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2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) alone is not active in mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), nor does radiotherapy alone result in objective systemic benefit. However, combined radiotherapy plus ICI can induce systemic antitumor immunity in preclinical and clinical models. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-center, phase II study, patients with chemotherapy-refractory MMR-P mCRC received durvalumab 1,500 mg plus tremelimumab 75 mg every 4 weeks plus radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in nonirradiated lesions. Treatment and efficacy were correlated with peripheral immune cell profiles. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 patients, and report outcomes after a median follow-up of 21.8 (range: 15.9-26.3) months. The ORR was 8.3% (2 patients) [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-27.0]. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.7-1.9) months, median overall survival was 11.4 (95% CI, 10.1-17.4) months. Twenty five percent of patients (n = 6) had treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events. We observed increased circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte activation, differentiation, and proliferation in patients with objective response. CONCLUSION: This combination of radiotherapy plus ICI study did not meet the prespecified endpoint criteria to be considered worthwhile for further study. However, rare instances of systemic immune augmentation and regression in nonirradiated lesions were observed (an abscopal response). Combination durvalumab and tremelimumab plus radiotherapy is feasible in MMR-P mCRC with a manageable safety profile. Further studies of novel immunotherapy combinations, and identification of biomarkers predictive of abscopal response are warranted.

3.
J Periodontol ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial carotid artery calcifications (ICACs) are one type of calcification that may be detected as incidental findings in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). This retrospective study aimed to examine the prevalence of ICACs on CBCT images and their associations among age, gender, chronic periodontitis, and patient-reported cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). METHODS: A total of 303 CBCT scans were reviewed and a total of 208 patients met the inclusion criteria. The presence or absence of ICACs was evaluated in the ophthalmic and cavernous segments of each scan. Patient demographic data, including age, gender, and medical history, specifically focused on CVDs were recorded. The presence or absence of periodontitis was recorded from each subject with full mouth radiographs and clinical measurements. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated as part of the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, ICACs were found in 93 subjects (45%). The bilateral ICACs were found in 43 subjects (21% of the total subjects, 46% of the subjects with ICACs). There were statistically significant associations between presence of ICACs and periodontitis (OR = 4.55), hypertension (OR = 3.02), hyperlipidemia (OR = 2.87), increasing age (OR = 2.24), and the male gender (OR = 1.85). Smoking status was not significantly correlated with ICACs. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that nearly half (45%) of the subjects displayed ICACs on the CBCT images. ICACs are significantly related to the status of chronic periodontitis, age, gender, and CVDs. A more careful review of CBCT scans is highly recommended to detect these calcifications and refer patients for further medical evaluation.

