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1.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) ; 15(1): 107-121, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696523

RESUMO

Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death, and early detection of this disease is crucial for increasing survival rates. Although cancer can be diagnosed following tissue biopsy, the biopsy procedure is invasive; liquid biopsy provides an alternative that is more comfortable for the patient. While blood, urine, and cerebral spinal fluid can all be used as a source of liquid biopsy, saliva is an ideal source of body fluid that is readily available and easily collected in the most noninvasive manner. Characterization of salivary constituents in the disease setting provides critical data for understanding pathophysiology and the evaluation of diagnostic potential. The aim of saliva diagnostics is therefore to develop a rapid and noninvasive detection of oral and systemic diseases that could be used together with compact analysis systems in the clinic to facilitate point-of-care diagnostics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Saliva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Saliva/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563647

RESUMO

Fatigue and other deleterious mood alterations resulting from prolonged efforts such as a long work shift can lead to a decrease in vigilance and cognitive performance, increasing the likelihood of errors during the execution of attention-demanding activities such as piloting an aircraft or performing medical procedures. Thus, a method to rapidly and objectively assess the risk for such cognitive fatigue would be of value. The objective of the study was the identification in saliva-borne exosomes of molecular signals associated with changes in mood and fatigue that may increase the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Using integrated multiomics analysis of exosomes from the saliva of medical residents before and after a 12 h work shift, we observed changes in the abundances of several proteins and miRNAs that were associated with various mood states, and specifically fatigue, as determined by a Profile of Mood States questionnaire. The findings herein point to a promising protein biomarker, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), that was associated with fatigue and displayed changes in abundance in saliva, and we suggest a possible biological mechanism whereby the expression of the PGK1 gene is regulated by miR3185 in response to fatigue. Overall, these data suggest that multiomics analysis of salivary exosomes has merit for identifying novel biomarkers associated with changes in mood states and fatigue. The promising biomarker protein presents an opportunity for the development of a rapid saliva-based test for the assessment of these changes.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo
3.
Immunohorizons ; 6(5): 307-311, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618268

RESUMO

The emergence of the omicron and delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun a number of discussions regarding breakthrough infection, waning immunity, need and timing for vaccine boosters, and whether existing mRNA vaccines for the original SARS-CoV-2 strain are adequate. Our work leverages a biosensor-based technique to evaluate the binding efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific salivary Abs to the omicron and delta variants using a cohort of mRNA-vaccinated (n = 109) and convalescent (n = 19) subjects. We discovered a wide range of binding efficacies to the variant strains, with a mean reduction of 60.5, 26.7, and 14.7% in measurable signal to the omicron strain and 13.4, 2.4, and -6.4% mean reduction to the delta variant for convalescent, Pfizer-, and Moderna-vaccinated groups, respectively. This assay may be an important tool in determining susceptibility to infection or need for booster immunization as the pandemic evolves.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Afinidade de Anticorpos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2
4.
medRxiv ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262090

RESUMO

The emergence of Omicron and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 has begun a number of discussions regarding breakthrough infection, waning immunity, need and timing for vaccine boosters and whether existing mRNA vaccines for the wildtype strain are adequate. Our work leverages a biosensor-based technique to evaluate the binding efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 S1 specific salivary antibodies to the Omicron and Delta variants using a cohort of mRNA vaccinated (n=109) and convalescent (n=19) subjects. We discovered a wide range of binding efficacies to the variant strains, with a mean reduction of 60.5%, 26.7%, and 14.7% in measurable signal to the Omicron strain and 13.4%, 2.4%, and âˆ'6.4% percent mean reduction to the Delta Variant for convalescent, Pfizer, and Moderna vaccinated groups respectively. This assay may be an important tool in determining susceptibility to infection or need for booster immunization as the pandemic evolves. Key Points: AMPERIAL assay developed to quantify salivary SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibodies to Omicron and Delta variantsThere was a reduction in affinity to both Delta and Omicron VariantsThe reduction in affinity was more pronounced to Omicron than for Delta VariantsThere was a significant difference between IgG affinities in Individuals vaccinated with Pfizer versus Moderna Vaccines.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 782825, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250921

