Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 556
Filtrar
1.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether eyes with pathologic myopia can be identified and whether each type of myopic maculopathy lesion in fundus photographs can be diagnosed by deep learning (DL) algorithms. DESIGN: A DL algorithm was developed to recognize myopic maculopathy features and to automatically categorize the myopic maculopathy. SUBJECTS: We examined 7020 fundus images from 4432 highly myopic eyes obtained from the Advanced Clinical Center for Myopia. METHODS: DL algorithms were developed to recognize the key features of myopic maculopathy with 5176 fundus images of 2588 highly myopic eyes. These algorithms were also used to develop a META-PM categorizing system (META-PM CS) by adding a specific processing layer. Models and system were evaluated by 1844 fundus images of 1844 highly myopic eyes. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the sensitivity, and specificity were used to determine the performance of each DL algorithm. The rate of correct predictions was used to determine the performance of the META-PM CS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four trained DL models were able to recognize the lesions of myopic maculopathy accurately with high sensitivity and specificity. The META-PM CS also had a high accuracy and was qualified to be used in a semi-automated way during screening for myopic maculopathy in highly myopic eyes. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the DL models was 84.44% for diffuse atrophy, 87.22% for patchy atrophy, 85.10% for macular atrophy, and 37.07% for choroidal neovascularization, and the AUC values with 95% CI of 0.970 (0.966-0.974), 0.978 (0.967-0.987), 0.982 (0.971-0.994) and 0.881 (0.854-0.902), respectively. The rate of total correct predictions from META-PM CS was 87.53%, with rates of 90.18%, 95.28%, 97.50%, and 91.14% respectively for each type of lesion. The META-PM CS had an overall rate of 92.08% in detecting pathologic myopia correctly which was defined as having myopic maculopathy equal to or more serious than diffuse atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The novel DL models and systems can achieve high sensitivity and specificity in identifying the different types of lesions of myopic maculopathy. These results will assist in the screening for pathologic myopia and subsequent protection of patients against low vision and blindness caused by myopic maculopathy.

2.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe an experience of a large-scale self-initiated recruitment of patients to a self-monitoring initiative for macular pathology over the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: observational study with retrospective analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2272 patients from the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC) whose visits were rescheduled over lockdown (13 April to 1 June 2020) were offered participation in a self-monitoring initiative administered by SNEC with the Alleye application as the testing instrument. METHODS: This was an observational study with retrospective analysis. Demographics and characteristics were compared between those that signed up and those that did not. Similar comparisons were made between compliant patients versus those that were not. Outcomes were tracked for 6 months starting from the commencement of lockdown. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participation and compliance rates. Patient characteristics that were more likely to participate and remain compliant. RESULTS: A total 732 (32%) patients participated in this self-monitoring initiative. Those who participated were younger (62 vs. 68 years, p<0·001), men, and living with family. Patients not on treatment, and those with poorer vision in their worse-seeing eye were more likely to participate. When grouped according to diagnosis, the proportion who participated was highest for diabetic macular edema (52%), non-neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD)(42%), diabetic retinopathy(35%), retinal vein occlusions(18%) , and nAMD(15%) (p<0·001). Testing compliance rate was 43% (315/732). Compliant patients were older, on treatment, and had poorer vision in the worse-seeing eye. Trigger events occurred in 33 patients with 5 patients having clinically verified disease progression (1·6%). CONCLUSION: We provide real-world data on characteristics of patients with stable retinal diseases who were offered and participated in, and were compliant, with a self-monitoring program. The lower participation rate compared to standardized clinical studies reflects the difficulties in implementation for such initiatives in real-world settings. Despite this, self-monitoring continues to show promise in relieving clinic resources, suggesting the feasibility of scaling such programs beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 801, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436709

