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1.
Eur J Pain ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based guideline for the non-invasive management of soft tissue disorders of the shoulder (shoulder pain), excluding major pathology. METHODS: This guideline is based on high-quality evidence from seven systematic reviews. Multidisciplinary experts considered the evidence of effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, societal and ethical values, and patient experiences when formulating recommendations. Target audience is clinicians; target population is adults with shoulder pain. RESULTS: When managing patients with shoulder pain, clinicians should 1) rule out major structural or other pathologies as the cause of shoulder pain and reassure patients about the benign and self-limited nature of most soft tissue shoulder pain; 2) develop a care plan in partnership with the patient; 3) For shoulder pain of any duration, consider low-level laser therapy; multimodal care (heat/cold, joint mobilization, and range of motion exercise); cervicothoracic spine manipulation and mobilization for shoulder pain when associated pain or restricted movement of the cervicothoracic spine; or thoracic spine manipulation; 4) For shoulder pain > 3 months duration, consider stretching and/or strengthening exercises; laser acupuncture; or general physician care (information, advice, and pharmacological pain management if necessary); 5) For shoulder pain with calcific tendinitis on imaging, consider shock-wave therapy; 6) For shoulder pain of any duration, do not offer ultrasound; taping; interferential current therapy; diacutaneous fibrolysis; soft tissue massage; or cervicothoracic spine manipulation and mobilization as an adjunct to exercise (i.e., range of motion, strengthening and stretching exercise) for pain between the neck and the elbow at rest or during movement of the arm; 7) For shoulder pain >3 months duration, do not offer shock-wave therapy; and 8) should reassess the patient's status at each visit for worsening of symptoms or new physical, mental, or psychological symptoms, or satisfactory recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for non-invasive management of shoulder pain. The impact of the guideline in clinical practice requires further evaluation.

2.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 35: 127778, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422603

RESUMO

The discovery of a series of substituted diarylether compounds as retinoic acid related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) agonists is described. Compound 1 was identified from deck mining as a RORγt agonist. Hit-to-lead optimization led to the identification of lead compound 5, which possesses improved potency (10x). Extensive SAR exploration led to the identification of a potent and selective compound 22, that demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile and a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, when dosed in a MC38 syngeneic tumor model, no evidence of efficacy was observed. ©2020 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

3.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed long-term incidence and prevalence trends of dementia and parkinsonism across major ethnic and immigrant groups in Ontario. METHODS: Linking administrative databases, we established two cohorts (dementia 2001-2014 and parkinsonism 2001-2015) of all residents aged 20 to 100 years with incident diagnosis of dementia (N = 387,937) or parkinsonism (N = 59,617). We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism by immigrant status and ethnic groups (Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population). We assessed incidence and prevalence trends using Poisson regression and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. RESULTS: Across selected ethnic groups, dementia incidence and prevalence were higher in long-term residents than recent or longer-term immigrants from 2001 to 2014. During this period, age- and sex-standardized incidence of dementia in Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population increased, respectively, among longer-term immigrants (by 41%, 58%, and 42%) and long-term residents (28%, 7%, and 4%), and to a lesser degree among recent immigrants. The small number of cases precluded us from assessing parkinsonism incidence trends. For Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population, respectively, prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism modestly increased over time among recent immigrants but significantly increased among longer-term immigrants (dementia: 134%, 217%, and 117%; parkinsonism: 55%, 54%, and 43%) and long-term residents (dementia: 97%, 132%, and 71%; parkinsonism: 18%, 30%, and 29%). Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appear to explain incidence trends, except for stroke and coronary artery disease as potential drivers of dementia incidence. CONCLUSION: Recent immigrants across major ethnic groups in Ontario had considerably lower rates of dementia and parkinsonism than long-term residents, but this difference diminished with longer-term immigrants.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038534, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055118

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about effective, efficient and acceptable management of back pain in children. A comprehensive and updated evidence synthesis can help to inform clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To inform clinical practice, we aim to conduct a systematic review of the literature and synthesise the evidence regarding effective, cost-effective and safe rehabilitation interventions for children with back pain to improve their functioning and other health outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Index to Chiropractic Literature, the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials and EconLit for primary studies published from inception in all languages. We will include quantitative studies (randomised controlled trials, cohort and case-control studies), qualitative studies, mixed-methods studies and full economic evaluations. To augment our search of the bibliographic electronic databases, we will search reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and consult with content experts. We will assess the risk of bias using appropriate critical appraisal tools. We will extract data about study and participant characteristics, intervention type and comparators, context and setting, outcomes, themes and methodological quality assessment. We will use a sequential approach at the review level to integrate data from the quantitative, qualitative and economic evidence syntheses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required. We will disseminate findings through activities, including (1) presentations in national and international conferences; (2) meetings with national and international decision makers; (3) publications in peer-reviewed journals and (4) posts on organisational websites and social media. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019135009.

