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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493692

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 25% of the adult population worldwide and is associated with significant clinical and economic burden.1 However, heterogeneous definitions and inaccurate terminology contribute to variations in prevalence estimates and may not comprehensively incorporate complex metabolic dysfunctions that exist. An international expert panel consensus proposed updated nomenclature, metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), and associated criteria to more accurately capture this complex multisystem metabolic disorder.2 Although it has not replaced NAFLD, the term MAFLD has been positively received given it more comprehensively incorporates the metabolic derangements that contribute to risk of fatty liver and it may be more practical for clinicians to identify patients with fatty liver.3 We describe prevalence of MAFLD among US adults based on these recently proposed nomenclature and definition.2.

2.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Among candidates listed for liver transplant (LT), MELD score may not capture acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) severity. Data on interaction between ACLF and MELD score in predicting waitlist (WL) mortality are scanty. METHODS: UNOS database (01/2002 to 06/2018) on LT listings for adults with cirrhosis and ACLF (without HCC) was analyzed. ACLF grades 1, 2, 3a, and 3b- were defined using modified EASL-CLIF criteria. RESULTS: Of 18,416 candidates with ACLF at listing (mean age 54 years, 69% males, 63% Caucasians), 90-d WL mortality (patient death or being too sick for LT) was 21.6% (18%, 20%, 25%, and 39% for ACLF grades 1, 2, 3a, and 3b respectively). Fine and Gray regression model identified interaction between MELD and ACLF grade, with higher impact of ACLF at lower MELD score. Other variables included candidate's age, gender, liver disease etiology, listing MELD, ACLF grade, obesity, and performance status. A score developed using parameter estimates from the interaction model on the derivation cohort (N=9181) stratified the validation cohort (N=9235) to four quartiles Q1 (score <10.42), Q2 (10.42-12.81), Q3 (12.82-15.50), and Q4 (>15.50). WL mortality increased with each quartile from 13%, 18%, 23%, and 36% respectively. Observed versus expected deciles on WL mortality in validation cohort showed good calibration (goodness of fit P=0.98) and correlation (R=0.99). CONCLUSION: Among selected candidates who are in ACLF at listing, MELD score and ACLF interact in predicting cumulative risk of 90-d WL mortality, with higher impact of ACLF grade at lower listing MELD score. Validating these findings in large prospective studies will support to factor in both MELD and ACLF in prioritizing transplant candidates and allocation of liver grafts.

3.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 2.1 million individuals in the United Stats have cirrhosis, including 513,000 with decompensated cirrhosis. Hospitals with high safety-net burden disproportionately serve ethnic minorities and have reported worse outcomes in surgical literature. No studies to date have evaluated whether hospital safety-net burden negatively affects hospitalization outcomes in cirrhosis. We aim to evaluate the impact of hospitals' safety-net burden and patients' ethnicity on in-hospital mortality among cirrhosis patients. METHODS: Using National Inpatient Sample data from 2012 to 2016, the largest United States all-payer inpatient health care claims database of hospital discharges, cirrhosis-related hospitalizations were stratified into tertiles of safety-net burden: high (HBH), medium (MBH), and low (LBH) burden hospitals. Safety-net burden was calculated as percentage of hospitalizations per hospital with Medicaid or uninsured payer status. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 322,944 cirrhosis-related hospitalizations (63.7% white, 9.9% black, 15.6% Hispanic), higher odds of hospitalization in HBHs versus MBH/LBHs was observed in blacks (OR, 1.26; 95%CI, 1.17-1.35; P<0.001) and Hispanics (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.50-1.78; P<0.001) versus whites. Cirrhosis-related hospitalizations in MBHs or HBHs were associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality versus LBHs (HBH vs. LBH: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P=0.044). Greater odds of in-hospital mortality was observed in blacks (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.34; P<0.001) versus whites. CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis patients hospitalized in HBH experienced 5% higher mortality than those in LBH, resulting in significantly greater deaths in cirrhosis patients. Even after adjusting for safety-net burden, blacks with cirrhosis had 27% higher in-hospital mortality compared with whites.

