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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 11, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour DNA methylation profiling has shown potential to refine disease subtyping and improve the diagnosis and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. However, limited data exist regarding invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC). Here, we investigated the genome-wide variability of DNA methylation levels across ILBC tumours and assessed the association between methylation levels at the variably methylated regions and overall survival in women with ILBC. METHODS: Tumour-enriched DNA was prepared by macrodissecting formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue from 130 ILBCs diagnosed in the participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Genome-wide tumour DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation 450K (HM450K) BeadChip array. Variably methylated regions (VMRs) were identified using the DMRcate package in R. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between methylation levels at the ten most significant VMRs and overall survival. Gene set enrichment analyses were undertaken using the web-based tool Metaspace. Replication of the VMR and survival analysis findings was examined using data retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for 168 ILBC cases. We also examined the correlation between methylation and gene expression for the ten VMRs of interest using TCGA data. RESULTS: We identified 2771 VMRs (P < 10-8) in ILBC tumours. The ten most variably methylated clusters were predominantly located in the promoter region of the genes: ISM1, APC, TMEM101, ASCL2, NKX6, HIST3H2A/HIST3H2BB, HCG4P3, HES5, CELF2 and EFCAB4B. Higher methylation level at several of these VMRs showed an association with reduced overall survival in the MCCS. In TCGA, all associations were in the same direction, however stronger than in the MCCS. The pooled analysis of the MCCS and TCGA data showed that methylation at four of the ten genes was associated with reduced overall survival, independently of age and tumour stage; APC: Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence interval) per one-unit M-value increase: 1.18 (1.02-1.36), TMEM101: 1.23 (1.02-1.48), HCG4P3: 1.37 (1.05-1.79) and CELF2: 1.21 (1.02-1.43). A negative correlation was observed between methylation and gene expression for CELF2 (R = - 0.25, P = 0.001), but not for TMEM101 and APC. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified regions showing greatest variability across the ILBC tumour genome and found methylation at several genes to potentially serve as a biomarker of survival for women with ILBC.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is detrimental to child health but its association with risk of cancer has seldom been investigated. Maternal smoking induces widespread and long-lasting DNA methylation changes, which we study here for association with risk of cancer in adulthood. METHODS: Eight prospective case-control studies nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were used to assess associations between maternal-smoking-associated methylation marks in blood and risk of several cancers: breast (n = 406 cases), colorectal (n = 814), gastric (n = 166), kidney (n = 139), lung (n = 327), prostate (n = 847) and urothelial (n = 404) cancer and B-cell lymphoma (n = 426). We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between cancer and five methylation scores calculated as weighted averages for 568, 19, 15, 28 and 17 CpG sites. Models were adjusted for confounders, including personal smoking history (smoking status, pack-years, age at starting and quitting) and methylation scores for personal smoking. RESULTS: All methylation scores for maternal smoking were strongly positively associated with risk of urothelial cancer. Risk estimates were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for smoking history, other potential confounders and methylation scores for personal smoking. Potential negative associations were observed with risk of lung cancer and B-cell lymphoma. No associations were observed for other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking are associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential for using DNA methylation to investigate the impact of early-life, unmeasured exposures on later-life cancer risk.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 158, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation-based biological age (DNAm age) is an important biomarker for adult health. Studies in specific age ranges have found widely varying results about its genetic and environmental causes of variation. However, these studies are not able to provide a comprehensive view of the causes of variation over the lifespan. RESULTS: In order to investigate the genetic and environmental causes of DNAm age variation across the lifespan, we pooled genome-wide DNA methylation data for 4217 people aged 0-92 years from 1871 families. DNAm age was calculated using the Horvath epigenetic clock. We estimated familial correlations in DNAm age for monozygotic (MZ) twin, dizygotic (DZ) twin, sibling, parent-offspring, and spouse pairs by cohabitation status. Genetic and environmental variance components models were fitted and compared. We found that twin pair correlations were - 0.12 to 0.18 around birth, not different from zero (all P > 0.29). For all pairs of relatives, their correlations increased with time spent living together (all P < 0.02) at different rates (MZ > DZ and siblings > parent-offspring; P < 0.001) and decreased with time spent living apart (P = 0.02) at similar rates. These correlation patterns were best explained by cohabitation-dependent shared environmental factors, the effects of which were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 1.66) times greater for MZ pairs than for DZ and sibling pairs, and the latter were 2.03 (95% CI 1.13 to 9.47) times greater than for parent-offspring pairs. Genetic factors explained 13% (95% CI - 10 to 35%) of variation (P = 0.27). Similar results were found for another two epigenetic clocks, suggesting that our observations are robust to how DNAm age is measured. In addition, results for the other clocks were consistent with there also being a role for prenatal environmental factors in determining their variation. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in DNAm age is mostly caused by environmental factors, including those shared to different extents by relatives while living together and whose effects persist into old age. The equal environment assumption of the classic twin study might not hold for epigenetic aging.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958588