RESUMO

The retinal microcirculation is increasingly receiving credit as a relatively easily accessible microcirculatory bed that correlates closely with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. The effect of high salt (NaCl) intake on the retinal microcirculation is currently unknown. Therefore, we performed an exploratory randomized cross-over dietary intervention study in 18 healthy males. All subjects adhered to a two-week high-salt diet and low-salt diet, in randomized order, after which fundus photographs were taken and assessed using a semi-automated computer-assisted program (SIVA, version 4.0). Outcome parameters involved retinal venular and arteriolar tortuosity, vessel diameter, branching angle and fractal dimension. At baseline, participants had a mean (SD) age of 29.8 (4.4) years and blood pressure of 117 (9)/73 (5) mmHg. Overall, high-salt diet significantly increased venular tortuosity (12.2%, p = 0.001). Other retinal parameters were not significantly different between diets. Changes in arteriolar tortuosity correlated with changes in ambulatory systolic blood pressure (r = - 0.513; p = 0.04). In conclusion, high-salt diet increases retinal venular tortuosity, and salt-induced increases in ambulatory systolic blood pressure associate with decreases in retinal arteriolar tortuosity. Besides potential eye-specific consequences, both phenomena have previously been associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, underlining the deleterious microcirculatory effects of high salt intake.

4.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between self-reported visual disability and cognitive impairment in older individuals is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of vision-specific functioning (VSF), vision-specific mobility (VSM) and visual acuity (VA) with clinically assessed cognitive impairment in the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Population-based. SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and seventy-four adults aged ≥60 years at higher risk of possible cognitive impairment by the Abbreviated Mental Test and progressive forgetfulness question. METHODS: VSF and VSM were measured using Rasch-transformed continuous scores of two Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire domains. Cognitive impairment was objectively determined using detailed neuropsychological testing and defined as no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), moderate CIND only and moderate CIND or dementia. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 874 participants (49.0% males, mean age (SD) 65.5 (7.0) years), 277, 281 and 316 had NCI, mild CIND and moderate CIND or dementia, respectively. Compared to NCI, the odds of moderate CIND, and moderate CIND or dementia increased for every SD worsening in VSF (OR: 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82, and OR: 1.52, 95%CI 1.19-1.94, respectively) and VSM (OR: 1.42, 95%CI 1.11-1.81, and OR: 1.50, 95%CI 1.15-1.95). Similarly, the odds of mild CIND (OR: 1.62, 95%CI 1.19-2.22), moderate CIND (OR: 1.93, 95%CI 1.45-2.58), and moderate CIND or dementia (OR: 2.25, 95%CI 1.62-3.11) increased significantly with every SD worsening of VA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasise the importance of interventions to prevent vision loss and improve quality of life to reduce likelihood of age-related cognitive decline.

5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e124-e134, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509383

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive disruptions within health care, both directly as a result of the infectious disease outbreak, and indirectly because of public health measures to mitigate against transmission. This disruption has caused rapid dynamic fluctuations in demand, capacity, and even contextual aspects of health care. Therefore, the traditional face-to-face patient-physician care model has had to be re-examined in many countries, with digital technology and new models of care being rapidly deployed to meet the various challenges of the pandemic. This Viewpoint highlights new models in ophthalmology that have adapted to incorporate digital health solutions such as telehealth, artificial intelligence decision support for triaging and clinical care, and home monitoring. These models can be operationalised for different clinical applications based on the technology, clinical need, demand from patients, and manpower availability, ranging from out-of-hospital models including the hub-and-spoke pre-hospital model, to front-line models such as the inflow funnel model and monitoring models such as the so-called lighthouse model for provider-led monitoring. Lessons learnt from operationalising these models for ophthalmology in the context of COVID-19 are discussed, along with their relevance for other specialty domains.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Oftalmologia , Telemedicina , Triagem , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018485, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496185

RESUMO

Background High blood pressure (BP) and obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent among children globally. Although prior studies have shown their adverse impacts on macrovascular health, less is known about their effects on microvascular heath. This study aims to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of hypertensive BP and obesity on retinal vasculature in young children. Method and Results 1006 children aged 6 to 8 years were recruited from the Hong Kong Children Eye Study. Quantitative retinal vascular parameters, including central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents and retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, were measured from retinal photographs following a standardized protocol. BP and body mass index were categorized according to reference values from American Academy of Pediatrics and International Obesity Task Force guidelines respectively. Children with hypertensive systolic BP had the narrowest central retinal arteriolar equivalents compared with children with either elevated or normotensive systolic BP (162.4, 164.6, and 167.1 µm; P-trend <0.001). Increased standardized systolic BP was associated with narrower central retinal arteriolar equivalents (ß=-2.276 µm, P<0.001), wider central retinal venular equivalents (1.177, P=0.007), and decreased arteriolar fractal dimensions (ß=-0.004, P=0.034). Children with obesity had the smallest arteriolar fractal dimensions compared with children with overweightness and normal weight (1.211, 1.234, and 1.240; P-trend=0.004). Children with both hypertensive BP and either overweightness or obesity had the narrowest central retinal arteriolar equivalents and smallest arteriolar Df (P-trend<0.001 and P-trend=0.007). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the potential synergistic or additive effects for both hypertensive BP and obesity on retinal vasculature in children.

