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1.
JAMA ; 325(16): 1650-1656, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904861

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertension is a prevalent condition that affects approximately 45% of the adult US population and is the most commonly diagnosed condition at outpatient office visits. Hypertension is a major contributing risk factor for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Objective: To reaffirm its 2015 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for hypertension in adults, the accuracy of office blood pressure measurement for initial screening, and the accuracy of various confirmatory blood pressure measurement methods. Population: Adults 18 years or older without known hypertension. Evidence Assessment: Using a reaffirmation deliberation process, the USPSTF concludes with high certainty that screening for hypertension in adults has substantial net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for hypertension in adults 18 years or older with office blood pressure measurement. The USPSTF recommends obtaining blood pressure measurements outside of the clinical setting for diagnostic confirmation before starting treatment. (A recommendation).

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217501, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904914

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity-associated cancer burdens are increasing in the US. Nutrition policies, such as the Nutrition Facts added-sugar labeling, may reduce obesity-associated cancer rates. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Nutrition Facts added-sugar labeling and obesity-associated cancer rates in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: A probabilistic cohort state-transition model was used to conduct an economic evaluation of added-sugar labeling and 13 obesity-associated cancers among 235 million adults aged 20 years or older by age, sex, and race/ethnicity over a median follow-up of 34.4 years. Policy associations were considered in 2 scenarios: with consumer behaviors and with additional industry reformulation. The model integrated nationally representative population demographics, diet, and cancer statistics; associations of policy intervention with diet, diet change and body mass index, and body mass index with cancer risk; and policy and health-related costs from established sources. Data were analyzed from January 8, 2019, to May 6, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Net costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were estimated from societal and health care perspectives. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses incorporated uncertainty in input parameters and generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Results: Based on consumer behaviors, the policy was associated with a reduction of 30 000 (95% UI, 21 600-39 300) new cancer cases and 17 100 (95% UI, 12 400-22 700) cancer deaths, a gain of 116 000 (95% UI, 83 800-153 000) quality-adjusted life-years, and a saving of $1600 million (95% UI, $1190 million-$2030 million) in medical costs associated with cancer care among US adults over a lifetime. The policy was associated with a savings of $704 million (95% UI, $44.5 million-$1450 million) from the societal perspective and $1590 million (95% UI, $1180 million-$2020 million) from the health care perspective. Additional industry reformulation to reduce added-sugar amounts in packaged foods and beverages would double the impact. Greater health gains and cost savings were expected among young adults, women, and non-Hispanic Black individuals than other population subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the added-sugar labeling is associated with reduced costs and lower rates of obesity-associated cancers. Policymakers may consider and prioritize nutrition policies for cancer prevention in the US.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients with advanced CKD are at high risk for serious complications and death, yet few discuss advance care planning (ACP) with their kidney clinicians. Examining barriers and facilitators to ACP among such patients might help identify patient-centered opportunities for improvement. METHODS: In semistructured interviews in March through August 2019 with purposively sampled patients (aged ≥70 years, CKD stages 4-5, nondialysis), care partners, and clinicians at clinics in across the United States, participants described discussions, factors contributing to ACP completion or avoidance, and perceived value of ACP. We used thematic analysis to analyze data. RESULTS: We conducted 68 semistructured interviews with 23 patients, 29 care partners, and 26 clinicians. Only seven of 26 (27%) clinicians routinely discussed ACP. About half of the patients had documented ACP, mostly outside the health care system. We found divergent ACP definitions and perspectives; kidney clinicians largely defined ACP as completion of formal documentation, whereas patients viewed it more holistically, wanting discussions about goals, prognosis, and disease trajectory. Clinicians avoided ACP with patients from minority groups, perceiving cultural or religious barriers. Four themes and subthemes informing variation in decisions to discuss ACP and approaches emerged: (1) role ambiguity and responsibility for ACP, (2) questioning the value of ACP, (3) confronting institutional barriers (time, training, reimbursement, and the electronic medical record, EMR), and (4) consequences of avoiding ACP (disparities in ACP access and overconfidence that patients' wishes are known). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, care partners, and clinicians hold discordant views about the responsibility for discussing ACP and the scope for it. This presents critical barriers to the process, leaving ACP insufficiently discussed with older adults with advanced CKD.

