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1.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(10): nwab014, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858604

RESUMO

Somatic mutations of the chromatin remodeling gene ARID2 are observed in ∼7% of human lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs). However, the role of ARID2 in the pathogenesis of LUADs remains largely unknown. Here we find that ARID2 expression is decreased during the malignant progression of both human and mice LUADs. Using two KrasG12D -based genetically engineered murine models, we demonstrate that ARID2 knockout significantly promotes lung cancer malignant progression and shortens overall survival. Consistently, ARID2 knockdown significantly promotes cell proliferation in human and mice lung cancer cells. Through integrative analyses of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data, we find that Hspa1a is up-regulated by Arid2 loss. Knockdown of Hspa1a specifically inhibits malignant progression of Arid2-deficient but not Arid2-wt lung cancers in both cell lines as well as animal models. Treatment with an HSPA1A inhibitor could significantly inhibit the malignant progression of lung cancer with ARID2 deficiency. Together, our findings establish ARID2 as an important tumor suppressor in LUADs with novel mechanistic insights, and further identify HSPA1A as a potential therapeutic target in ARID2-deficient LUADs.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(22): e2101999, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622577

RESUMO

Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is one of the major precision medicine treatment options for lung adenocarcinoma. Due to common development of drug resistance to first- and second-generation TKIs, third-generation inhibitors, including osimertinib and rociletinib, have been developed. A model of EGFR-driven lung cancer and a method to develop tumors of distinct epigenetic states through 3D organotypic cultures are described here. It is discovered that activation of the EGFR T790M/L858R mutation in lung epithelial cells can drive lung cancers with alveolar or bronchiolar features, which can originate from alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells or bronchioalveolar stem cells, but not basal cells or club cells of the trachea. It is also demonstrated that these clones are able to retain their epigenetic differences through passaging orthotopically in mice and crucially that they have distinct drug vulnerabilities. This work serves as a blueprint for exploring how epigenetics can be used to stratify patients for precision medicine decisions.

3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 193: 114792, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597670

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKIs) are currently used therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, drug resistance during cancer treatment is a critical problem. Survivin is an anti-apoptosis protein, which promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth that highly expressed in various human cancers. Here, we show a novel synthetic compound derived from gefitinib, do-decyl-4-(4-(3-(4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenylamino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yloxy)propyl) piper-azin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoate, which is named as SP101 that inhibits survivin expression and tumor growth in both the EGFR-wild type and -T790M of NSCLC. SP101 blocked EGFR kinase activity and induced apoptosis in the A549 (EGFR-wild type) and H1975 (EGFR-T790M) lung cancer cells. SP101 reduced survivin proteins and increased active caspase 3 for inducing apoptosis. Ectopic expression of survivin by a survivin-expressed vector attenuated the SP101-induced cell death in lung cancer cells. Moreover, SP101 inhibited the gefitinib-resistant tumor growth in the xenograft human H1975 lung tumors of nude mice. SP101 substantially reduced survivin proteins but conversely elicited active caspase 3 proteins in tumor tissues. Besides, SP101 exerted anticancer abilities in the gefitinib resistant cancer cells separated from pleural effusion of a clinical lung cancer patient. Consistently, SP101 decreased the survivin proteins and the patient-derived xenografted lung tumor growth in nude mice. Anti-tumor ability of SP101 was also confirmed in the murine lung cancer model harboring EGFR T790M-L858R. Together, SP101 is a new EGFR inhibitor with inhibiting survivin that can be developed for treating EGFR wild-type and EGFR-mutational gefitinib-resistance in human lung cancers.

4.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353854

RESUMO

SHP2 inhibitors (SHP2i) alone and in various combinations are being tested in multiple tumors with over-activation of the RAS/ERK pathway. SHP2 plays critical roles in normal cell signaling; hence, SHP2is could influence the tumor microenvironment. We found that SHP2i treatment depleted alveolar and M2-like macrophages, induced tumor-intrinsic CCL5/CXCL10 secretion and promoted B and T lymphocyte infiltration in Kras- and Egfr-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, treatment also increased intratumor gMDSCs via tumor-intrinsic, NF-kB-dependent production of CXCR2 ligands. Other RAS/ERK pathway inhibitors also induced CXCR2 ligands and gMDSC influx in mice, and CXCR2 ligands were induced in tumors from patients on KRASG12C-inhibitor trials. Combined SHP2(SHP099)/CXCR1/2(SX682) inhibition depleted a specific cluster of S100a8/9high gMDSCs, generated Klrg1+ CD8+ effector T cells with a strong cytotoxic phenotype but expressing the checkpoint receptor NKG2A, and enhanced survival in Kras- and Egfr-mutant models. Our results argue for testing RAS/ERK pathway/CXCR1/2/NKG2A inhibitor combinations in NSCLC patients.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4853, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381046