4.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147365

RESUMO

We examined trends in mortality from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in the setting of drug overdose. Using US Census and national mortality records (2009-2018), we identified deaths with HCV infection, ALD and drug overdose. HCV-related mortality without drug overdose increased up to 2014, followed by a marked decrease. Mortality from HCV and drug overdose increased significantly. Whereas ALD-related mortality without drug overdose continued to rise, no significant trend from ALD with drug overdose was noted. HCV-related mortalities reduced after the introduction of DAA agents, while drug overdose-related mortality in HCV was constantly increased.

5.
Cancer ; 127(1): 45-55, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients from rural and low-income households may have suboptimal access to liver disease care, which may translate into worse HCC outcomes. The authors provide a comprehensive update of HCC incidence and outcomes among US adults, focusing on the effect of rural geography and household income on tumor stage and mortality. METHODS: The authors retrospectively evaluated adults with HCC using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 2004 to 2017. HCC incidence was reported per 100,000 persons and was compared using z-statistics. Tumor stage at diagnosis used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results staging system and was evaluated with multivariate logistic regression. HCC mortality was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: HCC incidence plateaued for most groups, with the exception of American Indians/Alaska Natives (2004-2017: APC, 4.17%; P < .05) and patients in the lowest household income category (<$40,000; 2006-2017: APC, 2.80%; P < .05). Compared with patients who had HCC in large metropolitan areas with a population >1 million, patients in more rural regions had higher odds of advanced-stage HCC at diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20; P = .04) and higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; P = .02). Compared with the highest income group (≥$70,000), patients with HCC who earned <$40,000 annually had higher odds of advanced-stage HCC (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P = .03) and higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.31; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients from rural regions and lower-income households had more advanced tumor stage at diagnosis and significantly higher HCC mortality. These disparities likely reflect suboptimal access to consistent high-quality liver disease care, including HCC surveillance.

6.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 850-856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030855

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Existing studies have highlighted significant disparities in HCC outcomes, particularly among vulnerable populations, including ethnic minorities, safety-net populations, underinsured patients, and those with low socioeconomic status and high risk behaviors. The majority of these studies have focused on HCC surveillance. Although HCC surveillance is one of the most important first steps in HCC monitoring and management, it is only one step in the complex HCC cascade of care that evolves from surveillance to diagnosis and tumor staging that leads to access to HCC therapies. In this current review, we explore the disparities that exist along this complex HCC cascade of care and further highlight potential interventions that have been implemented to improve HCC outcomes. These interventions focus on patient, provider, and system level factors and provide a potential framework for health systems to implement quality improvement initiatives to improve HCC monitoring and management.

8.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961608

RESUMO

We assessed the burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) among transplant candidates in the United States (US), along with waitlist outcomes for this population. We analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry from 2005-2017. Patients with ACLF were identified using the EASL-CLIF criteria and categorized into NAFLD, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We used linear regression and Chow's test to determine significance in trends and evaluated waitlist outcomes using Fine and Gray's competing risks regression and Cox proportional hazards regression. Between 2005 and 2017, waitlist registrants for NAFLD-ACLF rose by 331.6% from 134 to 574 candidates (p<0.001), representing the largest percentage increase in the study population. ALD-ACLF also increased by 206.3% (348 to 1,066 registrants, p<0.001), while HCV-ACLF declined by 45.2% (p<0.001). As of 2017, the NAFLD-ACLF population consisted primarily of individuals age 60 or older (54.1%), and linear regression demonstrated a significant rise in the proportion of patients age ≥ 65 in this group (ß=0.90, p=0.011). Since 2014, NAFLD-ACLF grade 1 was associated with a greater risk of waitlist mortality relative to ALD-ACLF (SHR=1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.44) and HCV-ACLF (SHR=1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.71), among patients ≥ 60 years old. Mortality was similar among the three groups for patients with ACLF grade 2 or 3. CONCLUSION: NAFLD is the fastest rising etiology of cirrhosis associated with ACLF among patients listed in the US. As the NAFLD population continues to grow and age, patients with NAFLD-ACLF will likely have the highest risk of waitlist mortality.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate impact of urbanicity and household income on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence among US adults. METHODS: HCC incidence was evaluated by rural-urban geography and median annual household income using 2004-2017 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS: Although overall HCC incidence was highest in large metropolitan regions, average annual percent change in HCC incidence was greatest among more rural regions. Individuals in lower income categories had highest HCC incidence and greatest average annual percent change in HCC incidence. DISCUSSION: Disparities in HCC incidence by urbanicity and income likely reflect differences in risk factors, health-related behaviors, and barriers in access to healthcare services.

