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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7495, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820941

RESUMO

The natural history and clinical significance of pachydrusen is unclear. This study aims to compare the longitudinal changes of eyes with pachydrusen and soft drusen and progression to exudative macular neovascularisation (MNV). Patients with a diagnosis of MNV in one eye only and the fellow eye was selected as the study eye. Study eyes were required to have pachydrusen or soft drusen on fundus photographs and follow up of at least 2 years or until exudative MNV occurred. Systematic grading was performed at baseline and change in drusen area and onset of exudative MNV recorded over the period of follow up. A total of 75 eyes from 75 patients (29 with pachydrusen and 46 with soft drusen) were included. There was no difference in the rate of progression to exudative MNV in the soft and pachydrusen groups (13.3% versus 24.1%, p = 0.38). Pachydrusen, as compared to soft drusen, was associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy subtype (85.7% versus 16.7%, p < 0.01) and the location of exudation was co-localised with soft drusen but not with pachydrusen. There was a higher rate of increase in soft drusen area compared to pachydrusen area (27.7 ± 31.9%/year versus 8.7 ± 12.4%/year respectively, p < 0.01). We found no difference in the proportion of eyes that developed exudative MNV in this study however characterisation of drusen evolution patterns revealed a strong association with exudative MNV subtype.

2.
Ophthalmology ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865875

RESUMO

TOPIC: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness despite having good prognosis with early treatment. We evaluated the global extent of undetected glaucoma and the factors associated with it in this systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based epidemiological studies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Undetected glaucoma increases the risk of vision impairment, which leads to detrimental effects on the quality-of-life and socio-economic well-being of those affected. Detailed information on the extent and factors associated with undetected glaucoma aid in the development of public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies published between January 1, 1990 to June 1, 2020. Article search was conducted in online databases (PubMED, Web-of-Science), grey literatures (opengrey) and non-government organization (NGOs) reports. Our outcome measure was the proportion of glaucoma cases that were undetected previously. Manifest glaucoma included any form of glaucoma reported in the respective study and may include primary-open-angle-glaucoma (POAG), primary-angle-closure-glaucoma (PACG), and/or secondary glaucoma. Undetected glaucoma was defined as glaucoma cases that were undetected prior to diagnosis in the respective study. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled proportion and factors associated with undetected glaucoma. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines in our study. RESULTS: We identified 61 articles from 55 population-based studies (N= 189,359 participants; N= 6,949 manifest glaucoma; N= 5,558 undetected glaucoma). Globally, more than half of all glaucoma cases were previously undetected in each geographical region. Regionally, Africa (OR 12.70, 95% CI 4.91, 32.86) and Asia (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.63, 7.16) had higher odds of undetected glaucoma as compared to Europe. Countries with low human development index (HDI, <0.55) had higher proportion of undetected manifest glaucoma as compared to countries of medium to very high HDI (≥0.55, all P <0.001). In 2020, 43.78 million POAG cases were undetected, of which 76.7% reside in Africa and Asia. CONCLUSION: Undetected glaucoma is highly prevalent across diverse communities worldwide, and more common in Africa and Asia. Strategies to improve detection are needed to prevent excess visual disability and blindness due to glaucoma.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4898, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649427

RESUMO

The objective was to examine prospectively the association between retinal microvascular signs and development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in Asian and White populations. We analysed two population-based cohorts, composing of 1,221 Asians (SEED) and 703 White (WESDR) adults with diabetes. Retinal microvascular signs at baseline included vascular caliber (arteriolar-CRAE, and venular-CRVE) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Incident cases of DKD were identified after ~ 6-year. Incident cases were defined based on eGFR in SEED and proteinuria or history of renal dialysis in WESDR. The incidence of DKD were 11.8% in SEED and 14.0% in WESDR. Wider CRAE in SEED (OR = 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]) and wider CRVE (OR = 1.69 [1.02, 2.80)) in WESDR were associated with increased risk of DKD. Presence of DR was associated with an increased risk of DKD in both cohorts (SEED: OR = 1.91 [1.21, 3.01] in SEED, WESDR: OR = 1.99 [1.18, 3.35]). Adding DR and retinal vascular calibers in the model beyond traditional risk factors led to an improvement of predictive performance of DKD risk between 1.1 and 2.4%; and improved classification (NRI 3 between 9%). Microvascular changes in the retina are longitudinally associated with risk of DKD.