4.
JAMA ; 325(14): 1436-1442, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847711

RESUMO

Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: Community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults who have no signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the overall evidence on the benefits of screening for vitamin D deficiency is lacking. Therefore, the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
5.
Muscle Nerve ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Dysphagia worsens mortality and quality of life for persons diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet our understanding of its incidence and timing remains limited. In this study we sought to estimate dysphagia incidence and dysphagia-free survival over time. METHODS: Using data from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database, we compared characteristics of persons with and without dysphagia upon study entry. To account for competing mortality risk, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate the cumulative incidence of dysphagia and the median number of days until the development of dysphagia or death in those without dysphagia at study entry. RESULTS: Patients with dysphagia upon study entry were more likely to have bulbar onset and had faster rates of functional decline and shorter diagnostic delays. The cumulative incidence of new-onset dysphagia was 44% at 1 year and 64% at 2 years after trial enrollment for those with spinal onset, and 85% and 92% for those with bulbar onset. The median duration of dysphagia-free survival after trial enrollment was 11.5 months for those with spinal onset and 3.2 months for those with bulbar onset. DISCUSSION: Our findings underscore the high risk for dysphagia development and support the need for early dysphagia referral and evaluation to minimize the risk of serious dysphagia-related complications.

6.
JAMA ; 325(12): 1196-1201, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755083

RESUMO

Importance: Age-related sensorineural hearing loss is a common health problem among adults. Nearly 16% of US adults 18 years or older report difficulty hearing. The prevalence of perceived hearing loss increases with age. Hearing loss can adversely affect an individual's quality of life and ability to function independently and has been associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, social isolation, and cognitive decline. Objective: To update its 2012 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for hearing loss in adults 50 years or older. Population: Asymptomatic adults 50 years or older with age-related hearing loss. Evidence Assessment: Because of a lack of evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in asymptomatic older adults are uncertain and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in older adults. (I statement).


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Idoso , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Testes Auditivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
JAMA ; 325(10): 962-970, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687470

RESUMO

Importance: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in the US. In 2020, an estimated 228 820 persons were diagnosed with lung cancer, and 135 720 persons died of the disease. The most important risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. Increasing age is also a risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer has a generally poor prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of 20.5%. However, early-stage lung cancer has a better prognosis and is more amenable to treatment. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the accuracy of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and on the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer and commissioned a collaborative modeling study to provide information about the optimum age at which to begin and end screening, the optimal screening interval, and the relative benefits and harms of different screening strategies compared with modified versions of multivariate risk prediction models. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT has a moderate net benefit in persons at high risk of lung cancer based on age, total cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, and years since quitting smoking. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. (B recommendation) This recommendation replaces the 2013 USPSTF statement that recommended annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/efeitos adversos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
8.
JAMA ; 325(5): 476-481, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528542

RESUMO

Importance: Carotid artery stenosis is atherosclerotic disease that affects extracranial carotid arteries. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis refers to stenosis in persons without a history of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or other neurologic symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. The prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is low in the general population but increases with age. Objective: To determine if its 2014 recommendation should be reaffirmed, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence review. The reaffirmation update focused on the targeted key questions on the potential benefits and harms of screening and interventions, including revascularization procedures designed to improve carotid artery blood flow, in persons with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults without a history of transient ischemic attack, stroke, or other neurologic signs or symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF found no new substantial evidence that could change its recommendation and therefore concludes with moderate certainty that the harms of screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis outweigh the benefits. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general adult population. (D recommendation).


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estenose das Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Ultrassonografia
9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-value care, typically defined as health services that provide little or no benefit, has potential to cause harm, incur unnecessary costs, and waste limited resources. Although evidence-based guidelines identifying low-value care have increased, the guidelines differ in the type of evidence they cite to support recommendations against its routine use. OBJECTIVE: We examined the evidentiary rationale underlying recommendations against low-value interventions. DESIGN: We identified 1167 "low-value care" recommendations across five US organizations: the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), the "Choosing Wisely" Initiative, American College of Physicians (ACP), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). For each recommendation, we classified the reported evidentiary rationale into five groups: (1) low economic value; (2) no net clinical benefit; (3) little or no absolute clinical benefit; (4) insufficient evidence; (5) no reason mentioned. We further investigated whether any cited or otherwise available cost-effectiveness evidence was consistent with conventional low economic value benchmarks (e.g., exceeding $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year). RESULTS: Of the identified low-value care recommendations, Choosing Wisely contributed the most (N=582, 50%), followed by ACC/AHA (N=250, 21%). The services deemed "low value" differed substantially across organizations. "No net clinical benefit" (N=428, 37%) and "little or no clinical benefit" (N=296, 25%) were the most commonly reported reasons for classifying an intervention as low value. Consideration of economic value was less frequently reported (N=171, 15%). When relevant cost-effectiveness studies were available, their results were mostly consistent with low-value care recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that evidentiary rationales for low-value care vary substantially, with most recommendations relying on clinical evidence. Broadening the evidence base to incorporate cost-effectiveness evidence can help refine the definition of "low-value" care to reflect whether an intervention's costs are worth the benefits. Developing a consensus grading structure on the strength and evidentiary rationale may help improve de-implementation efforts for low-value care.

