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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12607, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471547

RESUMO

Placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is essential in establishing proper blood supply to the fetus during pregnancy. However, traditional 2D in vitro systems do not model the in vivo invasion process in an anatomically-relevant manner. Our objectives were to develop a 3D spheroid model that would allow better emulation of placental invasion in vitro and to characterize the transcriptomic and functional outcomes. HTR8/SVneo EVT cells were self-assembled into 3D spheroids using ultra-low attachment plates. Transcriptomic profiling followed by gene set enrichment and gene ontology analyses revealed major global transcriptomic differences, with significant up-regulations in EVTs cultured as 3D spheroids in canonical pathways and biological processes such as immune response, angiogenesis, response to stimulus, wound healing, and others. These findings were further validated by RT-qPCR, showing significant up-regulations in genes and/or proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell-cell contact, angiogenesis, and invasion/migration. A high-throughput, spheroid invasion assay was applied to reveal the dynamic invasion of EVTs away from the spheroid core into extracellular matrix. Lastly, lipopolysaccharide, dexamethasone, or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure was found to impact the invasion of EVT spheroids. Altogether, we present a well-characterized, 3D spheroid model of EVT invasion and demonstrate its potential use in drug and toxin screening during pregnancy.

2.
Cancer ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) occur in up to 50% of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and represent a frequent site of systemic treatment failure for targeted therapies. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the incidence, patterns of disease progression, and outcomes of MBM in patients treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. METHODS: A total of 320 patients with MM who were treated with anti-PD-1 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston were reviewed. Analyses were performed to identify factors associated with brain metastasis-free survival and overall survival (OS) using Cox regression models. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 63.3 years. OS from the initiation of anti-PD-1 therapy was not significantly different between patients without MBM prior to anti-PD-1 compared with patients with prior MBM (P = .359). Among patients without prior MBM, 21 patients (8.6%) developed MBM during anti-PD-1 therapy, 12 of whom (4.9%) presented with disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS) only. Developing MBM during or after therapy with anti-PD-1 (hazard ratio, 4.70; 95% CI, 3.18-6.93) was associated with shorter OS. Among patients with MBM prior to anti-PD-1 treatment, 15 (20.0%) progressed in the CNS only and 19 (25.3%) progressed both intracranially and extracranially; at the time of the last data cutoff, 27 patients (36.0%) had not developed disease progression. Radiation necrosis occurred in 11.3% of patients (7 of 62 patients) in the group with a prior MBM who received stereotactic radiosurgery. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-PD-1 therapy may change the natural history of patients with preexisting MBM. However, CNS failure during treatment with anti-PD-1 is predictive of a worse prognosis compared with extracranial progression. The results of the current study support the activity of anti-PD-1 in patients with MBM, although routine CNS imaging during therapy is warranted.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 158, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234936