10.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812034

RESUMO

AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and alcoholic cirrhosis disproportionately affect ethnic minority and safety-net populations. We evaluate the impact of a hospital's safety net burden (SNB) on in-hospital mortality and costs among patients with AH and alcoholic cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2012-2016 National Inpatient Sample. SNB was calculated as percentage of hospitalizations with Medicaid or uninsured payer status. Associations between hospital SNB and in-hospital mortality and costs were evaluated with adjusted multivariable logistic regression and linear regression models. RESULTS: Among 21,898 AH-related hospitalizations, compared to low SNB hospitals (LBH), patients hospitalized in high SNB hospitals (HBH) were younger (44.4 y vs. 47.4 y, P < 0.001) and more likely to be African American (11.3% vs. 7.7%, P < 0.001) or Hispanic (15.4% vs. 8.4%, P < 0.001). AH-related hospitalizations in HBH had a non-significant trend towards higher odds of mortality (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.98-1.65, P = 0.07) and higher mean hospitalizations costs. Among 108,669 alcoholic cirrhosis-related hospitalizations, patients in HBH were younger (53.3 y vs. 55.8 y, P < 0.001) and more likely to be African American (8.2% vs. 7.3%, P < 0.001) or Hispanic (24.4% vs. 12.0%, P < 0.001) compared to LBH. Compared to alcoholic cirrhosis-related hospitalizations in LBH, mortality was higher among medium SNB (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.17, P = 0.007) and HBH (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, P = 0.05). Mean hospitalization costs were not different by SNB status. CONCLUSIONS: HBH hospitals predominantly serve ethnic minorities and underinsured/uninsured populations. The higher in-hospital mortality associated HBH particularly for alcoholic cirrhosis patients is alarming given its increasing burden in the USA.

11.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815873

RESUMO

GOALS: This study evaluates the real-world comorbidity burden, health care resource utilization (HRU), and costs among nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) patients with advanced liver diseases [compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DCC), liver transplantation (LT), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. BACKGROUND: NAFLD/NASH is a leading cause of liver diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult NAFLD/NASH patients were identified retrospectively from MarketScan Commercial claims (2006-2016). Following initial NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, advanced liver diseases were identified using the first diagnosis as their index date. Mean annual all-cause HRU and costs (2016 USD) were reported. Adjusted costs were estimated through generalized linear models. Cumulative costs were illustrated for patient subsets with variable follow-up for each stage. RESULTS: Within the database, 485,774 NAFLD/NASH patients met eligibility criteria. Of these, 93.4% (453,564) were NAFLD/NASH patients without advanced liver diseases, 1.6% (7665) with CC, 3.3% (15,833) with DCC, 0.1% (696) with LT, and 0.1% (428) with HCC. Comorbidity burden was high and increased as patients progressed through liver disease severity stages. Compared with NAFLD/NASH without advanced liver diseases (adjusted costs: $23,860), the annual cost of CC, DCC, LT, and HCC were 1.22, 5.64, 8.27, and 4.09 times higher [adjusted costs: $29,078, $134,448, $197,392, and $97,563 (P<0.0001)]. Inpatient admissions significantly drove increasing HRU. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for early identification and effective management of NAFLD/NASH patients to minimize comorbidity burden, HRU, and costs in the privately insured US population.

