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1.
Intern Med J ; 50 Suppl 3: 6-14, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985093

RESUMO

Aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, is a second-generation anti-psychotic that is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. A group of psychiatric experts in Hong Kong developed a set of consensus statements, aiming to facilitate the understanding of clinical properties and usages of aripiprazole among local physicians. Of note, because aripiprazole long-acting injectable has been available locally not long before the establishment of the consensus panel, which limited the discussion on its use in the local context, the consensus statements were focused primarily on oral aripiprazole. To draft the consensus statements, the panellists discussed the published evidence and their clinical experience regarding aripiprazole in a series of meetings based on several areas. At the final meeting, each drafted statement was voted on anonymously by all panellists based on its practicability of recommendation in Hong Kong. A set of consensus statements on the characteristics and clinical use of aripiprazole was established and accepted by the panel. These statements serve to provide a practical reference for physicians in Hong Kong, and possibly other parts of the Asia-Pacific region, on the use of aripiprazole in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and other psychotic problems.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Hong Kong , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
2.
Intern Med J ; 49 Suppl 1: 9-15, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Families, especially in Chinese society, play a crucial role in care provision for relatives with schizophrenia, but the burden of caregiving has shown to cause significant distress among caregivers. The aim of the study is to assess the degree of stress and burden among caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia and early psychosis in Hong Kong. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 454 caregivers recruited from two mental health non-governmental organisations and the outpatient clinic of a psychiatric hospital. Data were collected through a questionnaire administered via face-to-face or telephone interview. RESULTS: Caregivers attributed most of their conflicts with the ill relative or other family members to their own lack of knowledge of patient symptoms (56.4%), other family members' lack of knowledge of patient symptoms (46.9%) or the ill relative's refusal to take medications (43.0%). Most of the caregivers had corresponding stress scores of 5 (scale: 1-5; mean = 3.88, 3.85 and 4.19, respectively). Nearly, a third (30.2%) of the caregivers surveyed reported an overall stress score of 5 (mean = 3.56). Regarding psychosocial problems, 78.0%, 49.8% and 45.8% of caregivers experienced anxiety, reduced socialising and insomnia, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia and early psychosis experience significant stress and psychosocial burden. To help them cope with distress, community support services should be strengthened. Moreover, long-acting injectable antipsychotics are worth considering to alleviate caregiver burden due to ill relatives' medication compliance issues.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Affect Disord ; 193: 362-72, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26796237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alexithymia has been frequently associated with major depression disorders (MDD). Yet little is known about the exact relationship of alexithymia and MDD. In order to explore this subject matter, the neural connectivity associated with alexithymia in people with MDD and matched nonclinical controls were compared. METHODS: Twenty-two females diagnosed with first-episode MDD and twenty-one matched nonclinical controls were MRI brain-scanned with diffusion-tensor-imaging and resting-state-functional-imaging methods, and self-reported the Chinese 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. RESULTS: Voxel-wise multiple regression analysis showed a group interaction effect regarding the correlation between white-matter-connectivity and alexithymia. Significant correlations were observed at the corpus-callosum in MDDs and at the right superior-longitudinal-fasciculus in the controls. These findings were then used to derive seeds for analyzing resting-state-functional-connectivity in each group separately. The results further revealed that alexithymia in MDDs were associated with reduced functional-connectivity in the right precentral-gyrus and several regions of the brain on the right which are associated with cognitive regulation in the default-mode-network. In contrast, among the control subjects, alexithymia was correlated with increased functional-connectivity between the right inferior-frontal-gyrus-triangularis and the right superior-occipital-lobe, which is associated with emotional response to external stimuli. LIMITATIONS: Better participant selection, especially recruitment of medication-free samples, and the engagement of additional alexithymia assessments, should be considered in future investigations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings supported our a priori hypothesis that MDDs and controls have distinct white-matter correlates of alexithymia, and these corresponded to the existing proposed neural correlates for the cognitive and affective characteristics of alexithymia respectively. Extended impacts of these microstructural changes on remote functional networks might help explain the distinct behavioral characteristics of alexithymia for these groups, as well as implications for therapeutic intervention of MDD.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
4.
Indian J Psychol Med ; 33(1): 18-28, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22021949

RESUMO

Bipolar II disorder (BP II) disorder was recognized as a distinct subtype in the DSM-IV classification. DSM-IV criteria for BP II require the presence or history of one or more major depressive episode, plus at least one hypomanic episode, which, by definition, must last for at least 4 days. Various studies found distinct patterns of symptoms and familial inheritance for BP II disorder. BP II is commonly underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Making an early and accurate diagnosis of BP II is utmost importance in the management of BP II disorder. The clinician should have this diagnosis in mind when he is facing a patient presenting with mood problems, particularly unipolar depression. Quetiapine and lamotrigine are the only agents with demonstrated efficacy in double-blind RCT. Although the evidence for the use of lithium in long-term therapy is largely based on observational studies, the many years of close follow-up, comparatively larger subject numbers, and 'harder' clinically meaningful with bipolar disorder outcomes measures, enhance our confidence in its role in treating BP II. With respect to short-term treatment, there is some limited support for the use of risperidone and olanzepine in hypomania and for fluoxetine, venlafaxine and valproate in treating depression. The current clinical debate over whether one should use antidepressants as monotherapy or in combination with a mood stabilizer when treating BP II depression is not yet settled. There is a need for large, well-designed RCTs to cast more definitive light on how best to manage patients with BP II disorder.