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in the Acknowledgments section. It should be read: 'We are grateful to Mohsin Shah from the Department of Emergency Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for assisting in study selection, and to Gregory F. Pratt from the Research Medical Library and Erica Goodoff, from the Department of Scientific Publications at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for their valuable contributions.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 106, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer, but their use remains limited by off-target inflammatory and immune-related adverse events. Solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients have been excluded from clinical trials owing to concerns about alloimmunity, organ rejection, and immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, we conducted a retrospective study and literature review to evaluate the safety of CPIs in patients with cancer and prior SOT. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients with cancer and prior SOT who received CPIs at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 1, 2004, through March 31, 2018. Additionally, we systematically reviewed five databases through April 2018 to identify studies reporting CPIs to treat cancer in SOT recipients. We evaluated the safety of CPIs in terms of alloimmunity, immune-related adverse events, and mortality. We also evaluated tumor response to CPIs. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with allograft transplantation were identified. The median age was 63 years (range 14-79 years), 74% were male, 62% had metastatic melanoma, 77% received anti-PD-1 agents, and 59% had prior renal transplantation, 28% hepatic transplantation, and 13% cardiac transplantation. Median time to CPI initiation after SOT was 9 years (range 0.92-32 years). Allograft rejection occurred in 41% of patients (11/23 renal, 4/11 hepatic, and 1/5 cardiac transplantations), at similar rates for anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 therapy. The median time to rejection was 21 days (95% confidence interval 19.3-22.8 days). There were no associations between time since SOT and frequency, timing, or type of rejection. Overall, 31% of patients permanently discontinued CPIs because of allograft rejection. Graft loss occurred in 81%, and death was reported in 46%. Of the 12 patients with transplantation biopsies, nine (75%) had acute rejection, and five of these rejections were T cell-mediated. In melanoma patients, 36% responded to CPIs. CONCLUSIONS: SOT recipients had a high allograft rejection rate that was observed shortly after CPI initiation, with high mortality rates. Further studies are needed to optimize the anticancer treatment approach in these patients.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(11): 3455-3467, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy whose pathogenesis and prognosis are related to the integrity of the host immune system. Despite promising clinical responses to immune-checkpoint blockade, response and resistance remain unpredictable, underscoring a critical need to delineate novel prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for this disease.Experimental Design: Expression of immune-regulatory markers (PD-L2, B7-H3, B7-H4, IDO-1, ICOS, TIM3, LAG3, VISTA, and OX-40) was assessed using singlet chromogenic IHC in 10 primary MCCs. Multiplex immunofluorescence quantified CD31 and B7-H3 expression in 52 primary and 25 metastatic MCCs. B7-H3 and CD31 expressions were tabulated as a series of independent (X,Y) cell centroids. A spatial G-function, calculated based on the distribution of distances of B7-H3+ (X,Y) cell centroids around the CD31+ (X,Y) cell centroids, was used to estimate a colocalization index equivalent to the percentage of CD31-positive cell centroids that overlap with a B7-H3-positive cell centroid. RESULTS: Primary and metastatic MCCs exhibit a dynamic range of colocalized CD31 and B7-H3 expression. Increasing colocalized expression of B7-H3 with CD31 significantly associated with increased tumor size (P = 0.0060), greater depth of invasion (P = 0.0110), presence of lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.0453), and invasion beyond skin (P = 0.0428) in primary MCC. Consistent with these findings, increasing colocalized expression of B7-H3 and CD31 correlated with increasing vascular density in primary MCC, but not metastatic MCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that colocalized expression of B7-H3/CD31 is a poor prognostic indicator and suggest therapies targeting B7-H3 may represent an effective approach to augmenting immune-activating therapies for MCC.

7.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1941, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361510

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, there was an error in Fig. 2b. RECIST ORR and pCR were both listed as 25%. RECIST ORR was actually 73%, and pCR was 45%. Also, an author's name was incorrect in the author list. Danny K. Wells should have been listed as Daniel K. Wells. The errors have been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of this article.

8.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1942, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361511

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, there was an error in Fig. 1. In the neoadjuvant phase column, the n values for arms A and B were both reported to be 20. The n values for arms A and B were actually 12 and 11, respectively. Also, the URL underlying the accession code in the data availability section was incorrect. The URL was originally https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ega/studies/EGAS00001002698. It should have been https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ega/studies/EGAS00001003178. The errors have been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of this article.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 103, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-related enterocolitis (irEC) is the most common serious complication from checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). The current front-line treatment for irEC, high-dose corticosteroids (CS), have significant side effects and prolonged therapy may reduce CPI-anti-tumor activity. Early addition of TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab (IFX) may expedite symptom resolution and shorten CS duration. Thus, we conducted the first retrospective study, to our knowledge, evaluating symptom resolution in patients with irEC treated with and without IFX. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients diagnosed with irEC. The primary endpoint was time to symptom resolution for irEC for cases managed with IFX plus CS (IFX group) versus CS alone (CS group). Duration of CS, overall survival (OS), and time to treatment failure (TTF) were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Among 75 patients with irEC, 52% received CS alone, and 48% received IFX. Despite higher grade colitis in the IFX group (grade 3/4: 86% vs. 34%; p < 0.001), median times to diarrhea resolution (3 vs. 9 days; p < 0.001) and to steroid titration (4 vs. 13 days; p < 0.001) were shorter in the IFX group than in the CS group without a negative impact on TTF or OS. Total steroid duration (median 35 vs. 51 days; p = 0.150) was numerically lower in the IFX group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher incidence of grade 3/4 colitis, IFX added to CS for the treatment of patients with irEC was associated with a significantly shorter time to symptom resolution. The data suggest that early introduction of IFX should be considered for patients with irEC until definitive prospective clinical trials are conducted.