4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753407

RESUMO

COVID-19 has led to massive disruptions in societal, economic and healthcare systems globally. While COVID-19 has sparked a surge and expansion of new digital business models in different industries, healthcare has been slower to adapt to digital solutions. The majority of ophthalmology clinical practices are still operating through a traditional model of 'brick-and-mortar' facilities and 'face-to-face' patient-physician interaction. In the current climate of COVID-19, there is a need to fuel implementation of digital health models for ophthalmology. In this article, we highlight the current limitations in traditional clinical models as we confront COVID-19, review the current lack of digital initiatives in ophthalmology sphere despite the presence of COVID-19, propose new digital models of care for ophthalmology and discuss potential barriers that need to be considered for sustainable transformation to take place.

6.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 6(1): e000661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786381

RESUMO

Objective: We examined the hypothesis that baseline retinal vascular geometry in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) predicts disease activity 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Methods and analysis: We included 47 eyes from 40 patients with treatment-naïve PDR in a 6-month prospective study. Diagnosis of PDR and disease activity was evaluated by wide-field fluorescein angiography (Optomap, Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland, UK). At baseline and 6-month follow-up, the retinal vessel geometry was measured on optic disc centred images using semiautomated software Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the Retina (VAMPIRE, Dundee, Scotland). Results: At baseline, mean age and duration of diabetes was 51.6 and 21.4 years, and 62.5% were men. Seventeen eyes (36.2%) had progression of PDR during follow-up. At baseline, we found higher retinal arteriolar calibre (31.3±0.8 vs 28.8±0.8 pixels, p=0.02) and venous fractal dimension (FD) (1.257±0.011 vs 1.222±0.011, p=0.02) in eyes with progression of PDR as compared with eyes with non-progression. In a multiple logistic regression model, both higher retinal arteriolar calibre (OR 1.34, 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.64, p<0.01) and venular FD (OR 1.15, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.27, p<0.01) predicted progression of PDR. Venular calibre was seen to increase from baseline to month six regardless of disease progression (non-progression 45.0±0.7 vs 52.7±1.8 pixels, p<0.01; progression 46.2±0.8 vs 51.0±1.7 pixels, p<0.01). Conclusion: Our prospective study showed that arteriolar calibre and venular FD at baseline were predictive of disease activity 6 months after PRP treatment in patients with treatment-naïve PDR.

7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(1): e29-e40, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In current approaches to vision screening in the community, a simple and efficient process is needed to identify individuals who should be referred to tertiary eye care centres for vision loss related to eye diseases. The emergence of deep learning technology offers new opportunities to revolutionise this clinical referral pathway. We aimed to assess the performance of a newly developed deep learning algorithm for detection of disease-related visual impairment. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study, using retinal fundus images from 15 175 eyes with complete data related to best-corrected visual acuity or pinhole visual acuity from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study, we first developed a single-modality deep learning algorithm based on retinal photographs alone for detection of any disease-related visual impairment (defined as eyes from patients with major eye diseases and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/40), and moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment (eyes with disease and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/60). After development of the algorithm, we tested it internally, using a new set of 3803 eyes from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. We then tested it externally using three population-based studies (the Beijing Eye study [6239 eyes], Central India Eye and Medical study [6526 eyes], and Blue Mountains Eye Study [2002 eyes]), and two clinical studies (the Chinese University of Hong Kong's Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy study [971 eyes] and the Outram Polyclinic Study [1225 eyes]). The algorithm's performance in each dataset was assessed on the basis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). FINDINGS: In the internal test dataset, the AUC for detection of any disease-related visual impairment was 94·2% (95% CI 93·0-95·3; sensitivity 90·7% [87·0-93·6]; specificity 86·8% [85·6-87·9]). The AUC for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment was 93·9% (95% CI 92·2-95·6; sensitivity 94·6% [89·6-97·6]; specificity 81·3% [80·0-82·5]). Across the five external test datasets (16 993 eyes), the algorithm achieved AUCs ranging between 86·6% (83·4-89·7; sensitivity 87·5% [80·7-92·5]; specificity 70·0% [66·7-73·1]) and 93·6% (92·4-94·8; sensitivity 87·8% [84·1-90·9]; specificity 87·1% [86·2-88·0]) for any disease-related visual impairment, and the AUCs for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment ranged between 85·9% (81·8-90·1; sensitivity 84·7% [73·0-92·8]; specificity 74·4% [71·4-77·2]) and 93·5% (91·7-95·3; sensitivity 90·3% [84·2-94·6]; specificity 84·2% [83·2-85·1]). INTERPRETATION: This proof-of-concept study shows the potential of a single-modality, function-focused tool in identifying visual impairment related to major eye diseases, providing more timely and pinpointed referral of patients with disease-related visual impairment from the community to tertiary eye hospitals. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação/métodos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura/epidemiologia
8.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741582