5.
Pain ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910631

RESUMO

Low back pain (LBP) is a high-burden condition that lacks routine surveillance data. Health administrative data may be used for surveillance, but their validity for measuring LBP in the general population has not been established. We aimed to (1) determine the validity of health administrative data to measure LBP compared to self-reported LBP in a population-based sample of Ontario adults; and (2) describe the differences in characteristics of LBP cases based on data sources. Adult respondents (≥18 years) of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) from 2003 to 2012 were included (N = 150,695). Canadian Community Health Survey data were individually linked to health administrative data, including Ontario Health Insurance Plan and hospitalization data. The reference standard was defined as self-reported back problem diagnosed by a health professional in the CCHS. Measurement of LBP from billing records was defined as ≥1 physician billing or procedural code for LBP during the year preceding CCHS interview date. We measured concurrent validity by comparing prevalence, agreement (kappa), and accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values [PV]) of administrative data to measure LBP. Prevalence of LBP was higher using self-reported (21.2%) than administrative data (10.2%), and agreement was low (kappa = 0.21). Administrative data had sensitivity 23.9% (95% CI 23.1-24.6), specificity 93.4% (95% CI 93.2-93.7), positive PV 50.4% (95% CI 49.1-51.7), and negative PV 82.0% (95% CI 81.7-82.3). Characteristics of LBP cases based on data sources differed in sex, health/behaviour characteristics, and allied health care utilization. Using health administrative data significantly underestimates the prevalence of LBP. This can lead to misclassification bias that is likely nondifferential in epidemiological studies.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(4): 42, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343782

RESUMO

Purpose: To study cone structure and function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) owing to mutations in rhodopsin (RHO), expressed in rod outer segments, and mutations in the RP-GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene, expressed in the connecting cilium of rods and cones. Methods: Four eyes of 4 patients with RHO mutations, 5 eyes of 5 patients with RPGR mutations, and 4 eyes of 4 normal subjects were studied. Cone structure was studied with confocal and split-detector adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal function was measured using a 543-nm AOSLO-mediated adaptive optics microperimetry (AOMP) stimulus. The ratio of sensitivity to cone density was compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: AOMP sensitivity/cone density in patients with RPGR mutations was significantly lower than normal (P < 0.001) and lower than patients with RHO mutations (P < 0.015), whereas patients with RHO mutations were similar to normal (P > 0.9). Conclusions: Retinal sensitivity/cone density was lower in patients with RPGR mutations than normal and lower than patients with RHO mutations, perhaps because cones express RPGR and degenerate primarily, whereas cones in eyes with RHO mutations die secondary to rod degeneration. High-resolution microperimetry can reveal differences in cone degeneration in patients with different forms of RP.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Rodopsina/genética , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Medição de Risco , Polarimetria de Varredura a Laser/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(12): 127204, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334911