10.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 15(12): 763-776, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287935

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer associated with advanced age and immunosuppression. Over the past decade, an association has been discovered between MCC and either integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus, which likely drives tumorigenesis, or somatic mutations owing to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. Both virus-positive and virus-negative MCCs are immunogenic, and inhibition of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint has proved to be highly effective in treating patients with metastatic MCC; however, not all patients have a durable response to immunotherapy. Despite these rapid advances in the understanding and management of patients with MCC, many basic, translational and clinical research questions remain unanswered. In March 2018, an International Workshop on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Research was held at the US National Cancer Institute, at which academic, government and industry experts met to identify the highest-priority research questions. Here, we review the biology and treatment of MCC and report the consensus-based recommendations agreed upon during the workshop.

11.
Nat Med ; 24(11): 1649-1654, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297909

RESUMO

Preclinical studies suggest that treatment with neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade is associated with enhanced survival and antigen-specific T cell responses compared with adjuvant treatment1; however, optimal regimens have not been defined. Here we report results from a randomized phase 2 study of neoadjuvant nivolumab versus combined ipilimumab with nivolumab in 23 patients with high-risk resectable melanoma ( NCT02519322 ). RECIST overall response rates (ORR), pathologic complete response rates (pCR), treatment-related adverse events (trAEs) and immune correlates of response were assessed. Treatment with combined ipilimumab and nivolumab yielded high response rates (RECIST ORR 73%, pCR 45%) but substantial toxicity (73% grade 3 trAEs), whereas treatment with nivolumab monotherapy yielded modest responses (ORR 25%, pCR 25%) and low toxicity (8% grade 3 trAEs). Immune correlates of response were identified, demonstrating higher lymphoid infiltrates in responders to both therapies and a more clonal and diverse T cell infiltrate in responders to nivolumab monotherapy. These results describe the feasibility of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma and emphasize the need for additional studies to optimize treatment regimens and to validate putative biomarkers.

12.
EuroIntervention ; 14(7): 780-788, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901444

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to establish the early healing and neointimal transformation profile of the new polymer-free BioFreedom stent through sequential optical coherence tomography (OCT) within the first nine months following stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomly assigned 104 BFS recipients to one of five groups with angiography and OCT follow-up at 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 months, together with another follow-up for all at nine months. The primary endpoint was the degree of OCT-detected strut coverage at nine months. From 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months, median neointimal strut coverage increased from 85.8, 87.0, 88.6, 96.8 to 97.1%, respectively, to 99.6% (IQR 98.2-99.9) at nine months. At nine months, median percent neointimal volume was 13.0% and angiographic late lumen loss was 0.21±0.30 mm. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were limited to one non-cardiac death, one non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction not related to BFS, and two target lesion revascularisations without stent thrombosis (MACE rate 4.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Neointimal strut coverage of the BFS was rapid and the BFS was shown to be clinically safe and effective.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199632, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940046

RESUMO

The incorporation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for generating in vitro models that truly represent the microarchitecture found in human tissues. However, the cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions in vitro remains poorly understood in placental trophoblast biology. We investigated the effects of varying the surface properties (surface thickness and stiffness) of two ECMs, collagen I and Matrigel, on placental trophoblast cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and expression of markers involved in differentiation/syncytial fusion. Most notably, thicker Matrigel surfaces were found to induce the self-assembly of trophoblast cells into 3D spheroids that exhibited thickness-dependent changes in viability, proliferation, syncytial fusion, and gene expression profiles compared to two-dimensional cultures. Changes in F-actin organization, cell spread morphologies, and integrin and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression profiles, further reveal that the response to surface thickness may be mediated in part through cellular stiffness-sensing mechanisms. Our derivation of self-assembling trophoblast spheroid cultures through regulation of ECM surface alone contributes to a deeper understanding of cell-ECM interactions, and may be important for the advancement of in vitro platforms for research or diagnostics.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(18): 4416-4428, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848573