RESUMO

AIM: To provide contemporary longitudinal data on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a multi-ethnic population of whites, African Americans, Chinese and Hispanics in the United States. METHODS: A prospective, multi-region, multi-ethnic population-based cohort study that included 498 participants with diabetes, aged 45-84 years at baseline, from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with retinal images obtained twice, on average 8 years apart. Presence and severity of DR were graded from these retinal images according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Main outcome measures were 8-year incidence, progression and improvement of DR, and their associated risk factors. RESULTS: Over the 8 years, the cumulative rates were 19.2% for incident DR, 17.3% for DR progression, 23.3% for DR improvement, 2.7% for incident vision-threatening DR, 1.8% for incident proliferative DR and 2.2% for incident macular oedema. In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with incident DR were higher glycosylated haemoglobin (relative risk (RR) 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.41) and higher systolic blood pressure (RR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.25). Significant factors associated with DR progression were higher glycosylated haemoglobin (RR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.43) and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (RR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.03). CONCLUSION: Over an 8-year period, approximately one in five participants with diabetes developed DR, while almost a quarter of those with DR at baseline showed improvement, possibly reflecting the positive impact of clinical and public health efforts in improving diabetes care in the United States over the last two decades.

9.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To explore if retinal findings are associated with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited participants positive for COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab, with no medical history. Subjects underwent retinal imaging with an automated imaging device (3D OCT-1 Maestro, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) to obtain colour fundus photographs (CFP) and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) scans of the macula. Data on personal biodata, medical history and vital signs were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: 108 patients were recruited. Mean age was 36.0±5.4 years. 41 (38.0%) had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at presentation. Of 216 eyes, 25 (11.6%) had retinal signs-eight (3.7%) with microhaemorrhages, six (2.8%) with retinal vascular tortuosity and two (0.93%) with cotton wool spots (CWS). 11 eyes (5.1%) had hyper-reflective plaques in the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer layer on OCT, of which two also had retinal signs visible on CFP (CWS and microhaemorrhage, respectively). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of retinal signs in symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients (12 (15.0%) vs 13 (9.6%), p=0.227). Patients with retinal signs were significantly more likely to have transiently elevated blood pressure than those without (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: One in nine had retinal microvascular signs on ocular imaging. These signs were observed even in asymptomatic patients with normal vital signs. These retinal microvascular signs may be related to underlying cardiovascular and thrombotic alternations associated with COVID-19 infection.

10.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X21990980, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530830

RESUMO

To determine whether white matter network disruption mediates the association between MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and cognitive impairment. Participants (n = 253, aged ≥60 years) from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study underwent neuropsychological assessments and MRI. CeVD markers were defined as lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), microbleeds, cortical microinfarcts, cortical infarcts and intracranial stenosis (ICS). White matter microstructure damage was measured as fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity by tract based spatial statistics from diffusion tensor imaging. Cognitive function was summarized as domain-specific Z-scores.Lacunar counts, WMH volume and ICS were associated with worse performance in executive function, attention, language, verbal and visual memory. These three CeVD markers were also associated with white matter microstructural damage in the projection, commissural, association, and limbic fibers. Path analyses showed that lacunar counts, higher WMH volume and ICS were associated with executive and verbal memory impairment via white matter disruption in commissural fibers whereas impairment in the attention, visual memory and language were mediated through projection fibers.Our study shows that the abnormalities in white matter connectivity may underlie the relationship between CeVD and cognition. Further longitudinal studies are needed to understand the cause-effect relationship between CeVD, white matter damage and cognition.

11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between the 6-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), and the contribution of presenting visual acuity (VA), in an Asian population. METHODS: Fundus images from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based cohort study (baseline: 2009-2011; follow-up: 2015-2017), were graded using a modified Wisconsin age-related maculopathy grading system. Incident AMD was defined as no baseline AMD in both eyes and early/late AMD in the worse eye at follow-up. Presenting VA was assessed using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart at 4 m under standard lighting conditions with habitual correction. Multiple linear regression models determined the associations between AMD incidence with changes in the Rasch-transformed scores of the Reading, Mobility and Emotional VRQoL domains of the 32-item Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI-32) questionnaire, adjusted for traditional confounders. The contribution of presenting VA to changes in VRQoL was also estimated. RESULTS: Of the 2251 participants without AMD at baseline (mean age (SD): 57.7 (9) years, 51.4% women), 101 (4.5%) and 11 (0.5%) developed incident early and late AMD at follow-up, respectively. Incident late AMD was associated with significant 30.3%, 32.5% and 30.9% decrements in Reading, Mobility and Emotional IVI scores, respectively. The contribution of presenting VA ranged between 1.62% and 4.35% of the observed decrements. No significant associations were noted with incident early AMD. CONCLUSION: Incident late AMD had a substantial impact on all aspects of VRQoL, with presenting VA contributing only minimally to this longitudinal relationship.