RESUMO

SMAD4 is mutated in human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanism by which Smad4 loss-of-function (LOF) accelerates lung cancer metastasis is yet to be elucidated. Here, we generate a highly aggressive lung cancer mouse model bearing conditional KrasG12D, p53fl/fl LOF and Smad4fl/fl LOF mutations (SPK), showing a much higher incidence of tumor metastases than the KrasG12D, p53fl/fl (PK) mice. Molecularly, PAK3 is identified as a downstream effector of Smad4, mediating metastatic signal transduction via the PAK3-JNK-Jun pathway. Upregulation of PAK3 by Smad4 LOF in SPK mice is achieved by attenuating Smad4-dependent transcription of miR-495 and miR-543. These microRNAs (miRNAs) directly bind to the PAK3 3'UTR for blockade of PAK3 production, ultimately regulating lung cancer metastasis. An inverse correlation between Smad4 and PAK3 pathway components is observed in human lung cancer. Our study highlights the Smad4-PAK3 regulation as a point of potential therapy in metastatic lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Movimento Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad4/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Quinases Ativadas por p21/genética
6.
Cancer Res ; 81(20): 5311-5324, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380634

RESUMO

No targeted treatments are currently approved for HER2 exon 20 insertion-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients. Mobocertinib (TAK-788) is a potent irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) designed to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ERBB2) exon 20 insertion mutations. However, the function of mobocertinib on HER2 exon 20 insertion-mutant lung cancer is still unclear. Here we conducted systematic characterization of preclinical models to understand the activity profile of mobocertinib against HER2 exon 20 insertions. In HER2 exon 20 insertion-mutant cell lines, the IC50 of mobocertinib was higher than poziotinib and comparable with or slightly lower than afatinib, neratinib, and pyrotinib. Mobocertinib had the lowest HER2 exon 20 insertion IC50/wild-type (WT) EGFR IC50 ratio, indicating that mobocertinib displayed the best selectivity profile in these models. Also, mobocertinib showed strong inhibitory activity in HER2 exon 20YVMA allograft and patient-derived xenograft models. In genetically engineered mouse models, HER2 exon 20G776>VC lung tumors exhibited a sustained complete response to mobocertinib, whereas HER2 exon 20YVMA tumors showed only partial and transient response. Combined treatment with a second antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) against HER2, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), synergized with mobocertinib in HER2 exon 20YVMA tumors. In addition to the tumor cell autonomous effect, sustained tumor growth control derived from M1 macrophage infiltration and CD4+ T-cell activation. These findings support the ongoing clinical development of mobocertinib (NCT02716116) and provide a rationale for future clinical evaluation of T-DM1 combinational therapy in HER2 exon 20YVMA insertion-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients. SIGNIFICANCE: This study elucidates the potent inhibitory activity of mobocertinib against HER2 exon 20 insertion-mutant lung cancer and the synergic effect of combined mobocertinib and T-DM1, providing a strong rationale for clinical investigation.

7.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(11): 1298-1315, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462284

RESUMO

Substantial progress has been made in understanding how tumors escape immune surveillance. However, few measures to counteract tumor immune evasion have been developed. Suppression of tumor antigen expression is a common adaptive mechanism that cancers use to evade detection and destruction by the immune system. Epigenetic modifications play a critical role in various aspects of immune invasion, including the regulation of tumor antigen expression. To identify epigenetic regulators of tumor antigen expression, we established a transplantable syngeneic tumor model of immune escape with silenced antigen expression and used this system as a platform for a CRISPR-Cas9 suppressor screen for genes encoding epigenetic modifiers. We found that disruption of the genes encoding either of the chromatin modifiers activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein (Atf7ip) or its interacting partner SET domain bifurcated histone lysine methyltransferase 1 (Setdb1) in tumor cells restored tumor antigen expression. This resulted in augmented tumor immunogenicity concomitant with elevated endogenous retroviral (ERV) antigens and mRNA intron retention. ERV disinhibition was associated with a robust type I interferon response and increased T-cell infiltration, leading to rejection of cells lacking intact Atf7ip or Setdb1. ATF7IP or SETDB1 expression inversely correlated with antigen processing and presentation pathways, interferon signaling, and T-cell infiltration and cytotoxicity in human cancers. Our results provide a rationale for targeting Atf7ip or Setdb1 in cancer immunotherapy.