RESUMO

DNA methylation in peripheral blood is a potential biomarker of gastric cancer risk which could be used for early detection. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood samples collected a median of 12 years before diagnosis for cases (N=168). Controls (N=163) were matched to cases on sex, year of birth, country of birth and blood sample type using incidence density sampling. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. Global measures of DNA methylation were defined as the median methylation M-value, calculated for each of 13 CpG subsets representing genomic function, mean methylation and location, and reliability of measurement. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between these global measures of methylation and gastric cancer risk, adjusting for Helicobacter pylori and other potential confounders. We tested non-linear associations using quintiles of the global measure distribution. A genome-wide association study of DNA methylation and gastric cancer risk was also conducted (N=484,989 CpGs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were investigated using the R package DMRcate. We found no evidence of associations with gastric cancer risk for individual CpGs or DMRs (p> 7.6×10-6). No evidence of association was observed with global measures of methylation (Odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per SD of overall median methylation, 95% CI 0.80-1.44, p=0.65). We found no evidence that blood DNA methylation is prospectively associated with gastric cancer risk.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 122(8): 1133-1140, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066913

RESUMO

Current risk prediction models estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period based on information such as family history, non-genetic breast cancer risk factors, genetic information from high and moderate risk breast cancer susceptibility genes and, over the past several years, polygenic risk scores (PRS) from more than 300 common variants. The inclusion of additional data such as PRS improves risk stratification, but it is anticipated that the inclusion of epigenetic marks could further improve model performance accuracy. Here, we present the case for including information on DNA methylation marks to improve the accuracy of these risk prediction models, and consider how this approach contrasts genetic information, as identifying DNA methylation marks associated with breast cancer risk differs inherently according to the source of DNA, approaches to the measurement of DNA methylation, and the timing of measurement. We highlight several DNA-methylation-specific challenges that should be considered when incorporating information on DNA methylation marks into risk prediction models, using BRCA1, a highly penetrant breast cancer susceptibility gene, as an example. Only after careful consideration of study design and DNA methylation measurement will prospective performance of the incorporation of information regarding DNA methylation marks into risk prediction models be valid.

7.
Epigenetics ; 15(4): 358-368, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552803

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association study of blood DNA methylation and smoking, attempted replication of previously discovered associations, and assessed the reversibility of smoking-associated methylation changes. DNA methylation was measured in baseline peripheral blood samples for 5,044 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. For 1,032 participants, these measures were repeated using blood samples collected at follow-up, a median of 11 years later. A cross-sectional analysis of the association between smoking and DNA methylation and a longitudinal analysis of changes in smoking status and changes in DNA methylation were conducted. We used our cross-sectional analysis to replicate previously reported associations for current (N = 3,327) and former (N = 172) smoking. A comprehensive smoking index accounting for the biological half-life of smoking compounds and several aspects of smoking history was constructed to assess the reversibility of smoking-induced methylation changes. This measure of lifetime exposure to smoking allowed us to detect more associations than comparing current with never smokers. We identified 4,496 cross-sectional associations at P < 10-7, including 3,296 annotated to 1,326 genes that were not previously implicated in smoking-associated DNA methylation changes at this significance threshold. We replicated the majority of previously reported associations (P < 10-7) for current and former smokers. In our data, we observed for former smokers a substantial degree of return to the methylation levels of never smokers, compared with current smokers (median: 74%, IQR = 63-86%), corresponding to small values (median: 2.75, IQR = 1.5-5.25) for the half-life parameter of the comprehensive smoking index. Longitudinal analyses identified 368 sites at which methylation changed upon smoking cessation. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of the comprehensive smoking index to detect associations between smoking and DNA methylation at CpGs across the genome, replicates the vast majority of previously reported associations, and quantifies the reversibility of smoking-induced methylation changes.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15055, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636290