10.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although shared decision-making (SDM) can improve patient engagement, adherence, and outcomes, evidence on the use of SDM within the context of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) initial diagnosis and treatment planning remains limited. The goal of this study was to objectively assess the occurrence of SDM in these visits and to compare this assessment with parent and provider perceptions of SDM in the same encounter. METHODS: After audio-recording and transcribing initial clinical visits between parents (n = 22) and developmental behavioral pediatricians (n = 6) discussing the diagnosis of ASD and treatment options, we used the OPTION5 Item scale to assess the occurrence of SDM. Afterward, parents and providers completed the OPTION5 Item, and parents also participated in a semistructured qualitative interview. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics for OPTION5 Item scores and a modified grounded theory framework for interviews. RESULTS: Low levels of SDM were observed, with 41% of visits having no elements of SDM. On average, visits scored 1.1 of a possible 20 points on the OPTION5 Item scale for SDM. By contrast, parents and providers indicated on the OPTION5 Item scale that providers made a "moderate" to "skilled" effort to engage parents in SDM. Qualitative interviews with parents were consistent with their OPTION5 Item ratings. CONCLUSION: The level of SDM determined by parent and provider reports was higher than the level of SDM determined by objective observation using a standard validated rating method. The findings reinforce the need for further research into barriers and facilitators of SDM methods and outcomes within ASD.

11.
JAMA ; 325(3): 265-279, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464343

RESUMO

Importance: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the US. In 2014, it was estimated that 480 000 deaths annually are attributed to cigarette smoking, including second hand smoke exposure. Smoking during pregnancy can increase the risk of numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, miscarriage and congenital anomalies) and complications in the offspring (including sudden infant death syndrome and impaired lung function in childhood). In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million US adults (20.8% of the adult population) used tobacco; 14.0% of the US adult population currently smoked cigarettes and 4.5% of the adult population used electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Among pregnant US women who gave birth in 2016, 7.2% reported smoking cigarettes while pregnant. Objective: To update its 2015 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review to evaluate the benefits and harms of primary care interventions on tobacco use cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older, including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions and US Food and Drug Associated (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapy for tobacco smoking cessation, alone or combined, in nonpregnant adults who smoke is substantial. The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions for tobacco smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes and smoking cessation in pregnant persons is substantial. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in pregnant persons is insufficient because few studies are available, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons, is insufficient, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF has identified the lack of well-designed, randomized clinical trials on e-cigarettes that report smoking abstinence or adverse events as a critical gap in the evidence. Recommendations: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to nonpregnant adults who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all pregnant persons about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions for cessation to pregnant persons who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in pregnant persons. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of e-cigarettes for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians direct patients who use tobacco to other tobacco cessation interventions with proven effectiveness and established safety. (I statement).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 84 million people in the USA have pre-diabetes, but only a fraction of them receive proven effective therapies to prevent type 2 diabetes. We estimated the value of prioritizing individuals at highest risk of progression to diabetes for treatment, compared to non-targeted treatment of individuals meeting inclusion criteria for the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). METHODS: Using microsimulation to project outcomes in the DPP trial population, we compared two interventions to usual care: (1) lifestyle modification and (2) metformin administration. For each intervention, we compared targeted and non-targeted strategies, assuming either limited or unlimited program capacity. We modeled the individualized risk of developing diabetes and projected diabetic outcomes to yield lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy, from which we estimated net monetary benefits (NMB) for both lifestyle and metformin versus usual care. RESULTS: Compared to usual care, lifestyle modification conferred positive benefits and reduced lifetime costs for all eligible individuals. Metformin's NMB was negative for the lowest population risk quintile. By avoiding use when costs outweighed benefits, targeted administration of metformin conferred a benefit of $500 per person. If only 20% of the population could receive treatment, when prioritizing individuals based on diabetes risk, rather than treating a 20% random sample, the difference in NMB ranged from $14,000 to $20,000 per person. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting active diabetes prevention to patients at highest risk could improve health outcomes and reduce costs compared to providing the same intervention to a similar number of patients with pre-diabetes without targeted selection.