RESUMO

Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease in children, and the respective etiology is not fully understood. Though Streptococcus mutans is an important factor in the initiation and progression of caries, its presence is not always associated with the disease. The existence of caries discordant populations, in which S. mutans counts do not correlate with caries experience, poses a challenging problem. This study explored the possible correlation of S. mutans and other microorganism levels on caries-associated ecology of caries-concordant and discordant populations. A total of forty-seven children were analyzed in this study and stratified into four clinical groups based on their S. mutans levels in saliva (HS/LS: High/low S. mutans) and caries experience. Streptococcus mutans levels were determined by culture-based selective plating. The salivary microbiome of caries concordant and discordant populations was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and downstream bioinformatics analysis. The salivary microbial communities significantly clustered based on S. mutans levels and independent of their caries experience. In addition to S. mutans levels, significant differences in the abundance of other species were observed between HS and LS groups. Interestingly, disease-associated species such as Veillonella dispar, Streptococcus spp., and Prevotella spp. were significantly increased in HS groups and may contribute, in combination with S. mutans, to the caries progression. Furthermore, health-associated species exhibited higher abundance in the LS groups, such as Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus sp., and Alloprevotella spp. but their possible contribution to the caries process remains to be elucidated. This study provides evidence that S. mutans may play a role in shaping the salivary microbial community. Our results highlight that future caries research should consider additional species as health/disease microbial markers in conjunction with S. mutans to improve diagnosis and caries management of the caries-discordant population.

6.
J Immunol ; 208(4): 819-826, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039333

RESUMO

We used a noninvasive electrochemical quantitative assay for IgG Abs to SARS-CoV-2 S1 Ag in saliva to investigate the kinetics of Ab response in a community-based population that had received either the Pfizer or Moderna mRNA-based vaccine. Samples were received from a total of 97 individuals, including a subset of 42 individuals who collected samples twice weekly for 3 mo or longer. In all, >840 samples were collected and analyzed. In all individuals, salivary SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG Ab levels rose sharply in the 2-wk period after their second vaccination, with peak Ab levels seen at 10-20 d after vaccination. We observed that 20%, 10%, and 2.4% of individuals providing serial samples had a 90%, 95%, and 99% drop, respectively, from peak levels during the duration of monitoring, and in two patients, Abs fell to prevaccination levels (5%). The use of noninvasive quantitative salivary Ab measurement can allow widespread, cost-effective monitoring of vaccine response.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vacinação
7.
medRxiv ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611670

RESUMO

We used a noninvasive electrochemical quantitative assay for IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S1 in saliva to investigate the kinetics of antibody response in a community-based population who had received either the Pfizer or Moderna mRNA-based vaccines. Samples were received from a total of 97 individuals including a subset of 42 individuals who collected samples twice-weekly for 3 months or longer. In all, 840 samples were collected and analyzed. In all individuals, salivary antibody levels rose sharply in the 2-week period following their second vaccination, with peak antibody levels being at 10-20 days post-vaccination. We observed that 20%, 10% and 2.4% of individuals providing serial samples had a 90%, 95%, and 99% drop respectively from peak levels during the duration of monitoring and two patients fell to pre-vaccination levels (5%). The use of non-invasive quantitative salivary antibody measurement can allow widespread, cost-effective monitoring of vaccine response. ARTICLE SUMMARY LINE: COVID-19 antibodies were measured in saliva and 20% of vaccinated subjects experienced a 90% drop in peak antibody levels over the course of monitoring.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated whether network analysis revealed clusters of coregulated metabolites associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Puerto Rican adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure fasting plasma metabolites (>600) among participants aged 40-75 years in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS; discovery) and San Juan Overweight Adult Longitudinal Study (SOALS; replication), with (n=357; n=77) and without (n=322; n=934) T2D, respectively. Among BPRHS participants, we used unsupervised partial correlation network-based methods to identify and calculate metabolite cluster scores. Logistic regression was used to assess cross-sectional associations between metabolite clusters and prevalent T2D at the baseline blood draw in the BPRHS, and significant associations were replicated in SOALS. Inverse-variance weighted random-effect meta-analysis was used to combine cohort-specific estimates. RESULTS: Six metabolite clusters were significantly associated with prevalent T2D in the BPRHS and replicated in SOALS (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). In a meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the OR and 95% CI (per 1 SD increase in cluster score) for prevalent T2D were as follows for clusters characterized primarily by glucose transport (0.21 (0.16 to 0.30); FDR <0.0001), sphingolipids (0.40 (0.29 to 0.53); FDR <0.0001), acyl cholines (0.35 (0.22 to 0.56); FDR <0.0001), sugar metabolism (2.28 (1.68 to 3.09); FDR <0.0001), branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (2.22 (1.60 to 3.08); FDR <0.0001), and fatty acid biosynthesis (1.54 (1.29 to 1.85); FDR <0.0001). Three additional clusters characterized by amino acid metabolism, cell membrane components, and aromatic amino acid metabolism displayed significant associations with prevalent T2D in the BPRHS, but these associations were not replicated in SOALS. CONCLUSIONS: Among Puerto Rican adults, we identified several known and novel metabolite clusters that associated with prevalent T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283064