12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(9): 1412-1428, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769426

RESUMO

Esophageal symptoms are common and may indicate the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), structural processes, motor dysfunction, behavioral conditions, or functional disorders. Esophageal physiologic tests are often performed when initial endoscopic evaluation is unrevealing, especially when symptoms persist despite empiric management. Commonly used esophageal physiologic tests include esophageal manometry, ambulatory reflux monitoring, and barium esophagram. Functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) has recently been approved for the evaluation of esophageal pressure and dimensions using volumetric distension of a catheter-mounted balloon and as an adjunctive test for the evaluation of symptoms suggestive of motor dysfunction. Targeted utilization of esophageal physiologic tests can lead to definitive diagnosis of esophageal disorders but can also help rule out organic disorders while making a diagnosis of functional esophageal disorders. Esophageal physiologic tests can evaluate obstructive symptoms (dysphagia and regurgitation), typical and atypical GERD symptoms, and behavioral symptoms (belching and rumination). Certain parameters from esophageal physiologic tests can help guide the management of GERD and predict outcomes. In this ACG clinical guideline, we used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process to describe performance characteristics and clinical value of esophageal physiologic tests and provide recommendations for their utilization in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico/métodos , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Manometria/métodos
13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(7): 1204-1213, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) may be underestimated by the model for end-stage liver disease-sodium (MELD-Na) score. AIM: To assess waitlist outcomes across varying grades of ACLF among a cohort of patients listed with a MELD-Na score ≥35, and therefore having similar priority for liver transplantation. METHODS: We analysed the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, years 2010-2017. Waitlist outcomes were evaluated using Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. RESULTS: We identified 6342 candidates at listing with a MELD-Na score ≥35, of whom 3122 had ACLF-3. Extra-hepatic organ failures were present primarily in patients with four to six organ failures. Competing risks regression revealed that candidates listed with ACLF-3 had a significantly higher risk for 90-day waitlist mortality (Sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.78) relative to patients with lower ACLF grades. Subgroup analysis of ACLF-3 revealed that both the presence of three organ failures (SHR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63) or four to six organ failures at listing (SHR = 3.01; 95% CI 2.54-3.58) was associated with increased waitlist mortality. Candidates with four to six organ failures also had the lowest likelihood of receiving liver transplantation (SHR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.68). The Share 35 rule was associated with reduced 90-day waitlist mortality among the full cohort of patients listed with ACLF-3 and MELD-Na score ≥35 (SHR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.49-0.70). However, Share 35 rule implementation was not associated with reduced waitlist mortality among patients with four to six organ failures (SHR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.58-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: The MELD-Na score disadvantages patients with ACLF-3, both with and without extra-hepatic organ failures. Incorporation of organ failures into allocation policy warrants further exploration.

14.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(7): 998-1011, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626832

RESUMO

Limited evidence exists on the clinical and economic burden of advanced fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) due to the invasiveness of liver biopsies for accurately staging liver disease. The fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score allows for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by using clinical and laboratory data alone. This study aimed to characterize the comorbidity burden, health care resource use (HCRU), and costs among patients with NAFLD/NASH with FIB-4-defined F3 (bridging fibrosis) and F4 (compensated cirrhosis) fibrosis. Using the Optum Research Database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 251,725 commercially insured adult patients with ≥1 NAFLD/NASH diagnosis from January 1, 2008, to August 31, 2016, and laboratory data required to calculate FIB-4 scores. Five criteria using varying FIB-4 score cutoffs were identified based on expert clinical opinion and published literature. Date of the first valid FIB-4 score marked the index date. Mean annual HCRU and costs were calculated during the pre-index and post-index periods. The prevalence of FIB-4-based F3 and F4 fibrosis was 0.40%-2.72% and 1.03%-1.61%, respectively. Almost 50% of patients identified with FIB-4-based F3 or F4 had type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or renal impairment. Total all-cause health care costs increased significantly from pre-index to post-index for patients with FIB-4-based F3 fibrosis across most criteria (17%-29% increase) and patients with FIB-4-based F4 fibrosis across all criteria (47%-48% increase). Inpatient costs were the primary drivers of this increment. Conclusion: Significant increases in HCRU and costs were observed following FIB-4-based identification of F3 and F4 fibrosis among U.S. adults with NAFLD/NASH. These data suggest the importance of early identification and management of NAFLD/NASH that may halt or reduce the risk of disease progression and limit the underlying burden.