RESUMO

Purpose: Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has consistently demonstrated clinical efficacy in metastatic melanoma. Recent widespread use of checkpoint blockade has shifted the treatment landscape, raising questions regarding impact of these therapies on response to TIL and appropriate immunotherapy sequence.Patients and Methods: Seventy-four metastatic melanoma patients were treated with autologous TIL and evaluated for clinical response according to irRC, overall survival, and progression-free survival. Immunologic factors associated with response were also evaluated.Results: Best overall response for the entire cohort was 42%; 47% in 43 checkpoint-naïve patients, 38% when patients were exposed to anti-CTLA4 alone (21 patients) and 33% if also exposed to anti-PD1 (9 patients) prior to TIL ACT. Median overall survival was 17.3 months; 24.6 months in CTLA4-naïve patients and 8.6 months in patients with prior CTLA4 blockade. The latter patients were infused with fewer TIL and experienced a shorter duration of response. Infusion of higher numbers of TIL with CD8 predominance and expression of BTLA correlated with improved response in anti-CTLA4 naïve patients, but not in anti-CTLA4 refractory patients. Baseline serum levels of IL9 predicted response to TIL ACT, while TIL persistence, tumor recognition, and mutation burden did not correlate with outcome.Conclusions: This study demonstrates the deleterious effects of prior exposure to anti-CTLA4 on TIL ACT response and shows that baseline IL9 levels can potentially serve as a predictive tool to select the appropriate sequence of immunotherapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(18); 4416-28. ©2018 AACR.

15.
J Neurooncol ; 139(2): 421-429, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696531

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that the combination of ipilimumab and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases improves outcomes. We investigated clinical outcomes, radiation toxicity, and impact of ipilimumab timing in patients treated with SRS for melanoma brain metastases. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 91 patients treated with SRS at our institution for melanoma brain metastases from 2006 to 2015. Concurrent ipilimumab administration was defined as within ± 4 weeks of SRS procedure. Acute and late toxicities were graded with CTCAE v4.03. Overall survival (OS), local failure, distant brain failure, and failure-free survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. OS was analyzed with Cox regression. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients received ipilimumab concurrent with SRS, 28 patients non-concurrently, and 40 patients did not receive ipilimumab. The median age was 62 years and 91% had KPS ≥ 80. The median follow-up time was 7.4 months. Patients who received ipilimumab had a median OS of 15.1 months compared to 7.8 months in patients who did not (p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, ipilimumab (p = 0.02) and diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (p = 0.02) were associated with OS. There were no differences in intracranial control by ipilimumab administration or timing. The incidence of radiation necrosis was 5%, with most events occurring in patients who received ipilimumab. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received ipilimumab had improved OS even after adjusting for prognostic factors. Ipilimumab did not appear to increase risk for acute toxicity. The majority of radiation necrosis events, however, occurred in patients who received ipilimumab. Our results support the continued use of SRS and ipilimumab as clinically appropriate.

16.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(4): e006034, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Durable polymers used in drug-eluting stents are considered a potential cause of hypersensitivity inflammatory response adversely affecting stent healing. Using a sequential follow-up with optical coherence tomography, we compared the differences in healing profiles of 2 drug-eluting stents with a biodegradable or durable polymer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty patients with multivessel disease were prospectively enrolled to receive both study stents, which were randomly assigned to 2 individual vessels, a Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent with a durable BioLinx polymer and a BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent with a biodegradable polylactic acid polymer. Optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline, then in 5 randomly assigned monthly groups at 2 to 6 months, and at 9 months in all patients. The primary end point was the difference in optical coherence tomography strut coverage at 9 months. Key secondary end points included angiographic late lumen loss and composite major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and definite or probable stent thrombosis) at 9 months. Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent showed significantly better strut coverage than BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent at 2 to 6 months (P<0.001) and less variance of percent coverage at 9 months, 99.7% (interquartile range, 99.1-100) versus 99.6% (interquartile range, 96.8-99.9; difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.00-1.05; P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in major adverse cardiac events or angiographic end points. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having a durable polymer, Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent exhibited better strut coverage than BioMatrix NeoFlex Biolimus A9-eluting stent having a biodegradable polymer; both showed similar antiproliferative efficacy. This novel, longitudinal, sequential optical coherence tomography protocol using each patient as own control could achieve conclusive results in small sample size. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01742507.