7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369881

RESUMO

Despite the growing importance of real-world evidence (RWE) for guiding clinical decisions in retinal disease, there is currently no widely used guidance available for assessing the quality and relevance of RWE studies in ophthalmology. This paper summarizes the development of a user-friendly tool that facilitates assessment of the quality of available RWE for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic macular oedema (DME) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A literature search was conducted to identify tools developed to assess the quality of RWE, in order to identify the most appropriate framework on which to base this tool. The Good Research for Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) guidelines was chosen for this purpose as it is designed to assess the quality of observational studies and has been extensively validated, including demonstration of strong sensitivity and specificity. The GRACE guidelines were adapted to develop a straightforward tabular tool that allows simple assessment and comparison of the quality of published evidence in retinal disease for researchers and physicians alike, and includes guidance on treatment details, outcome measures, study population, and controlling for bias. The newly developed tool provides a simple method to support assessment of the strength of evidence and certainty of conclusions drawn from RWE in retinal disease, to ensure clinical decision-making is influenced by the highest quality evidence.

8.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(5): e240-e249, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep learning is a novel machine learning technique that has been shown to be as effective as human graders in detecting diabetic retinopathy from fundus photographs. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to evaluate the potential savings of two deep learning approaches as compared with the current human assessment: a semi-automated deep learning model as a triage filter before secondary human assessment; and a fully automated deep learning model without human assessment. METHODS: In this economic analysis modelling study, using 39 006 consecutive patients with diabetes in a national diabetic retinopathy screening programme in Singapore in 2015, we used a decision tree model and TreeAge Pro to compare the actual cost of screening this cohort with human graders against the simulated cost for semi-automated and fully automated screening models. Model parameters included diabetic retinopathy prevalence rates, diabetic retinopathy screening costs under each screening model, cost of medical consultation, and diagnostic performance (ie, sensitivity and specificity). The primary outcome was total cost for each screening model. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were done to gauge the sensitivity of the results to key model assumptions. FINDINGS: From the health system perspective, the semi-automated screening model was the least expensive of the three models, at US$62 per patient per year. The fully automated model was $66 per patient per year, and the human assessment model was $77 per patient per year. The savings to the Singapore health system associated with switching to the semi-automated model are estimated to be $489 000, which is roughly 20% of the current annual screening cost. By 2050, Singapore is projected to have 1 million people with diabetes; at this time, the estimated annual savings would be $15 million. INTERPRETATION: This study provides a strong economic rationale for using deep learning systems as an assistive tool to screen for diabetic retinopathy. FUNDING: Ministry of Health, Singapore.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Análise Custo-Benefício , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/economia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/economia , Modelos Biológicos , Telemedicina/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Árvores de Decisões , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia/economia , Fotografação , Exame Físico , Retina/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura , Telemedicina/métodos
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(6): e295-e302, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for chronic kidney disease is a challenge in community and primary care settings, even in high-income countries. We developed an artificial intelligence deep learning algorithm (DLA) to detect chronic kidney disease from retinal images, which could add to existing chronic kidney disease screening strategies. METHODS: We used data from three population-based, multiethnic, cross-sectional studies in Singapore and China. The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study (SEED, patients aged ≥40 years) was used to develop (5188 patients) and validate (1297 patients) the DLA. External testing was done on two independent datasets: the Singapore Prospective Study Program (SP2, 3735 patients aged ≥25 years) and the Beijing Eye Study (BES, 1538 patients aged ≥40 years). Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2. Three models were trained: 1) image DLA; 2) risk factors (RF) including age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes, and hypertension; and 3) hybrid DLA combining image and RF. Model performances were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). FINDINGS: In the SEED validation dataset, the AUC was 0·911 for image DLA (95% CI 0·886 -0·936), 0·916 for RF (0·891-0·941), and 0·938 for hybrid DLA (0·917-0·959). Corresponding estimates in the SP2 testing dataset were 0·733 for image DLA (95% CI 0·696-0·770), 0·829 for RF (0·797-0·861), and 0·810 for hybrid DLA (0·776-0·844); and in the BES testing dataset estimates were 0·835 for image DLA (0·767-0·903), 0·887 for RF (0·828-0·946), and 0·858 for hybrid DLA (0·794-0·922). AUC estimates were similar in subgroups of people with diabetes (image DLA 0·889 [95% CI 0·850-0·928], RF 0·899 [0·862-0·936], hybrid 0·925 [0·893-0·957]) and hypertension (image DLA 0·889 [95% CI 0·860-0·918], RF 0·889 [0·860-0·918], hybrid 0·918 [0·893-0·943]). INTERPRETATION: A retinal image DLA shows good performance for estimating chronic kidney disease, underlying the feasibility of using retinal photography as an adjunctive or opportunistic screening tool for chronic kidney disease in community populations. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fotografação/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , China , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura
10.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130553