15.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520887

RESUMO

GOALS: The goals of this study were to evaluate trends in hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality among US adults with alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. BACKGROUND: Alcohol-associated liver disease contributes to significant liver-related morbidity in the United States, among which inpatient care is a major driver of clinical and economic burden. METHODS: Using the 2007-2014 National Inpatient Sample, alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis hospitalizations were identified. Survey-weighted annual hospitalization trends were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and age and compared using χ and Student's t-test methods. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models evaluated predictors of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 159,973 alcohol-associated liver disease hospitalizations, 83.7% had a primary diagnosis of alcohol-associated cirrhosis and 18.4% had a primary diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis. Sex-specific differences in hospitalizations emerged, with significantly higher hospitalization rates seen in males versus females among both alcoholic hepatitis [incidence rate ratio=3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.47-4.01, P<0.01] and alcohol-associated cirrhosis (incidence rate ratio=2.68, 95% CI: 2.21-3.71, P<0.01). Differences in hospitalization and mortality by ethnicity were observed for both alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. African Americans with alcohol-associated cirrhosis had significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites [odds ratio (OR)=1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.24, P<0.01], whereas Native Americans (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.06-3.34, P=0.030) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.00-4.06, P=0.048) with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increasing alcohol-associated cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis hospitalizations in the United States. The highest rates were observed in men and among Native American and Hispanic ethnic minorities. Significant ethnicity-specific disparities in mortality were observed.

17.
Liver Transpl ; 26(12): 1594-1602, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574423

RESUMO

Recent data have demonstrated >80% 1-year survival probability after liver transplantation (LT) for patients with severe acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, longterm outcomes and complications are still unknown for this population. Our aim was to compare longterm patient and graft survival among patients transplanted across all grades of ACLF. We analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing database for the years 2004-2017. Patients with ACLF were identified using the European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure criteria. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to determine patient and graft survival and associated predictors of mortality in adjusted models. A total of 56,801 patients underwent transplantation of which 31,024 (54.6%) had no ACLF, 8757 (15.4%) had ACLF grade 1, 9039 (15.9%) had ACLF grade 2, and 7891 (14.1%) had ACLF grade 3. The 5-year patient survival after LT was lower in the ACLF grade 3 patients compared with the other groups (67.7%; P < 0.001), although after year 1, the percentage decrease in survival was similar among all groups. Infection was the primary cause of death among all patient groups in the first year. Infection was the primary cause of death among all patient groups in the first year. After the first year, infection was the main cause of death in patients transplanted with ACLF grade 1 (32.1%), ACLF grade 2 (33.9%), and ACLF grade 3 (37.6%), whereas malignancy was the predominant cause of death in those transplanted with no ACLF (28.5%). In conclusion, patients transplanted with ACLF grade 3 had lower 5-year survival as compared with patients with ACLF grades 0-2, but mortality rates were not significantly different after the first year following LT. Graft survival was excellent across all ACLF groups.

18.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 15(4): 157-161, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395243

RESUMO

http://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2046-2484/video/15-4-reading-robinson a video presentation of this article https://www.wileyhealthlearning.com/Activity/7088585/disclaimerspopup.aspx questions and earn CME.

20.
Popul Health Manag ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392454

RESUMO

Understanding the health care system's ability to move patients through the hepatitis C virus (HCV) care cascade from screening to treatment is essential for HCV elimination. This retrospective study describes real-world HCV screening rates and care cascade steps to identify gaps in care for patients with HCV in the United States. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years as of the measurement year (calendar year between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2016) and were commercial and Medicare Advantage with Part D members in the Optum Research database with continuous health plan enrollment 5 years prior to and during the measurement year. Incident and prevalent screening rates were calculated for each measurement year. Care cascade steps were analyzed via Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression among patients with a positive HCV ribonucleic acid test. Cohorts were selected based on birth year (pre-1945 birth cohort, 1945-1965 birth cohort, post-1965 birth cohort). Among the 1945-1965 birth cohort, incident and prevalent screening rates increased from 1.6% to 4.7% and 10% to 18%, respectively, from 2010 to 2016. The proportion of patients attaining each independent cascade step within 1 year of screening increased significantly over time for genotype testing (P = 0.0283) and receipt of treatment (P < 0.0001). Median time from screening to treatment decreased from 1627 days (95% CI 1335-1871) in 2010 to 282 days (95% CI 223-498) in 2015. HCV screening and completion of the care cascade has improved for certain patient populations; however, gaps remain, highlighting the urgent need to address barriers to meeting HCV elimination goals.

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