4.
Life Sci Alliance ; 3(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900826

RESUMO

Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption is thought to contribute to motoneuron (MN) loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is currently unclear whether impairment of the BSCB is the cause or consequence of MN dysfunction and whether its restoration may be directly beneficial. We revealed that SOD1 G93A , FUS ΔNLS , TDP43 G298S , and Tbk1 +/- ALS mouse models commonly shared alterations in the BSCB, unrelated to motoneuron loss. We exploit PSAM/PSEM chemogenetics in SOD1 G93A mice to demonstrate that the BSCB is rescued by increased MN firing, whereas inactivation worsens it. Moreover, we use DREADD chemogenetics, alone or in multiplexed form, to show that activation of Gi signaling in astrocytes restores BSCB integrity, independently of MN firing, with no effect on MN disease markers and dissociating them from BSCB disruption. We show that astrocytic levels of the BSCB stabilizers Wnt7a and Wnt5a are decreased in SOD1 G93A mice and strongly enhanced by Gi signaling, although further decreased by MN inactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that BSCB impairment follows MN dysfunction in ALS pathogenesis but can be reversed by Gi-induced expression of astrocytic Wnt5a/7a.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(21): 5609-5620, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor-associated macrophages correlate with increased invasiveness, growth, and immunosuppression. Activation of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) results in proliferation, differentiation, and migration of monocytes/macrophages. This phase I study evaluated the immunologic and clinical activity, and safety profile of CSF-1R inhibition with the mAb LY3022855. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced refractory metastatic breast cancer (MBC) or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) were treated with LY3022855 intravenously in 6-week cycles in cohorts: (A) 1.25 mg/kg every 2 weeks (Q2W); (B) 1.0 mg/kg on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5; (C) 100 mg once weekly; (D)100 mg Q2W. mCRPC patients were enrolled in cohorts A and B; patients with MBC were enrolled in all cohorts. Efficacy was assessed by RECIST and Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (22 MBC; 12 mCRPC) received ≥1 dose of LY3022855. At day 8, circulating CSF-1 levels increased and proinflammatory monocytes CD14DIMCD16BRIGHT decreased. Best RECIST response was stable disease in five patients with MBC (23%; duration, 82-302 days) and three patients with mCRPC (25%; duration, 50-124 days). Two patients with MBC (cohort A) had durable stable disease >9 months and a third patient with MBC had palpable reduction in a nontarget neck mass. Immune-related gene activation in tumor biopsies posttreatment was observed. Common any grade treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, asymptomatic increased lipase, and creatine phosphokinase. CONCLUSIONS: LY3022855 was well tolerated and showed evidence of immune modulation. Clinically meaningful stable disease >9 months was observed in two patients with MBC.

6.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1114-1124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483360

RESUMO

In many areas of oncology, we lack sensitive tools to track low-burden disease. Although cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shows promise in detecting cancer mutations, we found that the combination of low tumor fraction (TF) and limited number of DNA fragments restricts low-disease-burden monitoring through the prevailing deep targeted sequencing paradigm. We reasoned that breadth may supplant depth of sequencing to overcome the barrier of cfDNA abundance. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of cfDNA allowed ultra-sensitive detection, capitalizing on the cumulative signal of thousands of somatic mutations observed in solid malignancies, with TF detection sensitivity as low as 10-5. The WGS approach enabled dynamic tumor burden tracking and postoperative residual disease detection, associated with adverse outcome. Thus, we present an orthogonal framework for cfDNA cancer monitoring via genome-wide mutational integration, enabling ultra-sensitive detection, overcoming the limitation of cfDNA abundance and empowering treatment optimization in low-disease-burden oncology care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1059-1066, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The public subsidy in Australia of bortezomib (Velcade) for untreated non-transplant multiple myeloma patients was based on the VISTA trial. AIMS: To ascertain the health outcomes of bortezomib in 'real world' transplant-ineligible elderly patients, compared to trial data. METHODS: Patient and treatment data were extracted from an oncology information system, laboratory information system and medical chart audits for three Queensland public hospitals. RESULTS: We identified 74 patients; the median age was 75 years. Our cohort comprised 47% patients who were International Staging System stage III, 45% at stage II and 8% at stage I. Patients who had comorbidities, such as cardiac disease (41%), pulmonary disease (14%), diabetes (22%), peripheral neuropathy (14%) and other comorbidities (41%) at baseline were included. The common regimens prescribed were VMP, CVD and VD, and most patients (n = 73) received bortezomib on a once-weekly or twice-a-week basis. The overall response rate was 81%. Half (53%) of the patients did not complete their planned therapy due to toxicity (30%), suboptimal response or disease progression (15%), or death on treatment (8%). Overall survival was 40.7 months and progression free survival was 17.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients were older, had worse disease characteristics and more comorbidities than patients in the VISTA trial. While response rates were similar, survival outcomes appeared worse. Bortezomib-based treatment in the real world setting still carries a high risk of toxicity in the elderly population.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3193-3201, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205463