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of real-world evidence (RWE) in changing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy treatment practices and improving real-world treatment strategies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).A PubMed literature search was performed to review the large number of English-language studies conducted to investigate the real-world effectiveness of anti-VEGF (aflibercept and ranibizumab) treatment paradigms available for nAMD.The evidence for pro re nata (PRN), treat-and-extend (T&E) and fixed bimonthly dosing regimens for anti-VEGF treatment of nAMD were reviewed and findings are summarised. RWE demonstrated that T&E regimens optimise visual outcomes while reducing burden on patients, clinics and physicians, compared with both fixed-dose and PRN regimens.RWE has helped to develop and improve real-world treatment strategies in nAMD, with the aim of optimising visual outcomes and reducing treatment burden in clinical practice. Of the various regimens, a T&E regimen is most likely to adequately balance clinical outcomes and treatment burden for patients with nAMD.

11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046867

RESUMO

Retinal blood vessels provide information on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we report the development and validation of deep-learning models for the automated measurement of retinal-vessel calibre in retinal photographs, using diverse multiethnic multicountry datasets that comprise more than 70,000 images. Retinal-vessel calibre measured by the models and by expert human graders showed high agreement, with overall intraclass correlation coefficients of between 0.82 and 0.95. The models performed comparably to or better than expert graders in associations between measurements of retinal-vessel calibre and CVD risk factors, including blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol and glycated-haemoglobin levels. In retrospectively measured prospective datasets from a population-based study, baseline measurements performed by the deep-learning system were associated with incident CVD. Our findings motivate the development of clinically applicable explainable end-to-end deep-learning systems for the prediction of CVD on the basis of the features of retinal vessels in retinal photographs.

12.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(10): 32, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062395

RESUMO

Purpose: A validated questionnaire assessing diabetic retinopathy (DR)- and diabetic macular edema (DME)-related knowledge (K) and attitudes (A) is lacking. We developed and validated the Diabetic Retinopathy Knowledge and Attitudes (DRKA) questionnaire and explored the association between K and A and the self-reported difficulty accessing DR-related information (hereafter referred to as Access). Methods: In this mixed-methods study, eight focus groups with 36 people with DR or DME (mean age, 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 53% male) were conducted to develop content (phase 1). In phase 2, we conducted 10 cognitive interviews to refine item phrasing. In phase 3, we administered 28-item K and nine-item A pilot questionnaires to 200 purposively recruited DR/DME patients (mean age, 59.0 ± 10.6 years; 59% male). The psychometric properties of DRKA were assessed using Rasch and classical methods. The association between K and A and DR-related Access was assessed using univariable linear regression of mean K/A scores against Access. Results: Following Rasch-guided amendments, the final 22-item K and nine-item A scales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, although precision remained borderline. The scales displayed excellent discriminant validity, with K/A scores increasing as education level increased. Compared to those with low scores, those with high K/A scores were more likely to report better access to DR-related information, with K scores of 0.99 ± 0.86 for no difficulty; 0.79 ± 1.05 for a little difficulty; and 0.24 ± 0.85 for moderate or worse difficulty (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The psychometrically robust 31-item DRKA questionnaire can measure DR- and DME-related knowledge and attitudes. Translational Relevance: The DRKA questionnaire may be useful for interventions to improve DR-related knowledge and attitudes and, in turn, optimize health behaviors and health literacy.