RESUMO

Substituted benzyloxy aryl compound 2 was identified as an RORγt agonist. Structure based drug design efforts resulted in a potent and selective tricyclic compound 19 which, when administered orally in an MC38 mouse tumor model, demonstrated a desired pharmacokinetic profile as well as a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, no perceptible efficacy was observed in this tumor model at the doses investigated.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e036817, 2020 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical rates for low back pain (LBP) have been increasing in Europe, North America and Asia. Many patients treated surgically will require postsurgical rehabilitation. Little is known about the effectiveness of postsurgical rehabilitation interventions on health outcomes or about patients' experiences with these interventions. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a mixed studies systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies regarding: (1) the effectiveness and safety of postsurgical rehabilitation interventions for adults with LBP treated surgically and (2) the experiences of patients, healthcare providers, caregivers or others involved with the rehabilitation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Index to Chiropractic Literature, the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials and the Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source for peer-reviewed empirical studies published from inception in any language. Studies using quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies will be included. We will also search reference lists of all eligible articles. Data extraction will include type of presurgical pathology, indication for surgery, surgical procedure, how the intervention was delivered and by whom, context and setting. We will conduct a quality assessment of each study and consider study quality in our evidence synthesis. We will use a sequential approach at the review level to synthesise and integrate data. First, we will synthesise the quantitative and qualitative studies independently, conducting a meta-analysis of the quantitative studies if appropriate and thematic synthesis of the qualitative studies. Then, we will integrate the quantitative and qualitative evidence by juxtaposing the findings in a matrix. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this knowledge synthesis. Findings will be disseminated through knowledge translation activities including: (1) presentations at national and international conferences and scientific meetings; (2) presentations to local and international stakeholders; (3) publications in peer-reviewed journals and (4) posts on organisational websites. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134607.

9.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 267, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of adults with low back pain (LBP) suffer from depressive symptoms or depression. Those with depressive symptoms or depression may be at risk of poorer LBP recovery and require more health care. Understanding the role of prognostic factors for LBP is critically important to guide management and health services delivery. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review to assess the association between depressive symptoms or depression and health outcomes in adults with LBP with or without radiculopathy. METHODS: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be searched from inception to April 2019 to identify relevant studies. Additional citations will be identified by searching reference lists of included studies and related systematic reviews. Cohort and case-control studies assessing the association between depressive symptoms/depression and health outcomes in adults aged 16 years and older with LBP with or without radiculopathy will be included. The following will be included: depressive symptoms as measured on standardized questionnaires (e.g., Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Beck Depression Index), and depression as standardized diagnoses (e.g., International Classification of Diseases codes) or self-reported depression diagnosis on standardized questionnaires. Outcomes of interest are standardized measures for pain, disability, overall health status, satisfaction with care, and health care utilization. These are informed by core outcome domains that international expert panels consider important for LBP research. Pairs of reviewers will screen articles retrieved from the search, extract data, and assess risk of bias using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Exposures (ROBINS-E) tool. Reviewers will use these criteria to inform their judgment on the internal validity of studies (e.g., low, moderate, or high risk of bias). If studies are deemed homogeneous, a random effects meta-analysis on the association between depressive symptoms and health outcomes will be performed. The results of the included studies will be descriptively outlined if studies are deemed heterogeneous. DISCUSSION: The impact of depressive symptoms and depression on health- and health care-related outcomes for LBP with or without radiculopathy will be assessed and quantified. Findings of this systematic review will advance our understanding of LBP prognosis, and guide decision-making and improve quality of care for adults with LBP. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019130047.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Radiculopatia/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/terapia , Radiculopatia/complicações , Radiculopatia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e031749, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562160

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability associated with high healthcare utilisation and costs. Mental health symptoms are negative prognostic factors for LBP recovery; however, no population-based studies have assessed the joint effects of LBP and mental health symptoms on healthcare utilisation. This proposed study will characterise the health system burden of LBP and help identify priority groups to inform resource allocation and public health strategies. Among community-dwelling adult respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) in Ontario, we aim to assess the effect of self-reported LBP on healthcare utilisation and costs and assess whether this effect differs between those with and without self-reported mental health symptoms. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed a dynamic population-based cohort study using linkages of survey and administrative data housed at ICES. The Ontario sample of CCHS (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007/2008, 2009/2010, 2011/2012; total of ~1 30 000 eligible respondents) will be used to define the cohort of adults with self-reported LBP with and without mental health symptoms. Healthcare utilisation and costs will be assessed by linking health administrative databases. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 15 years (until 31 March 2018). Sociodemographic (eg, age, sex, education) and health behaviour (eg, comorbidities, physical activity) factors will be considered as potential confounders. Poisson and linear (log-transformed) regression models will be used to assess the association between LBP and healthcare utilisation and costs. We will assess effect modification with mental health symptoms on the additive and multiplicative scales and conduct sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of misclassification and residual confounding. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board. We will disseminate findings using a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy, including scientific conference presentations, publications in peer-reviewed journals and workshops with key knowledge users.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/economia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Ontário
11.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 42(3): 203-209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of a 6-week multimodal program (manual therapy, exercises, and self-management strategies) in patients with neurogenic claudication due to degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. METHODS: This study evaluated 49 patients with neurogenic claudication who completed a 6-week multimodal program between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes included Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ), and Numeric Rating Scale. Mean differences, paired t tests, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to compare outcomes at baseline, 6 weeks, and long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients completed the follow-up questionnaire (47% response rate). Median follow-up was 3.6 years (interquartile range: 3.3-4.6). The mean age was 73.5 years (standard deviation: 8.5). Between baseline and long-term follow-up, there were statistically significant and clinically important improvements in disability (ODI: -23.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): -15.7 to -31.6]; ODI walking item: -1.96 [95% CI: -1.34 to -2.57]; ZCQ function scale: -0.42 [95% CI: -0.10 to -0.70]) and pain (leg pain: -3.53 [95% CI: -1.80 to -5.20]; ZCQ symptom scale: -0.71 [95% CI: -0.30 to -1.10]), but not low back pain (Numeric Rating Scale: -1.03 [95% CI: -1.00 to 3.10]). There was no statistically significant change in any outcomes between 6 weeks and long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: In a sample of patients with neurogenic claudication participating in a 6-week multimodal program, clinically important improvements in leg pain and disability, but not low back pain while walking, were maintained in the long term (median duration of 3.6 years) when compared to baseline.