17.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(2): 181-193, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual BRAF and MEK inhibition produces a response in a large number of patients with stage IV BRAF-mutant melanoma. The existing standard of care for patients with clinical stage III melanoma is upfront surgery and consideration for adjuvant therapy, which is insufficient to cure most patients. Neoadjuvant targeted therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (such as dabrafenib and trametinib) might provide clinical benefit in this high-risk p opulation. METHODS: We undertook this single-centre, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). Eligible participants were adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with histologically or cytologically confirmed surgically resectable clinical stage III or oligometastatic stage IV BRAFV600E or BRAFV600K (ie, Val600Glu or Val600Lys)-mutated melanoma. Eligible patients had to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, a life expectancy of more than 3 years, and no previous exposure to BRAF or MEK inhibitors. Exclusion criteria included metastases to bone, brain, or other sites where complete surgical excision was in doubt. We randomly assigned patients (1:2) to either upfront surgery and consideration for adjuvant therapy (standard of care group) or neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib (8 weeks of neoadjuvant oral dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day and oral trametinib 2 mg per day followed by surgery, then up to 44 weeks of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib starting 1 week after surgery for a total of 52 weeks of treatment). Randomisation was not masked and was implemented by the clinical trial conduct website maintained by the trial centre. Patients were stratified by disease stage. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed event-free survival (ie, patients who were alive without disease progression) at 12 months in the intent-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02231775. FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2014, and April 13, 2016, we randomly assigned seven patients to standard of care, and 14 to neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib. The trial was stopped early after a prespecified interim safety analysis that occurred after a quarter of the participants had been accrued revealed significantly longer event-free survival with neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib than with standard of care. After a median follow-up of 18·6 months (IQR 14·6-23·1), significantly more patients receiving neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib were alive without disease progression than those receiving standard of care (ten [71%] of 14 patients vs none of seven in the standard of care group; median event-free survival was 19·7 months [16·2-not estimable] vs 2·9 months [95% CI 1·7-not estimable]; hazard ratio 0·016, 95% CI 0·00012-0·14, p<0·0001). Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib were well tolerated with no occurrence of grade 4 adverse events or treatment-related deaths. The most common adverse events in the neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib group were expected grade 1-2 toxicities including chills (12 patients [92%]), headache (12 [92%]), and pyrexia (ten [77%]). The most common grade 3 adverse event was diarrhoea (two patients [15%]). INTERPRETATION: Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib significantly improved event-free survival versus standard of care in patients with high-risk, surgically resectable, clinical stage III-IV melanoma. Although the trial finished early, limiting generalisability of the results, the findings provide proof-of-concept and support the rationale for further investigation of neoadjuvant approaches in this disease. This trial is currently continuing accrual as a single-arm study of neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