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preclinical data suggest that radiotherapy (RT) is beneficial in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. Clinical trials have explored RT with single-agent immune checkpoint blockade, but no trials have reported RT with the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 study of patients with stage IV melanoma receiving nivolumab and ipilimumab with two different dose-fractionation schemes of RT. Patients had at least one melanoma metastasis that would benefit from palliative RT and one metastasis that would not be irradiated. Nivolumab 1 mg/kg + ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and extracranial RT with a dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions was administered in Cohort A, and then 27 Gy in 3 fractions was administered in Cohort B. The primary outcome was safety. RESULTS: Twenty patients were treated (10 in each cohort). The rates of treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events in Cohort A and B were 40% and 30%, respectively. There were no grade ≥3 adverse events attributed to RT. Patients responded to treatment outside of the irradiated volume (Cohort A 5/10; Cohort B 1/9). No evaluable patients had progression of irradiated metastases. Immunologic changes were seen in the peripheral blood with increases in T-cell receptor diversity in some responding patients. CONCLUSIONS: RT with nivolumab and ipilimumab was safe compared with historical data of nivolumab and ipilimumab alone. Immunologic effects were observed in the peripheral blood. Randomized studies are ongoing to assess whether RT increases the efficacy of nivolumab and ipilimumab.

9.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(3): 402-408, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971541

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with advanced sarcoma have limited treatment options. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) has been shown to increase tumor-specific immune activation via augmenting antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Objective: To examine whether T-VEC in combination with pembrolizumab is associated with increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 expression and thus with increased antitumor activity in patients with locally advanced or metastatic sarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, single-institution phase 2 interventional trial of T-VEC plus pembrolizumab enrolled 20 patients with locally advanced or metastatic sarcoma between March 16 and December 4, 2017, for whom at least 1 standard systemic therapy had failed. The median duration of therapy was 16 weeks (range, 7-67 weeks). Reported analyses include data through December 14, 2018. Intervention: Patients received pembrolizumab (200-mg flat dose) intravenously and T-VEC (first dose, ≤4 mL × 106 plaque-forming units [PFU]/mL; second and subsequent doses, ≤4 mL × 108 PFU/mL) injected into palpable tumor site(s) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR; complete response and partial response) at 24 weeks determined by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1, criteria. Secondary end points included best ORR by immune-related RECIST criteria, progression-free survival rate at 24 weeks, overall survival, and safety. Results: All 20 patients (12 women [60%]; median age, 63.5 years [range, 24-90 years]) were evaluable for response. The study met its primary end point of evaluating the best ORR at 24 weeks determined by RECIST, version 1.1, criteria; the best ORR was 30% (95% CI, 12%-54%; n = 6). The ORR overall was 35% (95% CI, 15%-59%; n = 7). The incidence of grade 3 treatment-related adverse events was low (4 patients [20%]). There were no grade 4 treatment-related adverse events or treatment-related deaths. Conclusions and Relevance: In this phase 2 clinical trial, treatment with T-VEC plus pembrolizumab was associated with antitumor activity in advanced sarcoma across a range of sarcoma histologic subtypes, with a manageable safety profile. This combination therapy met its predefined primary study end point; further evaluation of T-VEC in combination with pembrolizumab for patients with select sarcoma subtypes is planned. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03069378.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have higher fracture rates and post-fracture mortality than the general population, but bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is less predictive of fracture in this patient group. Bone biopsy and high-resolution imaging indicate that cortical thickness (CT) is reduced and cortical porosity is increased in ESKD. The aim of this study was to assess cortical parameters using DXA in patients with ESKD. It was hypothesized that these parameters would show deterioration and be associated with fracture. METHODS: Using advanced hip analysis, normal age-related ranges were determined from 752 female and 861 male femur scans and were compared with scans of 226 patients with ESKD at the time of transplantation. RESULTS: Compared with controls, female patients had lower mean±SD CT (mms) at the femoral neck (FN) (2.59 ± 1.42 versus 5.23 ± 1.85), calcar (3.46 ± 1.07 versus 5.09 ± 1.30) and shaft (4.42 ± 1.21 versus 7.44 ± 2.07; P < 0.001 for each), and buckling ratios were higher (8.21 ± 4.6 versus 3.63 ± 1.42; P < 0.001), indicating greater FN instability. All findings were similar for men. Prevalent fracture was documented in 28.8% of patients; 12.4% vertebral only, 8.4% non-vertebral only and 8% vertebral plus non-vertebral. In adjusted models, each 1 SD reduction in FN CT and increase in the buckling ratio was associated with a respective 1.73 (1.22-2.46)- and 1.82 (1.49-2.86)-fold increase in the risk of prevalent vertebral fracture. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ESKD, DXA-derived cortical parameters are markedly abnormal compared with age- and sex-matched controls. These parameters should be assessed for incident fracture prediction and targeting treatment.