RESUMO

Background: We assessed whether serial ctDNA monitoring of plasma and saliva predicts response and resistance to osimertinib in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Three ctDNA technologies-blood-based droplet-digital PCR (ddPCR), next-generation sequencing (NGS), and saliva-based EFIRM liquid biopsy (eLB)-were employed to investigate their complementary roles. Methods: Plasma and saliva samples were collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical trial of osimertinib and local ablative therapy upon progression (NCT02759835). Plasma was analyzed by ddPCR and NGS. Saliva was analyzed by eLB. Results: A total of 25 patients were included. We analyzed 534 samples by ddPCR (n = 25), 256 samples by NGS (n = 24) and 371 samples by eLB (n = 22). Among 20 patients who progressed, ctDNA progression predated RECIST 1.1 progression by a median of 118 days (range: 61-272 days) in 11 (55%) patients. Of nine patients without ctDNA progression by ddPCR, two patients had an increase in mutant EGFR by eLB and two patients were found to have ctDNA progression by NGS. Levels of ctDNA measured by ddPCR and NGS at early time points, but not volumetric tumor burden, were associated with PFS. EGFR/ERBB2/MET/KRAS amplifications, EGFR C797S, PIK3CA E545K, PTEN V9del, and CTNNB1 S45P were key resistance mechanisms identified by NGS. Conclusion: Serial assessment of ctDNA in plasma and saliva predicts response and resistance to osimertinib, with each assay having supplementary roles.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0251342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197468

RESUMO

Amperial™ is a novel assay platform that uses immobilized antigen in a conducting polymer gel followed by detection via electrochemical measurement of oxidation-reduction reaction between H2O2/Tetrametylbenzidine and peroxidase enzyme in a completed assay complex. A highly specific and sensitive assay was developed to quantify levels of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. After establishing linearity and limit of detection we established a reference range of 5 standard deviations above the mean. There were no false positives in 667 consecutive saliva samples obtained prior to 2019. Saliva was obtained from 34 patients who had recovered from documented COVID-19 or had documented positive serologies. All of the patients with symptoms severe enough to seek medical attention had positive antibody tests and 88% overall had positive results. We obtained blinded paired saliva and plasma samples from 14 individuals. The plasma was analyzed using an EUA-FDA cleared ELISA kit and the saliva was analyzed by our Amperial™ assay. All 5 samples with negative plasma titers were negative in saliva testing. Eight of the 9 positive plasma samples were positive in saliva and 1 had borderline results. A CLIA validation was performed as a laboratory developed test in a high complexity laboratory. A quantitative non-invasive saliva based SARS-CoV-2 antibody test was developed and validated with sufficient specificity to be useful for population-based monitoring and monitoring of individuals following vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Limite de Detecção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523836

RESUMO

Liquid droplets have been studied for decades and have recently experienced renewed attention as a simplified model for numerous fascinating physical phenomena occurring on size scales from the cell nucleus to stellar black holes. Here, we present an acoustofluidic centrifugation technique that leverages an entanglement of acoustic wave actuation and the spin of a fluidic droplet to enable nanoparticle enrichment and separation. By combining acoustic streaming and droplet spinning, rapid (<1 min) nanoparticle concentration and size-based separation are achieved with a resolution sufficient to identify and isolate exosome subpopulations. The underlying physical mechanisms have been characterized both numerically and experimentally, and the ability to process biological samples (including DNA segments and exosome subpopulations) has been successfully demonstrated. Together, this acoustofluidic centrifuge overcomes existing limitations in the manipulation of nanoscale (<100 nm) bioparticles and can be valuable for various applications in the fields of biology, chemistry, engineering, material science, and medicine.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236034

RESUMO

Amperial™ is a novel assay platform that uses immobilized antigen in a conductive polymer gel followed by an electrochemical detection. A highly specific and sensitive assay was developed to quantify levels of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. After establishing linearity and limit of detection we established a reference range of 5 standard deviations above the mean. There were no false positives in 667 consecutive saliva samples obtained prior to 2019. Saliva was obtained from 34 patients who had recovered from documented COVID-19 or had documented positive serologies. All of the patients with symptoms severe enough to seek medical attention had positive antibody tests and 88% overall had positive results. We obtained blinded paired saliva and plasma samples from 14 individuals. The plasma was analyzed using an EUA-FDA cleared ELISA kit and the saliva was analyzed by our Amperial™ assay. All 5 samples with negative plasma titers were negative in saliva testing. Eight of the 9 positive plasma samples were positive in saliva and 1 had borderline results. A CLIA validation was performed as a laboratory developed test in a high complexity laboratory. A quantitative non-invasive saliva based SARSCoV-2 antibody test was developed and validated with sufficient specificity to be useful for population-based monitoring and monitoring of individuals following vaccination.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196678