9.
Nat Genet ; 53(6): 881-894, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972779

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) harbor recurrent chromosome 3q amplifications that target the transcription factor SOX2. Beyond its role as an oncogene in ESCC, SOX2 acts in development of the squamous esophagus and maintenance of adult esophageal precursor cells. To compare Sox2 activity in normal and malignant tissue, we developed engineered murine esophageal organoids spanning normal esophagus to Sox2-induced squamous cell carcinoma and mapped Sox2 binding and the epigenetic and transcriptional landscape with evolution from normal to cancer. While oncogenic Sox2 largely maintains actions observed in normal tissue, Sox2 overexpression with p53 and p16 inactivation promotes chromatin remodeling and evolution of the Sox2 cistrome. With Klf5, oncogenic Sox2 acquires new binding sites and enhances activity of oncogenes such as Stat3. Moreover, oncogenic Sox2 activates endogenous retroviruses, inducing expression of double-stranded RNA and dependence on the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1. These data reveal SOX2 functions in ESCC, defining targetable vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Camundongos , Organoides/patologia , Ligação Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
10.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), like other squamous carcinomas, harbour highly recurrent cell cycle pathway alterations, especially hyperactivation of the CCND1/CDK4/6 axis, raising the potential for use of existing CDK4/6 inhibitors in these cancers. Although CDK4/6 inhibition has shown striking success when combined with endocrine therapy in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib monotherapy has not revealed evidence of efficacy to date in OSCC clinical studies. Herein, we sought to elucidate the identification of key dependencies in OSCC as a foundation for the selection of targets whose blockade could be combined with CDK4/6 inhibition. DESIGN: We combined large-scale genomic dependency and pharmaceutical screening datasets with preclinical cell line models, to identified potential combination therapies in squamous cell cancer. RESULTS: We identified sensitivity to inhibitors to the ERBB family of receptor kinases, results clearly extending beyond the previously described minority of tumours with EGFR amplification/dependence, specifically finding a subset of OSCCs with dual dependence on ERBB3 and ERBB2. Subsequently. we demonstrated marked efficacy of combined pan-ERBB and CDK4/6 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that squamous lineage transcription factor KLF5 facilitated activation of ERBBs in OSCC. CONCLUSION: These results provide clear rationale for development of combined ERBB and CDK4/6 inhibition in these cancers and raises the potential for KLF5 expression as a candidate biomarker to guide the use of these agents. These data suggested that by combining existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents, we have the capacity to improve therapy for OSCC and other squamous cancer.

11.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(6): 975-985, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722854

RESUMO

KRASG12C inhibitors, including MRTX849, are promising treatment options for KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PD-1 inhibitors are approved in NSCLC; however, strategies to enhance checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT) are needed. KRASG12C mutations are smoking-associated transversion mutations associated with high tumor mutation burden, PD-L1 positivity, and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To evaluate the potential of MRTX849 to augment CIT, its impact on immune signaling and response to CIT was evaluated. In human tumor xenograft models, MRTX849 increased MHC class I protein expression and decreased RNA and/or plasma protein levels of immunosuppressive factors. In a KrasG12C -mutant CT26 syngeneic mouse model, MRTX849 decreased intratumoral myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increased M1-polarized macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells. Similar results were observed in lung KrasG12C -mutant syngeneic and a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model. In the CT26 KrasG12C model, MRTX849 demonstrated marked tumor regression when tumors were established in immune-competent BALB/c mice; however, the effect was diminished when tumors were grown in T-cell-deficient nu/nu mice. Tumors progressed following anti-PD-1 or MRTX849 single-agent treatment in immune-competent mice; however, combination treatment demonstrated durable, complete responses (CRs). Tumors did not reestablish in the same mice that exhibited durable CRs when rechallenged with tumor cell inoculum, demonstrating these mice developed adaptive antitumor immunity. In a GEM model, treatment with MRTX849 plus anti-PD-1 led to increased progression-free survival compared with either single agent alone. These data demonstrate KRAS inhibition reverses an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and sensitizes tumors to CIT through multiple mechanisms.