RESUMO

DNA methylation-based biological age (DNAm age), as well as genome-wide average DNA methylation, have been reported to predict breast cancer risk. We aimed to investigate the associations between these DNA methylation-based risk factors and 18 conventional breast cancer risk factors for disease-free women. A sample of 479 individuals from the Australian Mammographic Density Twins and Sisters was used for discovery, a sample of 3354 individuals from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study was used for replication, and meta-analyses pooling results from the two studies were conducted. DNAm age based on three epigenetic clocks (Hannum, Horvath and Levine) and genome-wide average DNA methylation were calculated using the HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip assay data. The DNAm age measures were positively associated with body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol drinking and age at menarche (all nominal P < 0.05). Genome-wide average DNA methylation was negatively associated with smoking and number of live births, and positively associated with age at first live birth (all nominal P < 0.05). The association of DNAm age with BMI was also evident in within-twin-pair analyses that control for familial factors. This study suggests that some lifestyle and hormonal risk factors are associated with these DNA methylation-based breast cancer risk factors, and the observed associations are unlikely to be due to familial confounding but are likely causal. DNA methylation-based risk factors could interplay with conventional risk factors in modifying breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma Humano , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Gêmeos
9.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(4): 605-614, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873873

RESUMO

Dietary intakes of B vitamins and other components involved in one-carbon metabolism, which is necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression, may be associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated associations between intakes of 11 nutrients (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, vitamin B12, methionine, choline, and betaine) and gastric cancer risk. A total of 159 incident gastric cancer cases were identified from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N = 41,513) and matched with 159 controls on year of birth, sex, and country of birth using incidence density sampling. Dietary intakes of nutrients were estimated at baseline (1990-1994) using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for Helicobacter pylori infection, and other potential confounders. We observed a positive association between intake of niacin and overall gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01-1.75 per SD increment). For thiamine, heterogeneity by subtype (cardia and non-cardia) was found (Phet = 0.05), with weak evidence of an inverse association with cardia cancer risk. Our results do not support increasing intakes of B vitamins or other nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism to reduce gastric cancer risk in a well-nourished population.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betaína/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colina , Dieta , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia
10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1768-1773, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694562