13.
JAMA ; 324(23): 2415-2422, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320230

RESUMO

Importance: An estimated 862 000 persons in the US are living with chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Persons born in regions with a prevalence of HBV infection of 2% or greater, such as countries in Africa and Asia, the Pacific Islands, and parts of South America, often become infected at birth and account for up to 95% of newly reported chronic infections in the US. Other high-prevalence populations include persons who inject drugs; men who have sex with men; persons with HIV infection; and sex partners, needle-sharing contacts, and household contacts of persons with chronic HBV infection. Up to 60% of HBV-infected persons are unaware of their infection, and many remain asymptomatic until onset of cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of new randomized clinical trials and cohort studies published from 2014 to August 2019 that evaluated the benefits and harms of screening and antiviral therapy for preventing intermediate outcomes or health outcomes and the association between improvements in intermediate outcomes and health outcomes. New key questions focused on the yield of alternative HBV screening strategies and the accuracy of tools to identify persons at increased risk. Population: This recommendation statement applies to asymptomatic, nonpregnant adolescents and adults at increased risk for HBV infection, including those who were vaccinated before being screened for HBV infection. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for HBV infection in adolescents and adults at increased risk for infection has moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for HBV infection in adolescents and adults at increased risk for infection. (B recommendation).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
14.
JAMA ; 324(20): 2069-2075, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231670

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in the US. Known modifiable risk factors for CVD include smoking, overweight and obesity, diabetes, elevated blood pressure or hypertension, dyslipidemia, lack of physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthy diet and physical activity have lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not. All persons, regardless of their CVD risk status, benefit from healthy eating behaviors and appropriate physical activity. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for CVD prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older with known hypertension or elevated blood pressure, those with dyslipidemia, or those who have mixed or multiple risk factors such as metabolic syndrome or an estimated 10-year CVD risk of 7.5% or greater. Adults with other known modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as abnormal blood glucose levels, obesity, and smoking are not included in this recommendation. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions have a moderate net benefit on CVD risk in adults at increased risk for CVD. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends offering or referring adults with CVD risk factors to behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity. (B recommendation).

15.
JAMA ; 324(18): 1878-1883, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170248

RESUMO

Importance: Prevalence of hypertension (both primary and secondary) in children and adolescents in the US ranges from 3% to 4%. Primary hypertension in children and adolescents occurs primarily in children older than 13 years and has no known cause but is associated with several risk factors, including family history and higher body mass index. Secondary hypertension occurs primarily in younger children and is most commonly caused by genetic disorders, renal disease, endocrine disorders, or cardiovascular abnormalities. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening, test accuracy, the effectiveness and harms of treatment, and the association between hypertension and markers of cardiovascular disease in childhood and adulthood. Population: This recommendation statement applies to children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years not known to have hypertension or who are asymptomatic. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence to support screening for high blood pressure in children and adolescents is insufficient and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for high blood pressure in children and adolescents. (I statement).


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Valores de Referência
16.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 264, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is often substantial variation in the benefits and harms across a trial population. We aimed to identify regression modeling approaches that assess heterogeneity of treatment effect within a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: We performed a literature review using a broad search strategy, complemented by suggestions of a technical expert panel. RESULTS: The approaches are classified into 3 categories: 1) Risk-based methods (11 papers) use only prognostic factors to define patient subgroups, relying on the mathematical dependency of the absolute risk difference on baseline risk; 2) Treatment effect modeling methods (9 papers) use both prognostic factors and treatment effect modifiers to explore characteristics that interact with the effects of therapy on a relative scale. These methods couple data-driven subgroup identification with approaches to prevent overfitting, such as penalization or use of separate data sets for subgroup identification and effect estimation. 3) Optimal treatment regime methods (12 papers) focus primarily on treatment effect modifiers to classify the trial population into those who benefit from treatment and those who do not. Finally, we also identified papers which describe model evaluation methods (4 papers). CONCLUSIONS: Three classes of approaches were identified to assess heterogeneity of treatment effect. Methodological research, including both simulations and empirical evaluations, is required to compare the available methods in different settings and to derive well-informed guidance for their application in RCT analysis.