12.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1231-1243, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358999

RESUMO

Understanding resistance to antibody to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; anti-PD-1) is crucial for the development of reversal strategies. In anti-PD-1-resistant models, simultaneous anti-PD-1 and vaccine therapy reversed resistance, while PD-1 blockade before antigen priming abolished therapeutic outcomes. This was due to induction of dysfunctional PD-1+CD38hi CD8+ cells by PD-1 blockade in suboptimally primed CD8 cell conditions induced by tumors. This results in erroneous T cell receptor signaling and unresponsiveness to antigenic restimulation. On the other hand, PD-1 blockade of optimally primed CD8 cells prevented the induction of dysfunctional CD8 cells, reversing resistance. Depleting PD-1+CD38hi CD8+ cells enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Furthermore, non-responding patients showed more PD-1+CD38+CD8+ cells in tumor and blood than responders. In conclusion, the status of CD8+ T cell priming is a major contributor to anti-PD-1 therapeutic resistance. PD-1 blockade in unprimed or suboptimally primed CD8 cells induces resistance through the induction of PD-1+CD38hi CD8+ cells that is reversed by optimal priming. PD-1+CD38hi CD8+ cells serve as a predictive and therapeutic biomarker for anti-PD-1 treatment. Sequencing of anti-PD-1 and vaccine is crucial for successful therapy.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
13.
Oncologist ; 24(11): 1422-e1013, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346130

RESUMO

LESSON LEARNED: Circulating tumor cells, microRNA markers, or other biomarkers merit examination as part of correlative scientific analyses in prospective clinical trials. BACKGROUND: Platinum chemotherapy resistance occurs in approximately 25% of patients with ovarian carcinoma; however, no biomarkers of ovarian carcinoma chemoresistance have been validated. We performed a prospective trial designed to identify tumor-based predictive biomarkers of platinum resistance. METHODS: Tumor specimens were collected from 29 women with newly diagnosed histopathologically proven primary ovarian carcinoma. Of these, 23 women had specimens accessible for assessment and outcome data available regarding chemosensitive versus chemoresistance status via review of the medical record. Tumor slices were stained with antibodies against two microRNAs (miRNAs 29b and 199a) differentially expressed in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Additionally, blood samples obtained at the time of diagnosis were analyzed for the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 64 years, and 82.6% had high-grade epithelial carcinomas. The baseline median CA-125 was 464 (range 32-2,782). No statistically significant differences were observed in miR29b or 199a expression in platinum-resistant/refractory versus platinum-sensitive tumors. Furthermore, the presence of CTCs was not found to be statistically significantly predictive of eventual platinum resistance. CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed no differences in miR29b and 199a expression, and differences in baseline CTCs in women with newly diagnosed ovarian tumors were not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Platina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247990

RESUMO

Mutated forms of the RAS oncogene drive 30% of all cancers, but they cannot be targeted therapeutically using currently available drugs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that create a heterogenous tumor environment harboring both mutant and wild-type RAS have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined horizontal transfer of mutant KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Virus) between colorectal cancer (CRC) cells via a direct form of cell-to-cell communication called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). TNT formation was significantly higher in CRC cell lines expressing mutant KRAS than CRC cell lines expressing wild-type RAS; this effect was most pronounced in metastatic CRC cell lines with both mutant KRAS and deficiency in mismatch repair proteins. Using inverted and confocal fluorescence time-lapse and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)-based microscopy, we observed GFP-tagged mutant KRASG12D protein trafficking between CRC cells through TNTs within a span of seconds to several minutes. Notably, acquisition of mutant KRAS increased Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and upregulated tunneling nanotube formation in recipient wildtype CRC cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that intercellular horizontal transfer of RAS can occur by TNTs. We propose that intercellular transfer of mutant RAS can potentially induce intratumoral heterogeneity and result in a more invasive phenotype in recipient cells.