Assuntos
Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Manipulação Quiroprática/métodos , Estenose Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Caminhada
12.
Eur J Pain ; 23(6): 1051-1070, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based guideline for the non-pharmacological management of persistent headaches associated with neck pain (i.e., tension-type or cervicogenic). METHODS: This guideline is based on systematic reviews of high-quality studies. A multidisciplinary expert panel considered the evidence of clinical benefits, cost-effectiveness, societal and ethical values, and patient experiences when formulating recommendations. Target audience includes clinicians; target population is adults with persistent headaches associated with neck pain. RESULTS: When managing patients with headaches associated with neck pain, clinicians should (a) rule out major structural or other pathologies, or migraine as the cause of headaches; (b) classify headaches associated with neck pain as tension-type headache or cervicogenic headache once other sources of headache pathology has been ruled out; (c) provide care in partnership with the patient and involve the patient in care planning and decision making; (d) provide care in addition to structured patient education; (e) consider low-load endurance craniocervical and cervicoscapular exercises for tension-type headaches (episodic or chronic) or cervicogenic headaches >3 months duration; (f) consider general exercise, multimodal care (spinal mobilization, craniocervical exercise and postural correction) or clinical massage for chronic tension-type headaches; (g) do not offer manipulation of the cervical spine as the sole form of treatment for episodic or chronic tension-type headaches; (h) consider manual therapy (manipulation with or without mobilization) to the cervical and thoracic spine for cervicogenic headaches >3 months duration. However, there is no added benefit in combining spinal manipulation, spinal mobilization and exercises; and (i) reassess the patient at every visit to assess outcomes and determine whether a referral is indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for the conservative management of persistent headaches associated with neck pain. The impact of the guideline in clinical practice requires validation. SIGNIFICANCE: Neck pain and headaches are very common comorbidities in the population. Tension-type and cervicogenic headaches can be treated effectively with specific exercises. Manual therapy can be considered as an adjunct therapy to exercise to treat patients with cervicogenic headaches. The management of tension-type and cervicogenic headaches should be patient-centred.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Cefaleia/terapia , Cervicalgia/terapia , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Cefaleia/complicações , Humanos , Massagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Ontário , Cefaleia Pós-Traumática/terapia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/terapia
13.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 46(2): 184-191, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in the incidence, prevalence, and post-diagnosis mortality of parkinsonism in Ontario, Canada over 18 years. We also explored the influence of a range of risk factors for brain health on the trend of incident parkinsonism. METHODS: We established an open cohort by linking population-based health administrative databases from 1996 to 2014 in Ontario. The study population comprised residents aged 20-100 years with an incident diagnosis of parkinsonism ascertained using a validated algorithm. We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence, prevalence, and mortality of parkinsonism, stratified by young onset (20-39 years) and mid/late onset (≥40 years). We assessed trends in incidence using Poisson regression, mortality using negative binomial regression, and prevalence of parkinsonism and pre-existing conditions (e.g., head injury) using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. To better understand trends in the incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism, we adjusted for various pre-existing conditions in the Poisson regression model. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2014, we identified 73,129 incident cases of parkinsonism (source population of ∼10.5 million), of whom 56% were male, mean age at diagnosis was 72.6 years, and 99% had mid/late-onset parkinsonism. Over 18 years, the age- and sex-standardized incidence decreased by 13.0% for mid/late-onset parkinsonism but remained unchanged for young-onset parkinsonism. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence increased by 22.8%, while post-diagnosis mortality decreased by 5.5%. Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appreciably explain the declining incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism. CONCLUSION: Young-onset and mid/late-onset parkinsonism exhibited differing trends in incidence over 18 years in Ontario. Further research to identify other factors that may appreciably explain trends in incident parkinsonism is warranted.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Ontário/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e021283, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a government-regulated rehabilitation guideline compared with education and activation by general practitioners, and to a preferred-provider insurance-based rehabilitation programme on self-reported global recovery from acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grade I-II. DESIGN: Pragmatic randomised clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation clinics and general practitioners in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 340 participants with acute WAD grade I and II. Potential participants were sampled from a large automobile insurer when reporting a traffic injury. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised to receive one of three protocols: government-regulated rehabilitation guideline, education and activation by general practitioners or a preferred-provider insurance-based rehabilitation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcome was time to self-reported global recovery. Secondary outcomes included time on insurance benefits, neck pain intensity, whiplash-related disability, health-related quality of life and depressive symptomatology at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postinjury. RESULTS: The median time to self-reported global recovery was 59 days (95% CI 55 to 68) for the government-regulated guideline group, 105 days (95% CI 61 to 126) for the preferred-provider group and 108 days (95% CI 93 to 206) for the general practitioner group; the difference was not statistically significant (Χ2=3.96; 2 df: p=0.138). We found no clinically important differences between groups in secondary outcomes. Post hoc analysis suggests that the general practitioner (hazard rate ratio (HRR)=0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.77) and preferred-provider groups (HRR=0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.96) had slower recovery than the government-regulated guideline group during the first 80 days postinjury. No major adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Time-to-recovery did not significantly differ across intervention groups. We found no differences between groups with regard to neck-specific outcomes, depression and health-related quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00546806.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Regulamentação Governamental , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Traumatismos em Chicotada/reabilitação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Chiropr Med ; 17(3): 190-197, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228810