12.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 40, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637833

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed healthcare services, faced with the twin challenges in acutely meeting the medical needs of patients with COVID-19 while continuing essential services for non-COVID-19 illnesses. The need to re-invent, re-organize and transform healthcare and co-ordinate clinical services at a population level is urgent as countries that controlled initial outbreaks start to experience resurgences. A wide range of digital health solutions have been proposed, although the extent of successful real-world applications of these technologies is unclear. This study aims to review applications of artificial intelligence (AI), telehealth, and other relevant digital health solutions for public health responses in the healthcare operating environment amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic scoping review was performed to identify potentially relevant reports. Key findings include a large body of evidence for various clinical and operational applications of telehealth (40.1%, n = 99/247). Although a large quantity of reports investigated applications of artificial intelligence (AI) (44.9%, n = 111/247) and big data analytics (36.0%, n = 89/247), weaknesses in study design limit generalizability and translation, highlighting the need for more pragmatic real-world investigations. There were also few descriptions of applications for the internet of things (IoT) (2.0%, n = 5/247), digital platforms for communication (DC) (10.9%, 27/247), digital solutions for data management (DM) (1.6%, n = 4/247), and digital structural screening (DS) (8.9%, n = 22/247); representing gaps and opportunities for digital public health. Finally, the performance of digital health technology for operational applications related to population surveillance and points of entry have not been adequately evaluated.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4603, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633311

RESUMO

We examined the choriocapillaris microvasculature using a non-invasive swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in 41 healthy controls and 71 hypertensive patients and determined possible correlations with BP and renal parameters. BP levels, serum creatinine and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (MCR) specimens were collected. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated based on CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation. The main outcome was choriocapillaris flow deficits (CFD) metrics (density, size and numbers). The CFD occupied a larger area and were fewer in number in the hypertensive patients with poor BP control (407 ± 10 µm2; 3260 ± 61) compared to the hypertensives with good BP control (369 ± 5 µm2; 3551 ± 41) and healthy controls (365 ± 11 µm2; 3581 ± 84). Higher systolic BP (ß = 9.90, 95% CI, 2.86-16.93), lower eGFR (ß = - 0.85; 95% CI, - 1.58 to - 0.13) and higher urine MCR (ß = 1.53, 95% CI, 0.32-2.78) were associated with larger areas of CFD. Similar significant associations with systolic BP, eGFR and urine MCR were found with number of CFD. These findings highlight the potential role of choriocapillaris imaging using SS-OCTA as an indicator of systemic microvascular abnormalities secondary to hypertensive disease.