13.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; : 100900, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898686

RESUMO

The simultaneous maturation of multiple digital and telecommunications technologies in 2020 has created an unprecedented opportunity for ophthalmology to adapt to new models of care using tele-health supported by digital innovations. These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-dependent ecosystem offering opportunities to develop new models of eye care addressing the challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. Ophthalmology has thrived in some of these areas partly due to its many image-based investigations. Tele-health and AI provide synchronous solutions to challenges facing ophthalmologists and healthcare providers worldwide. This article reviews how countries across the world have utilised these digital innovations to tackle diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, refractive error correction, cataract and other anterior segment disorders. The review summarises the digital strategies that countries are developing and discusses technologies that may increasingly enter the clinical workflow and processes of ophthalmologists. Furthermore as countries around the world have initiated a series of escalating containment and mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of eye care services globally has been significantly impacted. As ophthalmic services adapt and form a "new normal", the rapid adoption of some of telehealth and digital innovation during the pandemic is also discussed. Finally, challenges for validation and clinical implementation are considered, as well as recommendations on future directions.

14.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810524

RESUMO

Previously, variation in retinal vascular caliber has been reported in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but findings remain inconsistent. To help clarify this we conducted individual participant data meta-analysis and aggregate data meta-analysis on summary estimates to evaluate cross-sectional associations between retinal vascular caliber and CKD. A systematic review was performed using Medline and EMBASE for articles published until October 2018. The aggregate analysis used a two-stage approach combining summary estimates from eleven studies (44,803 patients) while the individual participant analysis used a one-stage approach combining raw data from nine studies (33,222 patients). CKD stages 3-5 was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber (central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalent) were assessed from retinal photographs using computer-assisted methods. Logistic regression estimated relative risk of CKD stages 3-5 associated with a 20 µm decrease (approximately one standard deviation) in central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalent. Prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 was 11.2 % of 33,222 and 11.3 % of 44,803 patients in the individual participant and aggregate data analysis, respectively. No significant associations were detected in adjusted analyses between central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalent and CKD stages 3-5 in the aggregate analysis for central retinal arteriolar relative risk (0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.03); venular equivalent (0.99, 0.95- 1.04) or individual participant central retinal arteriolar (0.99, 0.95-1.04) or venular equivalent (1.01, 0.97-1.05). Thus, meta-analysis provided little evidence to suggest that cross sectional direct measurements of retinal vascular caliber was associated with CKD stages 3-5 in the general population. Hence, meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating the association between retinal parameters and CKD stages 3-5 may be warranted.

15.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop consensus terminology in the setting of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and to develop and validate a set of diagnostic criteria not requiring indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) for differentiating PCV from typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) based on a combination of OCT and color fundus photography findings. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test results. PARTICIPANTS: Panel of retina specialists. METHODS: As part of the Asia-Pacific Ocular Imaging Society, an international group of experts surveyed and discussed the published literature regarding the current nomenclature and lesion components for PCV, and proposed an updated consensus nomenclature that reflects our latest understanding based on imaging and histologic reports. The workgroup evaluated a set of diagnostic features based on OCT images and color fundus photographs for PCV that may distinguish it from typical nAMD and assessed the performance of individual and combinations of these non-ICGA features, aiming to propose a new set of diagnostic criteria that does not require the use of ICGA. The final recommendation was validated in 80 eyes from 2 additional cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consensus nomenclature system for PCV lesion components and non-ICGA-based criteria to differentiate PCV from typical nAMD. RESULTS: The workgroup recommended the terms polypoidal lesion and branching neovascular network for the 2 key lesion components in PCV. For the diagnosis of PCV, the combination of 3 OCT-based major criteria (sub-retinal pigment epithelium [RPE] ring-like lesion, en face OCT complex RPE elevation, and sharp-peaked PED) achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. Validation of this new scheme in a separate subset 80 eyes achieved an accuracy of 82%. CONCLUSIONS: We propose updated terminology for PCV lesion components that better reflects the nature of these lesions and is based on international consensus. A set of practical diagnostic criteria applied easily to spectral-domain OCT results can be used for diagnosing PCV with high accuracy in clinical settings in which ICGA is not performed routinely.