18.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Tumor and edema volume changes of brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and ipilimumab are not well described, and there is concern regarding the safety of combination treatment. The authors evaluated tumor, edema, and adverse radiation-induced changes after SRS with and without ipilimumab and identified associated risk factors. METHODS This single-institution retrospective study included 72 patients with melanoma brain metastases treated consecutively with upfront SRS from 2006 to 2015. Concurrent ipilimumab was defined as ipilimumab treatment within 4 weeks of SRS. At baseline and during each follow-up, tumor and edema were measured in 3 orthogonal planes. The (length × width × height/2) formula was used to estimate tumor and edema volumes and was validated in the present study for estimation of edema volume. Tumor and edema volume changes from baseline were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Local failure, lesion hemorrhage, and treatment-related imaging changes (TRICs) were analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS Of 310 analyzed lesions, 91 were not treated with ipilimumab, 59 were treated with concurrent ipilimumab, and 160 were treated with nonconcurrent ipilimumab. Of 106 randomly selected lesions with measurable peritumoral edema, the mean edema volume by manual contouring was 7.45 cm3 and the mean volume by (length × width × height)/2 formula estimation was 7.79 cm3 with R2 = 0.99 and slope of 1.08 on line of best fit. At 6 months after SRS, the ipilimumab groups had greater tumor (p = 0.001) and edema (p = 0.005) volume reduction than the control group. The concurrent ipilimumab group had the highest rate of lesion response and lowest rate of lesion progression (p = 0.002). Within the concurrent ipilimumab group, SRS dose ≥ 20 Gy was associated with significantly greater median tumor volume reduction at 3 months (p = 0.01) and 6 months (p = 0.02). The concurrent ipilimumab group also had the highest rate of lesion hemorrhage (p = 0.01). Any ipilimumab was associated with higher incidence of symptomatic TRICs (p = 0.005). The overall incidence of pathologically confirmed radiation necrosis (RN) was 2%. In multivariate analysis, tumor and edema response at 3 months were the strongest predictors of local failure (HR 0.131 and HR 0.125) and lesion hemorrhage (HR 0.225 and HR 0.262). Tumor and edema response at 1.5 months were the strongest predictors of TRICs (HR 0.144 and HR 0.297). CONCLUSIONS The addition of ipilimumab improved tumor and edema volume reduction but was associated with a higher incidence of lesion hemorrhage and symptomatic TRICs. There may be a radiation dose-response relationship between SRS and ipilimumab when administered concurrently. Early tumor and edema response were excellent predictors of subsequent local failure, lesion hemorrhage, and TRICs. The incidence of pathologically proven RN was low, supporting the relative safety of ipilimumab in radiosurgery treatment.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 5(1): 102, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune related adverse events (irAEs) are associated with immunotherapy for cancer and while results suggest improvement in tumor control and overall survival in those experiencing irAEs, the long-term impact is debated. We evaluated irAE reports related to high dose interleukin-2 therapy (IL-2) documented in the PROCLAIMSM registry data base from 2008 to 2016 (NCT01415167, August 9, 2011). METHODS: Reports on 1535 patients, including 623 with metastatic melanoma (mM) and 919 with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) (7 patients had both diseases), were queried for irAEs. The timing of the event was categorized as occurring before, during or after IL-2 or related to any checkpoint inhibitor (CPI). mM patients and mRCC patients were analyzed separately. Tumor control [complete + partial response + stable disease (CR + PR + SD) was compared between those experiencing no irAE versus those with the development of irAEs. Survival was analyzed by tumor type related to timing of irAE and IL-2, and in those with or without exposure to CPI. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 3.5+ years (range 1-8+ years), 152 irAEs were reported in 130 patients (8.4% of all PROCLAIMSM patients): 99 (16%) in mM and 53 (5.8%) in mRCC patients. 31 irAEs occurred prior to IL-2, 24 during IL-2, and 97 after IL-2 therapy. 74 irAEs were attributed to IL-2 only (during/ after IL-2). Of the 97 post IL-2 irAEs, 24 were attributed to CPI, and 15 could not be distinguished as caused by IL-2 or CPI. Tumor control was 71% for those experiencing irAE, and 56% for those with no irAE (p = 0.0008). Overall survival was significantly greater for those experiencing irAEs during/ after IL-2 therapy, compared to those with no irAE or irAE before IL-2 therapy, in mM patients, median 48 months vs 18 months (p < 0.0001), and in mRCC patients, median 60 months vs 40 months (p = 0.0302), independent of CPI-related irAEs. IL-2-related irAEs were primarily vitiligo and thyroid dysfunction (70% of IL-2 related irAEs), with limited further impact. CONCLUSIONS: irAEs following IL-2 therapy are associated with improved tumor control and overall survival. IrAEs resulting from IL-2 and from CPIs are qualitatively different, and likely reflect different mechanisms of action of immune activation and response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-2/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 76(2): 250-257, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanomas are rare, poorly understood neoplasms without a consensus standard of care. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define mucosal melanoma tumor characteristics and the racial/ethnic attributes of patients with mucosal melanomas. METHODS: We analyzed 130,920 cutaneous melanomas and 1919 mucosal melanomas recorded in the population-based California Cancer Registry from 1988 to 2013. RESULTS: Although only 1% of melanomas occurring in nonHispanic whites were mucosal, other racial/ethnic groups had a higher proportion of mucosal melanomas (15% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 9% for nonHispanic blacks, and 4% for Hispanics). Anorectal mucosal melanomas were most common in female Asian/Pacific Islanders, whereas genitourinary mucosal melanomas were highest in nonHispanic whites, and head and neck tumors were most common among Hispanics. Stage at presentation was not uniform among racial/ethnic groups, with Asian/Pacific Islanders having the highest rates of metastasis. LIMITATIONS: The lack of a standardized staging system for mucosal melanomas confounds classification and knowledge regarding metastasis. Small sample size limits comparative analysis across race, stage, site, and depth. CONCLUSION: Mucosal melanomas differ by race/ethnicity with regard to anatomic site, stage, and depth. Because early detection offers the best chance of increased survival, greater awareness will aid clinicians who care for patients at risk for these aggressive tumors.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hispano-Americanos , Melanoma/patologia , Membrana Mucosa , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etnologia
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