RESUMO

Age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. DNA methylation is a molecular mechanism that could underlie inter-individual variation in mammographic density. We aimed to investigate the association between breast cancer risk-predicting mammographic density measures and blood DNA methylation. For 436 women from the Australian Mammographic Density Twins and Sisters Study and 591 women from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, mammographic density (dense area, nondense area and percentage dense area) defined by the conventional brightness threshold was measured using the CUMULUS software, and peripheral blood DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 (HM450) BeadChip assay. Associations between DNA methylation at >400,000 sites and mammographic density measures adjusted for age and BMI were assessed within each cohort and pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Associations with methylation at genetic loci known to be associated with mammographic density were also examined. We found no genome-wide significant (p < 10-7 ) association for any mammographic density measure from the meta-analysis, or from the cohort-specific analyses. None of the 299 methylation sites located at genetic loci associated with mammographic density was associated with any mammographic density measure after adjusting for multiple testing (all p > 0.05/299 = 1.7 × 10-4 ). In summary, our study did not find evidence for associations between blood DNA methylation, as measured by the HM450 assay, and conventional mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Gêmeos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Células Sanguíneas/química , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irmãos
11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(2): 243-252, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported DNA methylation in blood to be associated with body mass index (BMI), but few have investigated causal aspects of the association. We used a twin family design to assess this association at two life points and applied a novel analytical approach to appraise the evidence for causality. METHODS: The methylation profile of DNA from peripheral blood was measured for 479 Australian women from 130 twin families. Linear regression was used to estimate the associations of DNA methylation at ~410,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs), and of the average DNA methylation at ~20,000 genes, with current BMI, BMI at age 18-21 years, and the change between the two (BMI change). A novel regression-based methodology for twins, Inference about Causation through Examination of Familial Confounding (ICE FALCON), was used to assess causation. RESULTS: At a 5% false discovery rate, nine, six and 12 CpGs at 24 loci were associated with current BMI, BMI at age 18-21 years and BMI change, respectively. The average DNA methylation of the BHLHE40 and SOCS3 loci was associated with current BMI, and of the PHGDH locus with BMI change. From the ICE FALCON analyses with BMI as the predictor and DNA methylation as the outcome, a woman's DNA methylation level was associated with her co-twin's BMI, and the association disappeared after conditioning on her own BMI, consistent with BMI causing DNA methylation. To the contrary, using DNA methylation as the predictor and BMI as the outcome, a woman's BMI was not associated with her co-twin's DNA methylation level, consistent with DNA methylation not causing BMI. CONCLUSION: For middle-aged women, peripheral blood DNA methylation at several genomic locations is associated with current BMI, BMI at age 18-21 years and BMI change. Our study suggests that BMI has a causal effect on peripheral blood DNA methylation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 105(3): 404-410, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423315

RESUMO

Breast cancers arising in women carrying a germline mutation in BRCA1 are typically high-grade, early-onset and have distinct morphological features (BRCA1-like). However, the majority of early-onset breast cancers of this morphological type are not associated with germline BRCA1 mutations or constitutional BRCA1 promoter methylation. We aimed to assess DNA methylation across the genome for associations with the "BRCA1-like" morphology. Genome-wide methylation in blood-derived DNA was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip assay for women under the age of 40 years participating in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS) diagnosed with: i) BRCA1-like breast cancer (n = 30); and ii) breast cancer without BRCA1-like morphological features (non BRCA1-like; n = 30), and age-matched unaffected women (controls; n = 30). Corresponding tumour-derived DNA from 43 of the affected women was also assessed. Methylation of blood-derived DNA was found to be elevated across 17 consecutive marks in the BRCA1 promoter region and decreased at several other genomic regions (including TWIST2 and CTBP1) for 7 women (23%) diagnosed with BRCA1-like breast cancer compared with women in the other groups. Corresponding tumour-derived DNA available from 5 of these 7 women had elevated methylation within the BRCA1 and SPHK2 promoter region and decreased methylation within the ADAP1, IGF2BP3 and SPATA13 promoter region when compared with the other breast tumours. These methylation marks could be biomarkers of risk for BRCA1-like breast cancer, and could be responsible in part for their distinctive morphological features and biology. As such, they may assist with prevention and targeted therapies for this cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sistema de Registros
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(3): 908-916, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating the genetic and environmental causes of variation in genome-wide average DNA methylation (GWAM), a global methylation measure from the HumanMethylation450 array, might give a better understanding of genetic and environmental influences on methylation. METHODS: We measured GWAM for 2299 individuals aged 0 to 90 years from seven twin and/or family studies. We estimated familial correlations, modelled correlations with cohabitation history and fitted variance components models for GWAM. RESULTS: The correlation in GWAM for twin pairs was ∼0.8 at birth, decreased with age during adolescence and was constant at ∼0.4 throughout adulthood, with no evidence that twin pair correlations differed by zygosity. Non-twin first-degree relatives were correlated, from 0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.30] to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08-0.48), except for middle-aged siblings (0.01, 95% CI: -0.10-0.12), and the correlation increased with time living together and decreased with time living apart. Spouse pairs were correlated in all studies, from 0.23 (95% CI: 0.3-0.43) to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.05-0.52), and the correlation increased with time living together. The variance explained by environmental factors shared by twins alone was 90% (95% CI: 74-95%) at birth, decreased in early life and plateaued at 28% (95% CI: 17-39%) in middle age and beyond. There was a cohabitation-related environmental component of variance. CONCLUSIONS: GWAM is determined in utero by prenatal environmental factors, the effects of which persist throughout life. The variation of GWAM is also influenced by environmental factors shared by family members, as well as by individual-specific environmental factors.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 867, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491469