15.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(4): 517-524, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246317

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a motor disorder affecting movement, muscle tone and posture due to damage to the foetal or infant brain. The subsequent lack of ambulation, nutritional deficiencies, anticonvulsant use and hormonal deficiencies have been implicated in the low bone mass associated with this condition. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) during adolescence and young adulthood in individuals with CP. The effect of ambulation, nutrition, hypogonadism on longitudinal changes in aBMD is also examined. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five subjects with CP who had longitudinal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at a single tertiary hospital between 2006 and 2018. RESULTS: Mean age at first DXA was 19.4 years (range: 10-36 years), 57.8% were male and 80% were nonambulatory. The mean Z-scores at baseline were <-2.0 at all sites - lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and total body (TB). The median change in aBMD was +1.2%-1.9% per year in all subjects but in those <20 years of age, the median change was 4%-8% per year. Z-scores across all sites remained stable over time. Reduced functional state as measured by the gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) had a small negative effect on aBMD over time. CONCLUSION: In adolescents with CP, low bone mass was evident from the baseline DXA. However, significant bone accrual occurred during the second decade, followed by bone maintenance in young adulthood. Future studies should focus on optimizing bone health from early childhood.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/metabolismo , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Colo do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Med ; 25(5): 759-766, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036879

RESUMO

Modulating T cell homeostatic mechanisms with checkpoint blockade can efficiently promote endogenous anti-tumor T cell responses1-11. However, many patients still do not benefit from checkpoint blockade12, highlighting the need for targeting of alternative immune pathways13. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) is an attractive target for immunotherapy, owing to its capacity to promote effector T cell (Teff) functions14,15 and hamper regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression16-20. On the basis of the potent preclinical anti-tumor activity of agonist anti-GITR antibodies, reported by us and others16,21,22, we initiated the first in-human phase 1 trial of GITR agonism with the anti-GITR antibody TRX518 ( NCT01239134 ). Here, we report the safety profile and immune effects of TRX518 monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and provide mechanistic preclinical evidence to rationally combine GITR agonism with checkpoint blockade in future clinical trials. We demonstrate that TRX518 reduces circulating and intratumoral Treg cells to similar extents, providing an easily assessable biomarker of anti-GITR activity. Despite Treg reductions and increased Teff:Treg ratios, substantial clinical responses were not seen. Similarly, in mice with advanced tumors, GITR agonism was not sufficient to activate cytolytic T cells due to persistent exhaustion. We demonstrate that T cell reinvigoration with PD-1 blockade can overcome resistance of advanced tumors to anti-GITR monotherapy. These findings led us to start investigating TRX518 with PD-1 pathway blockade in patients with advanced refractory tumors ( NCT02628574 ).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/agonistas , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/imunologia , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
17.
Cancer Cell ; 34(5): 775-791.e3, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423297

RESUMO

Tumor-reactive T cell exhaustion prevents the success of immune therapies. Pegilodecakin activates intratumoral CD8+ T cells in mice and induces objective tumor responses in patients. Here we report that pegilodecakin induces hallmarks of CD8+ T cell immunity in cancer patients, including elevation of interferon-γ and GranzymeB, expansion and activation of intratumoral CD8+ T cells, and proliferation and expansion of LAG-3+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells. On pegilodecakin, newly expanded T cell clones, undetectable at baseline, become 1%-10% of the total T cell repertoire in the blood. Elevation of interleukin-18, expansion of LAG-3+ PD-1+ T cells and novel T cell clones each correlated with objective tumor responses. Combined pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 increased the expansion of LAG-3+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Granzimas/sangue , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/química , Interleucina-10/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
JCI Insight ; 3(19)2018 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282828