RESUMO

Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) consumption during pregnancy can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), which are characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction and craniofacial dysmorphology. Recently, cell-derived extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles containing several species of RNAs (exRNAs), have emerged as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. However, EtOH's effects on the biogenesis and function of non-coding exRNAs during fetal development have not been explored. Therefore, we studied the effects of maternal EtOH exposure on the composition of exosomal RNAs in the amniotic fluid (AF) using rat fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) model. Through RNA-Seq analysis we identified and verified AF exosomal miRNAs with differential expression levels specifically associated with maternal EtOH exposure. Uptake of purified FAE AF exosomes by rBMSCs resulted in significant alteration of molecular markers associated with osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. We also determined putative functional roles for AF exosomal miRNAs (miR-199a-3p, miR-214-3p and let-7g) that are dysregulated by FAE in osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Our results demonstrate that FAE alters AF exosomal miRNAs and that exosomal transfer of dysregulated miRNAs has significant molecular effects on stem cell regulation and differentiation. Our results further suggest the usefulness of assessing molecular alterations in AF exRNAs to study the mechanisms of FAE teratogenesis that should be further investigated by using an in vivo model.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Líquido Amniótico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Pancreas ; 49(9): 1141-1152, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003085

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Pancreatic cancer presents dismal clinical outcomes in patients, and the incidence of pancreatic cancer has continuously increased to likely become the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths by as early as 2030. One of main reasons for the high mortality rate of pancreatic cancer is the lack of tools for early-stage detection. Current practice in detecting and monitoring therapeutic response in pancreatic cancer relies on imaging analysis and invasive endoscopic examination. Liquid biopsy-based analysis of genetic alterations in biofluids has become a fundamental component in the diagnosis and management of cancers. There is an urgent need for scientific and technological advancement to detect pancreatic cancer early and to develop effective therapies. The development of a highly sensitive and specific liquid biopsy tool will require extensive understanding on the characteristics of circulating tumor DNA in biofluids. Here, we have reviewed the current status of liquid biopsy in detecting and monitoring pancreatic cancers and our understanding of circulating tumor DNA that should be considered for the development of a liquid biopsy tool, which will greatly aid in the diagnosis and healthcare of people at risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Humanos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Intern Med J ; 50 Suppl 3: 6-14, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985093

RESUMO

Aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, is a second-generation anti-psychotic that is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. A group of psychiatric experts in Hong Kong developed a set of consensus statements, aiming to facilitate the understanding of clinical properties and usages of aripiprazole among local physicians. Of note, because aripiprazole long-acting injectable has been available locally not long before the establishment of the consensus panel, which limited the discussion on its use in the local context, the consensus statements were focused primarily on oral aripiprazole. To draft the consensus statements, the panellists discussed the published evidence and their clinical experience regarding aripiprazole in a series of meetings based on several areas. At the final meeting, each drafted statement was voted on anonymously by all panellists based on its practicability of recommendation in Hong Kong. A set of consensus statements on the characteristics and clinical use of aripiprazole was established and accepted by the panel. These statements serve to provide a practical reference for physicians in Hong Kong, and possibly other parts of the Asia-Pacific region, on the use of aripiprazole in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and other psychotic problems.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Hong Kong , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
16.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793495