RESUMO

Mendelian-like inheritance of germline DNA methylation in cancer susceptibility genes has been previously reported. We aimed to scan the genome for heritable methylation marks associated with breast cancer susceptibility by studying 25 Australian multiple-case breast cancer families. Here we report genome-wide DNA methylation measured in 210 peripheral blood DNA samples provided by family members using the Infinium HumanMethylation450. We develop and apply a new statistical method to identify heritable methylation marks based on complex segregation analysis. We estimate carrier probabilities for the 1000 most heritable methylation marks based on family structure, and we use Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to identify 24 methylation marks with corresponding carrier probabilities significantly associated with breast cancer. We replicate an association with breast cancer risk for four of the 24 marks using an independent nested case-control study. Here, we report a novel approach for identifying heritable DNA methylation marks associated with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Austrália , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456763

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been reported to be associated with peripheral blood DNA methylation, but the causal aspects of the association have rarely been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association and underlying causation between smoking and blood methylation. Methods: The methylation profile of DNA from the peripheral blood, collected as dried blood spots stored on Guthrie cards, was measured for 479 Australian women including 66 monozygotic twin pairs, 66 dizygotic twin pairs, and 215 sisters of twins from 130 twin families using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip array. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between methylation at ~ 410,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) and smoking status. A regression-based methodology for twins, Inference about Causation through Examination of Familial Confounding (ICE FALCON), was used to assess putative causation. Results: At a 5% false discovery rate, 39 CpGs located at 27 loci, including previously reported AHRR, F2RL3, 2q37.1 and 6p21.33, were found to be differentially methylated across never, former and current smokers. For all 39 CpG sites, current smokers had the lowest methylation level. Our study provides the first replication for two previously reported CpG sites, cg06226150 (SLC2A4RG) and cg21733098 (12q24.32). From the ICE FALCON analysis with smoking status as the predictor and methylation score as the outcome, a woman's methylation score was associated with her co-twin's smoking status, and the association attenuated towards the null conditioning on her own smoking status, consistent with smoking status causing changes in methylation. To the contrary, using methylation score as the predictor and smoking status as the outcome, a woman's smoking status was not associated with her co-twin's methylation score, consistent with changes in methylation not causing smoking status. Conclusions: For middle-aged women, peripheral blood DNA methylation at several genomic locations is associated with smoking. Our study suggests that smoking has a causal effect on peripheral blood DNA methylation, but not vice versa.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fumar/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Austrália , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fumar/sangue
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 8, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the suitability of DNA extracted from saliva for high throughput molecular genotyping and DNA methylation platforms by comparing its performance with that of DNA extracted from blood. The genome-wide methylation profile, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip array® (Illumina, San Diego, CA), was measured for 20 DNA samples. Common genetic variation was measured, using the Infinium HumanCore Beadchip® (Illumina, San Diego, CA) for 4 samples (matching samples from 2 people). RESULTS: DNA from blood and saliva returned genotyping call rates and reproducibility frequencies of > 99%. High-quality DNA methylation data was obtained from both saliva and blood DNA, with average detection p-values for each sample ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Slightly higher global DNA methylation levels were observed in whole blood DNA than saliva DNA. Correlations between individuals for each sample type were generally greater than correlations between two sample types from the same individual (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.9696 in 10 pairs of matched blood and saliva derived DNA, r = 0.9702 between saliva samples, and r = 0.9769 between blood derived DNA). Saliva yields DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to compare favourably with blood as a source of DNA for genetic and epigenetic research purposes.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Saliva/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Humanos
18.
Lab Invest ; 98(4): 537-550, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339835