RESUMO

Innate immune responses that control early Mtb infection are poorly understood, but understanding these responses may inform vaccination and immunotherapy strategies. Innate T cells that respond to conserved bacterial ligands such as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) and γδ T cells are prime candidates to mediate these early innate responses but have not been examined in subjects who have been recently exposed to Mtb. We recruited a cohort living in the same household with an active tuberculosis (TB) case and examined the abundance and functional phenotypes of 3 innate T cell populations reactive to M. tuberculosis: γδ T, invariant NK T (iNKT), and MAIT cells. Both MAIT and γδ T cells from subjects with Mtb exposure display ex vivo phenotypes consistent with recent activation. However, both MAIT and γδ T cell subsets have distinct response profiles, with CD4+ MAIT and γδ T cells accumulating after infection. Examination of exposed but uninfected contacts demonstrates that resistance to initial infection is accompanied by robust MAIT cell CD25 expression and granzyme B production coupled with a depressed CD69 and IFNγ response. Finally, we demonstrate that MAIT cell abundance and function correlate with the abundance of specific gut microbes, suggesting that responses to initial infection may be modulated by the intestinal microbiome.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 6: 95, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333973

RESUMO

Intercellular communication is vital to the ecosystem of cancer cell organization and invasion. Identification of key cellular cargo and their varied modes of transport are important considerations in understanding the basic mechanisms of cancer cell growth. Gap junctions, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies play key roles as physical modalities in mediating intercellular transport. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs)-narrow actin-based cytoplasmic extensions-are unique structures that facilitate direct, long distance cell-to-cell transport of cargo, including microRNAs, mitochondria, and a variety of other sub cellular components. The transport of cargo via TNTs occurs between malignant and stromal cells and can lead to changes in gene regulation that propagate the cancer phenotype. More notably, the transfer of these varied molecules almost invariably plays a critical role in the communication between cancer cells themselves in an effort to resist death by chemotherapy and promote the growth and metastases of the primary oncogenic cell. The more traditional definition of "Systems Biology" is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. The concept, however, is now used more widely in biology for a variety of contexts, including interdisciplinary fields of study that focus on complex interactions within biological systems and how these interactions give rise to the function and behavior of such systems. In fact, it is imperative to understand and reconstruct components in their native context rather than examining them separately. The long-term objective of evaluating cancer ecosystems in their proper context is to better diagnose, classify, and more accurately predict the outcome of cancer treatment. Communication is essential for the advancement and evolution of the tumor ecosystem. This interplay results in cancer progression. As key mediators of intercellular communication within the tumor ecosystem, TNTs are the central topic of this article.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(10): 3792-3800, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020460

RESUMO

Context: Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with short stature, gonadal failure, and fractures. Spinal trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel bone imaging modality that has not been evaluated in TS. Objective: To evaluate TBS in TS and its association with bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent fracture, and risk factors. Design and Setting: Longitudinal study of TS from a single tertiary hospital between 2006 and 2017. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-eight subjects with TS aged 20 to 49 years who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Main Outcome Measures: TBS, DXA parameters, and prevalent fractures were investigated. Results: Normal, partially degraded, and degraded TBSs were observed in 39 (67%), 15 (26%), and four (7%) subjects, respectively. High rates of prescribed estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) with stable TBS and BMD were observed during follow-up. TBS was positively correlated with spine and femoral neck (FN) BMD and Z-scores (all P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with age (-0.004 per year; P = 0.014) and delay in ERT initiation in women with primary amenorrhea (-0.010 per year; P < 0.001). Fractures were present in 17 (31%) subjects. Low TBS had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator curve for predicting prevalent fracture than low bone mass at either the spine or FN (P < 0.05). Subjects with no history of fracture were more likely to have a normal TBS (P = 0.023). Conclusions: BMD and TBS can be preserved with early initiation and continued use of ERT. TBS may provide additional fracture risk prediction to standard DXA parameters in TS and needs to be validated in larger prospective studies.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Turner/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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