RESUMO

Background: The longitudinal monitoring of actionable oncogenes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is crucial for clinicians to evaluate current therapeutic response and adjust therapeutic strategies. Saliva-based electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) is liquid biopsy platform to that can directly detect mutation genes with a small volume of samples. Herein, we compared the effectiveness of longitudinal monitoring for the combination of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations between saliva-based EFIRM and plasma-based platforms (ddPCR and NGS) in two advanced NSCLC patients undergoing the treatment with osimertinib before and after local ablative therapy (LAT). Patients and Methods: Two patients with unresectable advanced NSCLC were enrolled into the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIHCC) Study (ClinicalTrials.gov: 16-C-0092; local ablative therapy for the treatment of oligoprogressive, EGFR-mutated, non-small cell lung cancer after treatment with osimertinib). Serial collections of saliva, plasma, and metastatic tumor volume measurement by computed tomography (CT) were performed. Longitudinal paired saliva and plasma samples were analyzed for p.L858R EGFR, exon19 del EGFR, and p.E545K PIK3CA ctDNA using EFIRM (saliva) and ddPCR and NGS (plasma). Results: In Case 1, the saliva ctDNA curve of exon19 del EGFR by EFIRM demonstrated a strong similarity to those of tumor volume (R = 0.78, P = 0.00) and exon19 del EGFR in ddPCR (R = 0.53, P = 0.01). Moreover, the curve of p.E545K PIK3CA in EFIRM showed similarity to those of tumor volume (R = 0.70, P = 0.00) and p.E545K PIK3CA in NGS (R = 0.72, P = 0.00). In Case 2, the curve of p.E545K PIK3CA in EFIRM revealed a reverse relationship to that of tumor volume (R = -0.65, P = 0.01). Conclusion: In these two case reports, saliva-based EFIRM platform demonstrates a high level of concordance to plasma-based platforms (ddPCR and NGS) for longitudinally monitoring the combination of EGFR and PIK3CA ctDNA and can be a useful platform to monitor tumor progression and response to targeted therapy in NSCLC patients.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722209

RESUMO

Mutations identified in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict sensitivity to EGFR-targeted therapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We previously reported that Electric Field-Induced Release and Measurement (EFIRM)-based liquid biopsy could detect EGFR ctDNA with >94% concordance with tissue-based genotyping. A side-by-side comparison of concordance of EFIRM and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the detection of the two front-line actionable EFGR mutations was performed with paired plasma and saliva samples from 13 NSCLC patients. Deep sequencing analysis based on single-strand DNA library preparation was employed to determine the size distributions of EGFR L858R ctDNA in plasma and saliva samples. EFIRM detected both EGFR mutations with 100% sensitivity in both plasma and saliva samples, whereas ddPCR detected EGFR mutations with sensitivities of 84.6% and 15.4%, respectively. In saliva samples, the majority of EGFR L858R ctDNA fragments detected were <80 bp. Deep sequencing analysis of ctDNA enriched for the EGFR L858R mutation revealed the significant presence of EGFR L858R ctDNA as ultra-short circulating tumor DNA (usctDNA) with the size of 40-60 bp in patient plasma and saliva. Most of usctDNAs are not amplifiable with the current ddPCR assay. Further examination using cell lines and patient biofluids revealed that the majority of usctDNAs were predominately localized in the exosomal fraction. Our study revealed the abundant existence of EGFR ctDNA in the plasma and saliva of NSCLC patients is usctDNA. usctDNA is a novel type of targets for liquid biopsy that can be efficiently detected by EFIRM technology.

18.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(8): 1050-1062, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497715

RESUMO

Electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) is a novel, plate-based, liquid biopsy platform capable of detecting circulating tumor DNA containing EGFR mutations directly from saliva and plasma in both early- and late-stage patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. We investigated the properties of the target molecule for EFIRM and determined that the platform preferentially detects single-stranded DNA molecules. We then investigated the properties of the EFIRM assay and determined the linearity, linear range, precision, and limit of detection for six different EGFR variants (the four most common g.Exon19del variants), p.T790M, and p.L858R). The limit of detection was in single-digit copy number for the latter two mutations, and the limit of detection for Exon19del was 5000 copies. Following these investigations, technical validations were performed for four separate EFIRM liquid biopsy assays, qualitative and quantitative assays for both saliva and plasma. We conclude that EFIRM liquid biopsy is an assay platform that interrogates a biomarker not targeted by any other extant platform (namely, circulating single-stranded DNA molecules). The assay has acceptable performance characteristics in both quantitative and qualitative assays on both saliva and plasma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/sangue , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Saliva/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Placenta ; 90: 118-120, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056542

RESUMO

A pilot, case-control study was conducted to compare the concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in saliva of preeclampsia (PE) patients with normotensive controls in the second and third trimesters. Measured by ELISA assays, levels of salivary PlGF were significantly lower in PE patients (n = 13) compared to controls (n = 15) (two-way ANOVA, p = 0.0208) independent of gestational age at time of collection (p = 0.49). Salivary PLAP differences between PE and controls were not statistically significant. Placenta-specific proteins are detectable in maternal saliva and may serve as noninvasive biomarkers to monitor placenta health and disease during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Placentário/análise , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Humanos , Isoenzimas/análise , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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