12.
Oncogene ; 40(16): 2817-2829, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707749

RESUMO

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) represents a major subtype of non-small cell lung cancer with limited treatment options. Previous studies have elucidated the complex genetic landscape of LUSC and revealed multiple altered genes and pathways. However, in stark contrast to lung adenocarcinoma, few targetable driver mutations have been established so far and targeted therapies for LUSC remain unsuccessful. Immunotherapy has revolutionized LUSC treatment and is currently approved as the new standard of care. To gain a better understanding of the LUSC biology, improved modeling systems are urgently needed. Preclinical models, particularly those mimicking human disease with an intact tumor immune microenvironment, are an invaluable tool to study cancer development and evaluate new therapeutic targets. Here, we discuss recent advances in LUSC preclinical models, with a focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and organoids, in the context of evolving precision medicine and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos
13.
Cancer Discov ; 11(7): 1672-1687, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632773

RESUMO

Most EGFR exon 20 insertion (EGFRex20ins) driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are insensitive to approved EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). To address the limitations of existing therapies targeting EGFR-mutated NSCLC, mobocertinib (TAK-788), a novel irreversible EGFR TKI, was specifically designed to potently inhibit oncogenic variants containing activating EGFRex20ins mutations with selectivity over wild-type EGFR. The in vitro and in vivo activity of mobocertinib was evaluated in engineered and patient-derived models harboring diverse EGFRex20ins mutations. Mobocertinib inhibited viability of various EGFRex20ins-driven cell lines more potently than approved EGFR TKIs and demonstrated in vivo antitumor efficacy in patient-derived xenografts and murine orthotopic models. These findings support the ongoing clinical development of mobocertinib for the treatment of EGFRex20ins-mutated NSCLC. SIGNIFICANCE: No oral EGFR-targeted therapies are approved for EGFR exon 20 insertion (EGFRex20ins) mutation-driven NSCLC. Mobocertinib is a novel small-molecule EGFR inhibitor specifically designed to target EGFRex20ins mutants. Preclinical data reported here support the clinical development of mobocertinib in patients with NSCLC with EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations.See related commentary by Pacheco, p. 1617.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1601.

14.
Sci Adv ; 7(3)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523897

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer without a targeted form of therapy. Unfortunately, up to 70% of patients with TNBC develop resistance to treatment. A known contributor to chemoresistance is dysfunctional mitochondrial apoptosis signaling. We set up a phenotypic small-molecule screen to reveal vulnerabilities in TNBC cells that were independent of mitochondrial apoptosis. Using a functional genetic approach, we identified that a "hit" compound, BAS-2, had a potentially similar mechanism of action to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC). An in vitro HDAC inhibitor assay confirmed that the compound selectively inhibited HDAC6. Using state-of-the-art acetylome mass spectrometry, we identified glycolytic substrates of HDAC6 in TNBC cells. We confirmed that inhibition or knockout of HDAC6 reduced glycolytic metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Through a series of unbiased screening approaches, we have identified a previously unidentified role for HDAC6 in regulating glycolytic metabolism.

15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 583-600, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade therapy and their EGFR wildtype counterpart. The mechanisms underlying this lack of clinical response have been investigated but remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts of resected lung adenocarcinomas (Profiling of Resistance Patterns of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancer of Thorax, Immune Genomic Profiling of NSCLC, and The Cancer Genome Atlas) and compared tumor immune microenvironment of EGFR-mutant tumors to EGFR wildtype tumors, to identify actionable regulators to target and potentially enhance the treatment response. RESULTS: EGFR-mutant NSCLC exhibited low programmed death-ligand 1, low tumor mutational burden, decreased number of cytotoxic T cells, and low T cell receptor clonality, consistent with an immune-inert phenotype, though T cell expansion ex vivo was preserved. In an analysis of 75 immune checkpoint genes, the top up-regulated genes in the EGFR-mutant tumors (NT5E and ADORA1) belonged to the CD73/adenosine pathway. Single-cell analysis revealed that the tumor cell population expressed CD73, both in the treatment-naive and resistant tumors. Using coculture systems with EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, T regulatory cell proportion was decreased with CD73 knockdown. In an immune-competent mouse model of EGFR-mutant lung cancer, the CD73/adenosine pathway was markedly up-regulated and CD73 blockade significantly inhibited tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our work revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC has an immune-inert phenotype. We identified the CD73/adenosine pathway as a potential therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenosina , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Cancer Discov ; 11(3): 696-713, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504579