14.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for diabetes, but its association with diabetic retinopathy (DR) is inconclusive, in particular in Asians. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with the presence and severity of DR in Asian populations with diabetes. METHODS: Pooled analysis of individual-level cross-sectional data from 10 010 adults with diabetes who participated in 12 population-based studies conducted in China, India, Japan, Russia (Asian), Singapore and South Korea that were part of the Asian Eye Epidemiology Consortium (AEEC). BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in square metres and categorised into normal (<25 kg/m2, reference), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Any-DR (n=1669) and vision-threatening DR (VTDR, n=489) were assessed from digital retinal photographs and graded according to standard protocols. Each study was analysed separately using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, haemoglobin A1c%, systolic blood pressure and diabetes duration, and the estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) from all studies were then combined using random-effects models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, obesity showed a significant inverse association with any-DR (pooled OR (95% CI) =0.74 (0.59 to 0.91)) and VTDR (0.75 (0.60 to 0.93)). Similarly, in continuous analysis, BMI showed a significant inverse association with both any-DR (0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)) and VTDR (0.79 (0.68 to 0.92) per SD increase). Overweight did not show a significant association with any-DR. CONCLUSIONS: Among Asian adults with diabetes, both BMI and obesity showed an inverse association with DR. These findings warrant confirmation in further longitudinal studies.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of signal strength (SS) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters, and devise an algorithm to adjust the effect, when acceptable SS cannot be obtained. METHODS: 5085 individuals (9582 eyes), aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases population-based study were included. Everyone underwent a standardised ocular examination and imaging with Cirrus HD-OCT. Effect of SS was evaluated using multiple structural breaks linear mixed-effect models. Expected change for increment in SS between 4 and 10 for individual parameter was calculated. Subsequently we devised and evaluated an algorithm to adjust OCT parameters to higher SS. RESULTS: Average retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness showed shift of 4.11 µm from SS of 5 to 6. Above 6, it increased by 1.72 and 3.35 µm to 7 and 8; and by 1.09 µm (per unit increase) above 8 SS. Average ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness shifted 5.15 µm from SS of 5 to 6. Above 6, increased by 0.94 µm from 7 to 8; and by 0.16 µm (per unit increase) above 8 SS. When compared with reference in an independent test set, the algorithm produced less systemic bias. Algorithm-adjusted average RNFL was 0.549 µm thinner than the reference, while the unadjusted one was 2.841 µm thinner (p<0.001). Algorithm-adjusted and unadjusted average GCIPL was 1.102 µm and 2.228 µm thinner (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: OCT parameters can be adjusted for poor SS using an algorithm. This can potentially assist in diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma when scans with acceptable SS cannot be acquired from patients in clinics.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of aflibercept using a personalised versus fixed regimen in treatment-naïve participants with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). DESIGN: A 52-week, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, single-centre study that included participants with symptomatic PCV. Participants were randomised (3:1 ratio) to receive either personalised (n=40) or fixed 8-weekly treatment regimen (n=13). The personalised regimen allowed for either early treat and extend (T&E) after week 12 or late T&E with 3 additional 4-weekly aflibercept injections until week 24 in participants with residual polypoidal lesions (PL) on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) at week 12. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Non-inferiority of personalised to fixed regimen for mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 52 (non-inferiority margin: -5 letters). The key secondary outcomes include reduction in central subfield thickness (CSFT) on optical coherence tomography and the anatomical closure of PL on ICGA. RESULTS: Of the 53 participants, the mean (SD) age was 69.2 (8.1) years, 19 (35.8 %) were male. Personalised group was non-inferior to fixed for the primary end point (+8.1 vs +7.9 letters at week 52, respectively; difference 0.16, 95% CI -2.8 to 2.4, p=0.79). There was greater reduction in mean CSFT (SD) in the personalised versus fixed group (-248.8 (169.9) vs -164.8 (148.9) µm, p=0.03). Closure of PL occurred in 21 (55.2%) and 5 (41.6%) of study eyes in personalised and fixed groups, respectively at week 52 (p=0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Personalised regimen achieved non-inferior BCVA gain and numerically higher PL closure compared with fixed regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03117634.

17.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 56(2): 81-82, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617782
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 501, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436813

RESUMO

We evaluated the 6-year incidence and risk factors of pterygium in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Participants who attended the baseline visit of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (year 2004-2011) and returned six years later, were included in this study. Pterygium was diagnosed based on anterior segment photographs. Incident pterygium was defined as presence of pterygium at 6-year follow-up in either eye, among individuals without pterygium at baseline. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with incident pterygium, adjusting for baseline age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, occupation type, educational level, income status, smoking, alcohol consumption, presence of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The overall age-adjusted 6-year incidence of pterygium was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.6%); with Chinese (1.9%; 95% CI 1.4%-2.5%) having the highest incidence rate followed by Malays (1.4%; 95% CI 0.9%-2.1%) and Indians (0.3%; 95% CI 0.3-0.7%). In multivariable analysis, Chinese (compared with Indians; odds ratio [OR] = 4.21; 95% CI 2.12-9.35) and Malays (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.52-7.45), male (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.26-3.63), outdoor occupation (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.38), and smoking (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.16-0.87) were significantly associated with incident pterygium. Findings from this multi-ethnic Asian population provide useful information in identifying at-risk individuals for pterygium.

19.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(1): 39-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has put strain on healthcare systems and the availability and allocation of healthcare manpower, resources and infrastructure. With immediate priorities to protect the health and safety of both patients and healthcare service providers, ophthalmologists globally were advised to defer nonurgent cases, while at the same time managing sight-threatening conditions such as neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The management of AMD patients both from a monitoring and treatment perspective presents a particular challenge for ophthalmologists. This review looks at how these pressures have encouraged the acceptance and speed of adoption of digitalization. DESIGN AND METHODS: A literature review was conducted on the use of digital technology during COVID-19 pandemic, and on the transformation of medicine, ophthalmology and AMD screening through digitalization. RESULTS: In the management of AMD, the implementation of artificial intelligence and "virtual clinics" have provided assistance in screening, diagnosis, monitoring of the progression and the treatment of AMD. In addition, hardware and software developments in home monitoring devices has assisted in self-monitoring approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Digitalization strategies and developments are currently ongoing and underway to ensure early detection, stability and visual improvement in patients suffering from AMD in this COVID-19 era. This may set a precedence for the post COVID-19 new normal where digital platforms may be routine, standard and expected in healthcare delivery.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/terapia
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