16.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 357-365, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740069

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common specific complication of diabetes mellitus. Traditional care for patients with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy is fragmented, uncoordinated and delivered in a piecemeal nature, often in the most expensive and high-resource tertiary settings. Transformative new models incorporating digital technology are needed to address these gaps in clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Artificial intelligence and telehealth may improve access, financial sustainability and coverage of diabetic retinopathy screening programs. They enable risk stratifying patients based on individual risk of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy including diabetic macular edema (DME), and predicting which patients with DME best respond to antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. SUMMARY: Progress in artificial intelligence and tele-ophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy screening, including artificial intelligence applications in 'real-world settings' and cost-effectiveness studies are summarized. Furthermore, the initial research on the use of artificial intelligence models for diabetic retinopathy risk stratification and management of DME are outlined along with potential future directions. Finally, the need for artificial intelligence adoption within ophthalmology in response to coronavirus disease 2019 is discussed. Digital health solutions such as artificial intelligence and telehealth can facilitate the integration of community, primary and specialist eye care services, optimize the flow of patients within healthcare networks, and improve the efficiency of diabetic retinopathy management.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Oftalmologia/economia , Oftalmologia/tendências , Telemedicina/economia , Telemedicina/métodos
17.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(7): 3, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832210

RESUMO

Purpose: Evaluate efficiency, precision, and validity of RetCAT, which comprises ten diabetic retinopathy (DR) quality of life (QoL) computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Methods: In this cross-sectional clinical study, 183 English and/or Mandarin-speaking participants with DR (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 56.4 ± 11.9 years; 38% proliferative DR [worse eye]) were recruited from retinal clinics in Singapore. Participants answered the RetCAT tests (Symptoms, Activity Limitation, Mobility, Emotional, Health Concerns, Social, Convenience, Economic, Driving, and Lighting), which were capped at seven items each, and other questionnaires, and underwent eye tests. Our primary evaluation focused on RetCAT efficiency (i.e. standard error of measurement [SEM] ± SD achieved and time needed to complete each CAT). Secondary evaluations included an assessment of RetCAT's test precision and validity. Results: Mean SEM across all RetCAT tests was 0.351, ranging from 0.272 ± 0.130 for Economic to 0.484 ± 0.130 for Emotional. Four tests (Mobility, Social, Convenience, and Driving) had a high level of measurement error. The median time to take each RetCAT test was 1.79 minutes, ranging from 1.12 (IQR [interquartile range] 1.63) for Driving to 3.28 (IQR 2.52) for Activity Limitation. Test precision was highest for participants at the most impaired end of the spectrum. Most RetCAT tests displayed expected correlations with other scales (convergent/divergent validity) and were sensitive to DR and/or vision impairment severity levels (criterion validity). Conclusions: RetCAT can provide efficient, precise, and valid measurement of DR-related QoL impact. Future application of RetCAT will employ a stopping rule based on SE rather than number of items to ensure that all tests can detect meaningful differences in person abilities. Responsiveness of RetCAT to treatment interventions must also be determined. Translational Relevance: RetCAT may be useful for measuring the patient-centered impact of DR severity and disease progression and evaluating the effectiveness of new therapies.

18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(9): 935-942, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672800