RESUMO

Neoantigens are critical targets of antitumor T-cell responses. The ATLAS bioassay was developed to identify neoantigens empirically by expressing each unique patient-specific tumor mutation individually in Escherichia coli, pulsing autologous dendritic cells in an ordered array, and testing the patient's T cells for recognition in an overnight assay. Profiling of T cells from patients with lung cancer revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory responses to individual neoantigens. In the murine B16F10 melanoma model, therapeutic immunization with ATLAS-identified stimulatory neoantigens protected animals, whereas immunization with peptides associated with inhibitory ATLAS responses resulted in accelerated tumor growth and abolished efficacy of an otherwise protective vaccine. A planned interim analysis of a clinical study testing a poly-ICLC adjuvanted personalized vaccine containing ATLAS-identified stimulatory neoantigens showed that it is well tolerated. In an adjuvant setting, immunized patients generated both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, with immune responses to 99% of the vaccinated peptide antigens. SIGNIFICANCE: Predicting neoantigens in silico has progressed, but empirical testing shows that T-cell responses are more nuanced than straightforward MHC antigen recognition. The ATLAS bioassay screens tumor mutations to uncover preexisting, patient-relevant neoantigen T-cell responses and reveals a new class of putatively deleterious responses that could affect cancer immunotherapy design.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 521.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have had a profound impact on the treatment of many tumors; however, their effectiveness against triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) has been limited. One factor limiting responsiveness of TNBCs to ICIs is a lack of functional tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 'non-inflamed' or 'cold' tumor immune microenvironments (TIMEs), although by unknown mechanisms. Targeting MUC1-C in a mouse transgenic TNBC tumor model increases cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells (CTLs), supporting a role for MUC1-C in immune evasion. The basis for these findings and whether they extend to human TNBCs are not known. METHODS: Human TNBC cells silenced for MUC1-C using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were analyzed for the effects of MUC1-C on global transcriptional profiles. Differential expression and rank order analysis was used for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Gene expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblotting. The The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Invasive Carcinoma (TCGA-BRCA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) datasets were analyzed for effects of MUC1 on GSEA, cell-type enrichment, and tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion. Single-cell scRNA-seq datasets of TNBC samples were analyzed for normalized expression associations between MUC1 and selected genes within tumor cells. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that MUC1-C is a master regulator of the TNBC transcriptome and that MUC1-C-induced gene expression is driven by STAT1 and IRF1. We found that MUC1-C activates the inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-driven JAK1→STAT1→IRF1 pathway and induces the IDO1 and COX2/PTGS2 effectors, which play key roles in immunosuppression. Involvement of MUC1-C in activating the immunosuppressive IFN-γ pathway was extended by analysis of human bulk and scRNA-seq datasets. We further demonstrate that MUC1 associates with the depletion and dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in the TNBC TIME. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that MUC1-C integrates activation of the immunosuppressive IFN-γ pathway with depletion of TILs in the TNBC TIME and provide support for MUC1-C as a potential target for improving TNBC treatment alone and in combination with ICIs. Of translational significance, MUC1-C is a druggable target with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and a functional inhibitor that are under clinical development.

19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1875(1): 188462, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130228

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer which contributes to essential processes required for cell survival, growth, and proliferation. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and its genomic classification has given rise to the design of therapies targeting tumors harboring specific gene alterations that cause aberrant signaling. Lung tumors are characterized with having high glucose and lactate use, and high heterogeneity in their metabolic pathways. Here we review how NSCLC cells with distinct mutations reprogram their metabolic pathways and highlight the potential metabolic vulnerabilities that might lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 185(1): 85-94, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy has recently been shown to improve outcomes for advanced PD-L1-positive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in the Impassion130 trial, leading to FDA approval of the first immune checkpoint inhibitor in combination with taxane chemotherapy. To further develop predictive biomarkers and improve therapeutic efficacy of the combination, interrogation of the tumor immune microenvironment before therapy as well as during each component of treatment is crucial. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on tumor biopsies to assess immune cell changes from two patients with advanced TNBC treated in a prospective trial at predefined serial time points, before treatment, on taxane chemotherapy and on chemo-immunotherapy. METHODS: Both patients (one responder and one progressor) received the trial therapy, in cycle 1 nab-paclitaxel given as single agent, in cycle 2 nab-paclitaxel in combination with pembrolizumab. Tumor core biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3 weeks (after cycle 1, chemotherapy alone) and 6 weeks (after cycle 2, chemo-immunotherapy). Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of both cancer cells and infiltrating immune cells isolated were performed from fresh tumor core biopsy specimens by 10 × chromium sequencing. RESULTS: ScRNA-seq analysis showed significant baseline heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating immune cell populations between the two patients as well as modulation of the tumor microenvironment by chemotherapy and immunotherapy. In the responding patient there was a population of PD-1high-expressing T cells which significantly decreased after nab-paclitaxel plus pembrolizumab treatment as well as a presence of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). In contrast, tumors from the patient with rapid disease progression showed a prevalent and persistent myeloid compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a deep cellular analysis of on-treatment changes during chemo-immunotherapy for advanced TNBC, demonstrating not only feasibility of single-cell analyses on serial tumor biopsies but also the heterogeneity of TNBC and differences in on-treatment changes in responder versus progressor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Albuminas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Paclitaxel , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Célula Única , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
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