formulated highly viscous pastes (221 mPa s at 2500 s(-1)) can be non-contact-printed into dot arrays with a radius of 130 µm. The noncontact printable polymer nanocomposites with superior electrical conductivity and fast processing are promising for the future of printed electronics.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Prata/química , Prata/química , Cristalização/métodos , Condutividade Elétrica , Temperatura Alta , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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