17.
Stat Med ; 39(25): 3521-3548, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779814

RESUMO

An emulator is a fast-to-evaluate statistical approximation of a detailed mathematical model (simulator). When used in lieu of simulators, emulators can expedite tasks that require many repeated evaluations, such as sensitivity analyses, policy optimization, model calibration, and value-of-information analyses. Emulators are developed using the output of simulators at specific input values (design points). Developing an emulator that closely approximates the simulator can require many design points, which becomes computationally expensive. We describe a self-terminating active learning algorithm to efficiently develop emulators tailored to a specific emulation task, and compare it with algorithms that optimize geometric criteria (random latin hypercube sampling and maximum projection designs) and other active learning algorithms (treed Gaussian Processes that optimize typical active learning criteria). We compared the algorithms' root mean square error (RMSE) and maximum absolute deviation from the simulator (MAX) for seven benchmark functions and in a prostate cancer screening model. In the empirical analyses, in simulators with greatly varying smoothness over the input domain, active learning algorithms resulted in emulators with smaller RMSE and MAX for the same number of design points. In all other cases, all algorithms performed comparably. The proposed algorithm attained satisfactory performance in all analyses, had smaller variability than the treed Gaussian Processes, and, on average, had similar or better performance as the treed Gaussian Processes in six out of seven benchmark functions and in the prostate cancer model.

18.
JAMA ; 324(7): 674-681, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809008

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(8): e006406, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coarctation of the aorta have a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IA) and suffer subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at younger ages than the general population. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend IA screening, but appropriate age and interval of screening and its effectiveness remain a critical knowledge gap. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance angiography screening for IA in patients with coarctation of the aorta, we developed and calibrated a Markov model to match published IA prevalence estimates. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Secondary outcomes included lifetime cumulative incidence of prophylactic IA treatment and mortality and SAH deaths prevented. Using a payer perspective, a lifetime horizon, and a willingness-to-pay of $150 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, we applied a 3% annual discounting rate to costs and effects and performed 1-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In a simulated cohort of 10 000 patients, no screening resulted in a 10.1% lifetime incidence of SAH and 183 SAH-related deaths. Screening at ages 10, 20, and 30 years led to 978 prophylactic treatments for unruptured aneurysms, 19 procedure-related deaths, and 65 SAH-related deaths. Screening at ages 10, 20, and 30 years was cost-effective compared with screening at ages 10 and 20 years (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $106 841/quality-adjusted life-year). Uncertainty in the outcome after aneurysm treatment and quality of life after SAH influenced the preferred screening strategy. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, screening at ages 10, 20, and 30 years was cost-effective in 41% of simulations and at ages 10 and 20 in 59% of simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Our model supports the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology recommendation to screen patients with coarctation of the aorta for IA and suggests screening at ages 10 and 20 or at 10, 20, and 30 years would extend life and be cost-effective.

20.
Kidney Med ; 2(2): 116-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734232

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) use intensive care at the end of life and die in a hospital more frequently than patients with cancer or heart disease. Advance care planning (ACP) can help align treatment with patient preferences and improve patient-centered care, yet ACP quality and experiences among older patients with CKD and their care partners remain incompletely understood, particularly among the non-dialysis-dependent population. Study Design: In-person interviewer-administered surveys of patients 70 years and older with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stage 4 or 5 and their self-identified care partners. Setting & Participants: 42 participants (31 patients, 11 care partners) at 2 clinical sites in greater Boston. Outcomes: Completion of advance directives and self-reported perceptions, preferences, and experiences of ACP. Analytical Approach: Descriptive analysis of patient and care partner surveys. McNemar test analysis to compare patient and care partner responses. Results: Most patients had written advance directives (64%) and surrogate decision makers (81%). Although patients reported positive perceptions and high trust in their clinicians' judgment, few (16%) had actually discussed preferences for life-sustaining treatment with their nephrologists. Few ACP discussions included components reflective of high-quality ACP: 16% of patients had been asked about their values concerning end-of-life care and 7% had discussed issues of decision-making capacity and consent to care should their health decline. When presented with 2 hypothetical scenarios (stroke/heart attack or dementia), nearly all patients and care partners reported a preference for comfort care over delaying death. Care partners were more likely than patients to report that they had experienced discussion components reflective of high-quality ACP with the clinical team. Limitations: Single metropolitan area; most patients did not identify a care partner; nonresponse bias and small sample size. Conclusions: Patients often believed that their clinicians understood their end-of-life wishes despite not having engaged in ACP conversations that would make those wishes known. Improving clinical ACP communication may result in end-of-life treatment that better aligns with patient goals.

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