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this case study was to report the effects of multimodal therapy as an adjunct to oral contraceptives on pain and menstrual symptoms in a patient with primary dysmenorrhea. Clinical Features: A 27-year old nulligravid and nulliparous woman presented with low back pain, thigh pain, and menstrual symptoms associated with primary dysmenorrhea. Multimodal therapies (spinal manipulation, clinic-based transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and heat applied at home) were delivered over 3 menstrual cycles. Outcome measures included pain (visual analogue scale) and menstrual symptoms (Menstrual Distress Questionnaire) from baseline to follow-up. She continued to take her oral contraceptives throughout the study period. Intervention and Outcome: For both low back and thigh pain, the patient reported clinically important differences in average pain and worst pain after 2 and 3 months from baseline. There were no clinically important differences in current pain, best pain, or menstrual symptoms at follow-up. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Some of this patient's dysmenorrhea symptoms responded favorably to multimodal therapy over 5 months. The authors observed important short-term reductions in low back and thigh pain (average and worst pain intensity) during care.

16.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 26: 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026909

RESUMO

The World Federation of Chiropractic supports the involvement of chiropractors in public health initiatives, particularly as it relates to musculoskeletal health. Three topics within public health have been identified that call for a renewed professional focus. These include healthy ageing; opioid misuse; and women's, children's, and adolescents' health. The World Federation of Chiropractic aims to enable chiropractors to proactively participate in health promotion and prevention activities in these areas, through information dissemination and coordinated partnerships. Importantly, this work will align the chiropractic profession with the priorities of the World Health Organization. Successful engagement will support the role of chiropractors as valued partners within the broader healthcare system and contribute to the health and wellbeing of the communities they serve.