5.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 33(7): 1184-90, 2009 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19596037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Though emotion dysregulation is the key feature in major depressive disorder, and structural changes in brain areas of depressed patients have been found, it is unknown how these regional volume alterations correlate with the ability to regulate emotion in the depressed population. METHOD: We examined the gray matter concentration (GMC) and volume (GMV) in 17 depressed patients and 17 healthy volunteers using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Images were acquired using a 1.5 T MRI scanner, and were spatially normalized and segmented. Statistical comparisons were performed using the general linear model. The identified volumetric alterations in the depressed participants were correlated with their performance on an emotion regulation task that involved reduction of positive or negative emotions to emotional pictures that were selected according to their individual ratings. RESULTS: The depressed participants showed specific difficulty in regulating negative emotion, though not positive emotion, which was associated with reduced GMV and concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Decreased GMC in the superior temporal cortex was also found in people with major depressive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal structures in the ACC and OFC and the dysregulation of negative emotion may relate to the pathology of major depressive disorder.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Tempo de Reação
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 165(3): 241-51, 2009 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19168227

RESUMO

Selective attention biases are believed to be one of the cognitive vulnerabilities to depression. This study examined two types of attention biases, namely attention facilitation and attention disinhibition, towards mood-congruent words in 40 clinically depressed outpatients and 40 never-depressed healthy controls. Measures were differential reaction time towards neutral and depressive words in the positive and negative priming paradigms that were used to assess attention facilitation and attention disinhibition, respectively. Results showed that the depressed group exhibited enhanced attention facilitation to depressive words relative to neutral words, whereas the control group did not. The differential reduction of reaction time of the depressed group to the previously presented depressive words relative to the previously presented neutral words was greater than that in the control group. On the other hand, both groups showed similar attention disinhibition to depressive words relative to neutral words. The differential increase in reaction time to previously ignored depressive words relative to the previously ignored neutral words was similar in both groups. The above results suggest that major depressive disorder is characterized by attention facilitation by mood-congruent information, but inhibition difficulties in attention to depression-related information is not specific to depressive disorder.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atenção , Depressão/psicologia , Revelação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
7.
Can J Psychiatry ; 49(6): 391-3, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15283534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify stress and the psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on high-risk health care workers (HCWs). METHOD: We evaluated 271 HCWs from SARS units and 342 healthy control subjects, using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to assess stress levels and a structured list of putative psychological effects of SARS to assess its psychological effects. Healthy control subjects were balanced for age, sex, education, parenthood, living circumstances, and lack of health care experience. RESULTS: Stress levels were raised in both groups (PSS = 18) but were not relatively increased in the HCWs. HCWs reported significantly more positive (94%, n = 256) and more negative psychological effects (89%, n = 241) from SARS than did control subjects. HCWs declared confidence in infection-control measures. CONCLUSIONS: In HCWs, adaptive responses to stress and the positive effects of infection control training may be protective in future outbreaks. Elevated stress in the population may be an important indicator of future psychiatric morbidity.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 63(7): 569-76, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12143912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This open-label, multicenter, randomized study compared the efficacy and safety of switching moderately ill Asian patients with schizophrenia from their current regimen of antipsychotic medication to the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine using either a direct switch method or a start-taper switch method. METHOD: Asian inpatients and outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (N = 108) currently treated with predominantly typical antipsychotics were switched to olanzapine (initial dose of 10 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the direct switch group (N = 54) received only olanzapine, while the start-taper switch group (N = 54) received olanzapine and their usual antipsychotic in decreasing doses for the first 2 weeks. A successful switch was defined as completing 6 weeks of therapy without worsening of symptoms (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale [CGI-S]) or extrapyramidal side effects (Simpson-Angus Scale). Overall efficacy was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and safety was assessed by recording adverse events and measuring vital signs. RESULTS: Statistically significant (p < .001) improvements from baseline to endpoint occurred in both switch groups in the CGI-S score and the PANSS total score and subscores. However, no significant differences were observed between the switch groups for any efficacy measure. Both techniques had comparable rates of successful switching (direct switch, 74.1% vs. start-taper switch, 67.9%). The frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between switch groups with no clinically significant differences in any laboratory value or vital sign. Weight gain occurred in both switch groups (p < .001), but the groups were not statistically different from each other. Both switch groups showed statistically significant (p < .01) improvements from baseline to endpoint on the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Scale. CONCLUSION: Moderately ill Asian patients with schizophrenia may experience a decrease in symptom severity and improvement in extrapyramidal symptoms when switched from their current medication to olanzapine therapy.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Pirenzepina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Benzodiazepinas , Esquema de Medicação , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olanzapina , Pirenzepina/administração & dosagem , Pirenzepina/efeitos adversos , Pirenzepina/análogos & derivados , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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