RESUMO

Importance: The 2-year efficacy and safety of combination therapy of ranibizumab administered together with verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) compared with ranibizumab monotherapy in participants with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are unclear. Objective: To compare treatment outcomes of ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, plus prompt vPDT combination therapy with ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, monotherapy in participants with PCV for 24 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 24-month, phase IV, double-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial (EVEREST II) was conducted among Asian participants from August 7, 2013, to March 2, 2017, with symptomatic macular PCV confirmed using indocyanine green angiography. Interventions: Participants (N = 322) were randomized 1:1 to ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, plus vPDT (combination therapy group; n = 168) or ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, plus sham PDT (monotherapy group; n = 154). All participants received 3 consecutive monthly ranibizumab injections, followed by a pro re nata regimen. Participants also received vPDT (combination group) or sham PDT (monotherapy group) on day 1, followed by a pro re nata regimen based on the presence of active polypoidal lesions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Evaluation of combination therapy vs monotherapy at 24 months in key clinical outcomes, treatment exposure, and safety. Polypoidal lesion regression was defined as the absence of indocyanine green hyperfluorescence of polypoidal lesions. Results: Among 322 participants (mean [SD] age, 68.1 [8.8] years; 225 [69.9%] male), the adjusted mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gains at month 24 were 9.6 letters in the combination therapy group and 5.5 letters in the monotherapy group (mean difference, 4.1 letters; 95% CI, 1.0-7.2 letters; P = .005), demonstrating that combination therapy was superior to monotherapy by the BCVA change from baseline to month 24. Combination therapy was superior to monotherapy in terms of complete polypoidal lesion regression at month 24 (81 of 143 [56.6%] vs 23 of 86 [26.7%] participants; P < .001). Participants in the combination group received fewer ranibizumab injections (median, 6.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 4.0-11.0]) than the monotherapy group (median, 12.0 [IQR, 7.0-17.0]) up to month 24. The combination group required a median of 2.0 (IQR, 1.0-3.0) vPDT treatments for 24 months, with 75 of 168 participants (44.6%) requiring only 1 vPDT treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: The 24-month data findings confirm that ranibizumab therapy, given as monotherapy or in combination with vPDT, is efficacious and safe for treatment of PCV. Combination therapy with vPDT added to ranibizumab achieved superior BCVA gain, increased odds of complete polypoidal lesion regression, and fewer treatment episodes compared with ranibizumab monotherapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01846273.

19.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively assess diabetic retinopathy neurodegeneration (DRN) as quantified by retinal neuronal and axonal layers measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Articles on the topic of examining macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (m-GCIPL), macular retinal nerve fibre layer (m-RNFL), macular ganglion cell complex (m-GCC), and peripapillary RNFL (p-RNFL) measured with SD-OCT in DM subjects without DR (NDR) or with non-proliferative DR (NPDR) were searched in PubMed and Embase up to November 31, 2019. Standardized mean difference (SMD) as effect size were pooled using random-effects model. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies searched from online databases and the CUHK DM cohort were included in the meta-analysis. In the comparison between NDR and control, macular measures including mean m-GCIPL (SMD = -0.26, p = 0.003), m-RNFL (SMD = -0.26, p = 0.046), and m-GCC (SMD = -0.28; p = 0.009) were significantly thinner in the NDR group. In the comparison between NPDR and NDR, only mean p-RNFL was significantly thinner in the NPDR group (SMD = -0.27; p = 0.03), but not other macular measures. CONCLUSIONS: Thinning of retinal neuronal and axonal layers at macula as measured by SD-OCT are presented in eyes with NDR, supporting DRN may be the early pathogenesis in the DM patients without the presence of clinical signs of DR. In the future, these SD-OCT measures may be used as surrogates of DRN to stratify DM patients with a high risk of DR, and may be used as a therapeutic target if neuroprotection treatment for DR is available.

20.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(5): 399-408, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511069

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess contributions of dietary and genetic factors to ethnic differences in AMD prevalence. DESIGN: Population-based analytical study. METHODS: In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia (European ancestry n = 2826) and Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study, Singapore (Asian ancestry, n = 1900), AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Patterns of dietary composition and scores of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index were computed using food frequency questionnaire data. Genetic susceptibility to AMD was determined using either single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes, or combined odds-weighted genetic risk scores of 24 AMD-associated SNPs. Associations of AMD with ethnicity, diet, and genetics were assessed using logistic regression. Six potential mediators covering genetic, diet and lifestyle factors were assessed for their contributions to AMD risk difference between the two samples using mediation analyses. RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of any (early or late) AMD was higher in the European (16%) compared to Asian samples (9%, p < .01). Mean AMD-related genetic risk scores were also higher in European (33.3 ± 4.4) than Asian (Chinese) samples (31.7 ± 3.7, p < .001). In a model simultaneously adjusting for age, ethnicity, genetic susceptibility and Alternative Healthy Eating Index scores, only age and genetic susceptibility were significantly associated with AMD. Genetic risk scores contributed 19% of AMD risk difference between the two samples while intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed 7.2%. CONCLUSION: Genetic susceptibility to AMD was higher in European compared to Chinese samples and explained more of the AMD risk difference between the two samples than the dietary factors investigated.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...