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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800270

RESUMO

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are small non-enveloped bisegmented double-stranded RNA viruses found in humans, mammals, and birds. Increasing molecular epidemiology studies suggest a high sequence diversity of PBVs in numerous hosts and the environment. In this study, using 229 fecal samples from dromedary camels in Dubai, 52.8% were positive for PBVs, of which 77.7% and 41.3% were positive for genogroup I and II, respectively, and 19.0% were positive for both genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed high diversity among the sequences of genogroup I and II dromedary PBVs. Marked nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in 75.5% and 46.0% of genogroup I and II RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences, respectively, suggesting the co-existence of multiple strains in the same specimen. Both high genetic diversity and prevalence of genogroup I and II PBV in dromedaries were observed. In fact, the prevalence of genogroup II PBV in dromedaries is the highest among all animals to date. The complete/near-complete core genomes of five genogroup I and one genogroup II dromedary PBVs and partial segment 1 and 2 of both genotypes were also sequenced. The dromedary PBV genome organizations were similar to those of other animals. Genetic reassortment and mutation are both important in the ecology and evolution of PBVs.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Picobirnavirus/classificação , Picobirnavirus/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Fezes , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Picobirnavirus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(8): 2072-2085, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060177

RESUMO

Pandemic cholera is a major concern for public health because of its high mortality and morbidity. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments were performed on a representative strain of the current cholera pandemic. Although the base-pair substitution mutation rates in Vibrio cholerae (1.24 × 10-10 per site per generation for wild-type lines and 3.29 × 10-8 for mismatch repair deficient lines) are lower than that previously reported in other bacteria using MA analysis, we discovered specific high rates (8.31 × 10-8 site/generation for wild-type lines and 1.82 × 10-6 for mismatch repair deficient lines) of base duplication or deletion driven by large-scale copy number variations (CNVs). These duplication-deletions are located in two pathogenic islands, IMEX and the large integron island. Each element of these islands has discrepant rate in rapid integration and excision, which provides clues to the pandemicity evolution of V. cholerae. These results also suggest that large-scale structural variants such as CNVs can accumulate rapidly during short-term evolution. Mismatch repair deficient lines exhibit a significantly increased mutation rate in the larger chromosome (Chr1) at specific regions, and this pattern is not observed in wild-type lines. We propose that the high frequency of GATC sites in Chr1 improves the efficiency of MMR, resulting in similar rates of mutation in the wild-type condition. In addition, different mutation rates and spectra were observed in the MA lines under distinct growth conditions, including minimal media, rich media and antibiotic treatments.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases/genética , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/microbiologia , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Pandemias , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Meios de Cultura , Período de Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rifampina/farmacologia , Vibrio cholerae/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 6(6): e53, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634353

RESUMO

Coronavirus HKU15 is a deltacoronavirus that was discovered in fecal samples of pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. Over the past three years, Coronavirus HKU15 has been widely detected in pigs in East/Southeast Asia and North America and has been associated with fatal outbreaks. In all such epidemiological studies, the virus was generally only detected in fecal/intestinal samples. In this molecular epidemiology study, we detected Coronavirus HKU15 in 9.6% of the nasopharyngeal samples obtained from 249 pigs in Hong Kong. Samples that tested positive were mostly collected during winter. Complete genome sequencing of the Coronavirus HKU15 in two nasopharyngeal samples revealed quasispecies in one of the samples. Two of the polymorphic sites involved indels, but the other two involved transition substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two nasopharyngeal strains in the present study were most closely related to the strains PDCoV/CHJXNI2/2015 from Jiangxi, China, and CH/Sichuan/S27/2012 from Sichuan, China. The outbreak strains in the United States possessed highly similar genome sequences and were clustered monophyletically, whereas the Asian strains were more diverse and paraphyletic. The detection of Coronavirus HKU15 in respiratory tracts of pigs implies that in addition to enteric infections, Coronavirus HKU15 may be able to cause respiratory infections in pigs and that in addition to fecal-oral transmission, the virus could possibly spread through the respiratory route. The presence of the virus in respiratory samples provides an alternative clinical sample to confirm the diagnosis of Coronavirus HKU15 infection. Quasispecies were unprecedentedly observed in the 5'-untranslated region of coronavirus genomes.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/virologia , Quase-Espécies , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
5.
J Gen Virol ; 96(11): 3212-3222, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350163

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N1 have continued to perpetuate with divergent genetic variants in poultry within Asia since 2003. Further dissemination of Asian-derived H5 HPAIVs to Europe, Africa and, most recently, to the North American continent has occurred. We report an outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 among falcons kept for hunting and other wild bird species bred as falcon prey in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, during the autumn of 2014. The causative agent was identified as avian influenza virus subtype H5N1, clade 2.3.2.1c, by genetic and phylogenetic analyses. High mortality in infected birds was in accordance with systemic pathomorphological and histological alterations in affected falcons. Genetic analysis showed the HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.3.2.1c is a reassortant in which the PB2 segment was derived from an Asian-origin H9N2 virus lineage. The Dubai H5N1 viruses were closely related to contemporary H5N1 HPAIVs from Nigeria, Burkina-Faso, Romania and Bulgaria. Median-joining network analysis of 2.3.2.1c viruses revealed that the Dubai outbreak was an episode of a westward spread of these viruses on a larger scale from unidentified Asian sources. The incursion into Dubai, possibly via infected captive hunting falcons returning from hunting trips to central Asian countries, preceded outbreaks in Nigeria and other West African countries. The alarmingly enhanced geographical mobility of clade 2.3.2.1.c and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses may represent another wave of transcontinental dissemination of Asian-origin HPAIV H5 viruses, such as the outbreak at Qinghai Lake caused by clade 2.2 ('Qinghai' lineage) in 2005.


Assuntos
Falconiformes/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
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