RESUMO

Prognostic genomic biomarkers that can be measured at diagnosis to aid choice of treatment options are unavailable for most common cancers. This is due in part to the poor quality and quantity of available diagnostic specimens for discovery research and to limitations in genomic technologies. Recent technical advances now enable high-density molecular analyses using suboptimal biological specimens. Here we describe the optimization of a transcriptome-specific protocol for use with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) diagnostic prostate cancer (PrCa) specimens. We applied the Ion AmpliSeq Transcriptome Human Gene Expression Kit (AmpliSeq Kit) to RNA samples extracted from 36 tumor-enriched and 16 adjacent normal tissues (ADJNT) from 37 FFPE PrCa specimens over a series of eight pilot studies, incorporating protocol modifications from Pilots 2 to 5. Data quality were measured by (1) the total number of mapped reads; (2) the percentage of reads that mapped to AmpliSeq target regions (OnTarget%); (3) the percentage of genes on the AmpliSeq panel with a read count ≥10 (TargetsDetected%); and (4) comparing the gene read-count distribution of the prostate tissue samples with the median gene read-count distribution of cell line-derived RNA samples. Modifications incorporated into Pilot study 5 provided gene expression data equivalent to cell line-derived RNA samples. These modifications included the use of freshly cut slides for macrodissection; increased tissue section thickness (8 µm); RNA extraction using the RecoverAll Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit for FFPE (ThermoFisher); 18 target amplification cycles; and processing six samples per Ion PI chip. This protocol will facilitate the discovery of prognostic biomarkers for cancer by allowing researchers to exploit previously underutilized diagnostic FFPE specimens.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Inclusão em Parafina , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(3): 529-538, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020168

RESUMO

Measures of biological age based on blood DNA methylation, referred to as age acceleration (AA), have been developed. We examined whether AA was associated with health risk factors and overall and cause-specific mortality. At baseline (1990-1994), blood samples were drawn from 2,818 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia). DNA methylation was determined using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California). Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association of AA with health risk factors. Cox models were used to assess the association of AA with mortality. A total of 831 deaths were observed during a median 10.7 years of follow-up. Associations of AA were observed with male sex, Greek nationality (country of birth), smoking, obesity, diabetes, lower education, and meat intake. AA measures were associated with increased mortality, and this was only partly accounted for by known determinants of health (hazard ratios were attenuated by 20%-40%). Weak evidence of heterogeneity in the association was observed by sex (P = 0.06) and cause of death (P = 0.07) but not by other factors. DNA-methylation-based AA measures are associated with several major health risk factors, but these do not fully explain the association between AA and mortality. Future research should investigate what genetic and environmental factors determine AA.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Causas de Morte , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
20.
Epigenetics ; 12(11): 973-981, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099274

RESUMO

To address the limitations in current classic twin/family research on the genetic and/or environmental causes of human methylomic variation, we measured blood DNA methylation for 479 women (mean age 56 years) including 66 monozygotic (MZ), 66 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and 215 sisters of twins, and 11 random technical duplicates using the HumanMethylation450 array. For each methylation site, we estimated the correlation for pairs of duplicates, MZ twins, DZ twins, and siblings, fitted variance component models by assuming the variation is explained by genetic factors, by shared and individual environmental factors, and by independent measurement error, and assessed the best fitting model. We found that the average (standard deviation) correlations for duplicate, MZ, DZ, and sibling pairs were 0.10 (0.35), 0.07 (0.21), -0.01 (0.14) and -0.04 (0.07). At the genome-wide significance level of 10-7, 93.3% of sites had no familial correlation, and 5.6%, 0.1%, and 0.2% of sites were correlated for MZ, DZ, and sibling pairs. For 86.4%, 6.9%, and 7.1% of sites, the best fitting model included measurement error only, a genetic component, and at least one environmental component. For the 13.6% of sites influenced by genetic and/or environmental factors, the average proportion of variance explained by environmental factors was greater than that explained by genetic factors (0.41 vs. 0.37, P value <10-15). Our results are consistent with, for middle-aged woman, blood methylomic variation measured by the HumanMethylation450 array being largely explained by measurement error, and more influenced by environmental factors than by genetic factors.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , DNA/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/normas , Gêmeos/genética
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