Assuntos
Quiroprática/organização & administração , Saúde Global/normas , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/normas , Quiroprática/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Eur Spine J ; 27(Suppl 6): 861-869, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to develop recommendations for non-invasive management of pain due to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) that could be applied in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on the non-invasive management of OVCF. Eligible reviews were critically appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Low risk of bias systematic reviews and high-quality primary studies that were identified in the reviews were used to develop recommendations. RESULTS: From 6 low risk of bias systematic reviews and 14 high-quality primary studies we established that for acute pain management, in addition to rest and analgesic medication, orthoses may provide temporary pain relief, in addition to early mobilization. Calcitonin can be considered as a supplement to analgesics; however, cost is of concern. Once acute pain control is achieved, exercise can be effective for improving function and quality of life. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study will help to inform the GSCI care pathway and model of care for use in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries. Conservative management of acute pain and recovery of function in adults with OVCF should include early mobilization, exercise, spinal orthosis for pain relief, and calcitonin for analgesic-refractory acute pain. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Manejo da Dor/métodos
18.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 25: 35, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201346

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has investigated utilization rates, who sees chiropractors, for what reasons, and the type of care that chiropractors provide. However, these studies have not been comprehensively synthesized. We aimed to give a global overview by summarizing the current literature on the utilization of chiropractic services, reasons for seeking care, patient profiles, and assessment and treatment provided. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature using keywords and subject headings (MeSH or ChiroSH terms) from database inception to January 2016. Eligible studies: 1) were published in English or French; 2) were case series, descriptive, cross-sectional, or cohort studies; 3) described patients receiving chiropractic services; and 4) reported on the following theme(s): utilization rates of chiropractic services; reasons for attending chiropractic care; profiles of chiropractic patients; or, types of chiropractic services provided. Paired reviewers independently screened all citations and data were extracted from eligible studies. We provided descriptive numerical analysis, e.g. identifying the median rate and interquartile range (e.g., chiropractic utilization rate) stratified by study population or condition. Results: The literature search retrieved 14,149 articles; 328 studies (reported in 337 articles) were relevant and reported on chiropractic utilization (245 studies), reason for attending chiropractic care (85 studies), patient demographics (130 studies), and assessment and treatment provided (34 studies). Globally, the median 12-month utilization of chiropractic services was 9.1% (interquartile range (IQR): 6.7%-13.1%) and remained stable between 1980 and 2015. Most patients consulting chiropractors were female (57.0%, IQR: 53.2%-60.0%) with a median age of 43.4 years (IQR: 39.6-48.0), and were employed (median: 77.3%, IQR: 70.3%-85.0%). The most common reported reasons for people attending chiropractic care were (median) low back pain (49.7%, IQR: 43.0%-60.2%), neck pain (22.5%, IQR: 16.3%-24.5%), and extremity problems (10.0%, IQR: 4.3%-22.0%). The most common treatment provided by chiropractors included (median) spinal manipulation (79.3%, IQR: 55.4%-91.3%), soft-tissue therapy (35.1%, IQR: 16.5%-52.0%), and formal patient education (31.3%, IQR: 22.6%-65.0%). Conclusions: This comprehensive overview on the world-wide state of the chiropractic profession documented trends in the literature over the last four decades. The findings support the diverse nature of chiropractic practice, although common trends emerged.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Dor Lombar/terapia , Manipulação Quiroprática , Cervicalgia/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manipulação da Coluna , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Terapia de Tecidos Moles
19.
Clin J Pain ; 33(1): 71-86, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27022675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of passive physical modalities for the management of soft tissue injuries of the elbow. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to 2015. Studies meeting our selection criteria were eligible for critical appraisal. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. We included studies with a low risk of bias in our best evidence synthesis. RESULTS: We screened 6618 articles; 21 were eligible for critical appraisal and 9 (reporting on 8 randomized controlled trials) had a low risk of bias. All randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias focused on lateral epicondylitis. We found that adding transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to primary care does not improve the outcome of patients with lateral epicondylitis. We found inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of: (1) an elbow brace for managing lateral epicondylitis of variable duration; and (2) shockwave therapy or low-level laser therapy for persistent lateral epicondylitis. DISCUSSION: Our review suggests that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation provides no added benefit to patients with lateral epicondylitis. The effectiveness of an elbow brace, shockwave therapy, or low-level laser therapy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis is inconclusive. We found little evidence to inform the use of passive physical modalities for the management of elbow soft tissue injuries.


Assuntos
Cotovelo/lesões , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/reabilitação , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Cotovelo de Tenista/reabilitação
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