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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to determine whether lobular inflammation and ballooning grades in the Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) scoring system can be directly translated into the same for the Steatosis Activity Fibrosis scoring system (SAF) and to look at intra-observer and inter-observer agreement for each individual histological component and for diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using the two scoring systems. METHODS: Four pathologists from two Asian centers scored 20 digitalized slides, twice using the NASH CRN, twice using the SAF. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was analyzed using Fleiss' kappa, weighted kappa, or Cohen kappa, where appropriate. RESULTS: The intra-observer discrepancy rate when using the NASH CRN compared with the SAF was higher than when using the individual scoring system for lobular inflammation (15% comparing both scoring systems vs 10% and 1.8% for the NASH CRN and the SAF, respectively) and hepatocyte ballooning (33.8% vs 12.5% and 5%, respectively), but not for diagnosis of NASH (6.3% vs 6.3% and 0%, respectively). Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was substantial to almost perfect, except for inter-observer agreement for lobular inflammation and diagnosis of NASH, which was only fair to moderate in most instances. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support the direct inter-translation between the NASH CRN and the SAF. However, the diagnosis of NASH during examinations using the NASH CRN may be comparable with diagnosis of NASH using the SAF, vice versa. The inter-observer agreement for lobular inflammation and NASH diagnosis needs to be improved.

2.
Hepatology ; 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differences between countries in NAFLD patient care pathways and management need to be understood prior to defining supranational guidelines. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted an anonymous survey in France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Romania, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States among physicians providing specialist care for patients with NAFLD. Modalities of patient referral, patterns of practice (diagnosis, staging, monitoring, and indications for liver biopsy), therapeutic management, and expectations for future NASH pharmacotherapies were assessed, with 664 physicians completing the survey. Referral to surveyed physicians (SPs) mostly came from primary care. Prior to referral, NAFLD was rarely diagnosed, and noninvasive tests were not performed. Screening for comorbidities by SPs was incomplete and cardiovascular risk not calculated. Elastometry in combination with a serum biomarker was the most common first-line method for fibrosis staging. Liver biopsy, when performed, was often delayed by at least 1 year after diagnosis. It was, however, recommended even if noninvasive methods indicated advanced fibrosis. Frequent, biannual monitoring was conducted, including HCC surveillance in Stage 3 fibrosis. SPs rarely implemented and followed dietary and lifestyle changes themselves, and local availability of such programs was highly heterogenous. SPs favored pharmacotherapy based on mechanism of action adapted to the stage of the disease, including for early stages such as steatohepatitis with mild fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: This international survey revealed major deficiencies and delays in referral pathways, suboptimal screening for comorbidities or managing of lifestyle modifications by SPs, and limited local availability for nonpharmacological interventions. Monitoring practices are not aligned with current guidelines.

3.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several guidelines recommend screening for NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to determine if there is a threshold of age and duration of T2D for liver-related event development to guide screening strategies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted a territory-wide retrospective cohort study of adult patients with NAFLD and T2D diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 in Hong Kong to allow for at least 5 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was liver-related events, defined as a composite of HCC and cirrhotic complications. This study included 7028 patients with NAFLD with T2D (mean age, 56.1 ± 13.3 years; 3363 male [47.9%]). During a follow-up of 77,308 person-years, there was a threshold effect with 1.1%, 4.9%, and 94.0% of patients developing liver-related events at the age of <40, 40-50, and ≥50 years, respectively. Similarly, 3.1%, 5.1%, and 91.8% of patients developed cirrhosis at the age of <40, 40-50, and ≥50 years, respectively. In contrast, liver-related events increased linearly with diabetes duration, with no difference in the annual incidence rate between the first 10 years of T2D diagnosis and subsequent years (0.06% vs. 0.10%; p = 0.136). On multivariable analysis, baseline age ≥50 years (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.01) and cirrhosis (aHR 3.12) were the strongest risk factors associated with liver-related events. Substitution of cirrhosis with the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index or the Fibrosis-4 index yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Age rather than duration of T2D predicts liver-related events in patients with NAFLD and T2D. It is reasonable to screen patients with NAFLD and T2D for advanced liver disease starting at 50 years of age.

4.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056159, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small molecule inhibitors of the terminal step in intrahepatic triglyceride synthesis (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 inhibitor (DGAT2i, PF-06865571, ervogastat)) and upstream blockade of de novo lipogenesis via acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitor (ACCi, PF-05221304, clesacostat) showed promise in reducing hepatic steatosis in early clinical trials. This study assesses efficacy and safety of these metabolic interventions to resolve non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This phase II, randomised, dose-ranging, dose-finding study evaluates DGAT2i 25-300 mg two times per day (BID) or 150-300 mg once a day, DGAT2i 150-300 mg BID+ACCi 5-10 mg BID coadministration or matching placebo in a planned 450 adults with biopsy-confirmed NASH and liver fibrosis stages 2-3 from approximately 220 sites in 11 countries across North America, Europe and Asia. A triage approach including double-confirmation via non-invasive markers is included prior to screening/baseline liver biopsy. On confirmation of histological diagnosis, participants enter a ≥6-week run-in period, then a 48-week double-blind, double-dummy dosing period. The primary endpoint is the proportion of participants achieving histological NASH resolution without worsening fibrosis, ≥1 stage improvement in fibrosis without worsening NASH, or both, assessed by central pathologists. Other endpoints include assessment of hepatic steatosis (imaging substudy), overall safety and tolerability, and evaluation of blood-based biomarkers and quantitative ultrasound parameters over time. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Metabolic Interventions to Resolve NASH with fibrosis (MIRNA) is conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) International Ethical Guidelines, International Council on Harmonisation Good Clinical Practice guidelines, applicable laws and regulations, including privacy laws. Local independent review board/ethics committees (IRB/ECs) review/approve the protocol, any amendments, informed consent and other forms. Participants provide written informed consent. Details of all IRB/ECs, as well as results, will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and publicly disclosed through ClinicalTrials.gov, EudraCT, and/or www.pfizer.com and other public registries as per applicable local laws/regulations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321031.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Liver Int ; 42(5): 1037-1048, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: NAFLD patients usually have an increase in AST/ALT levels, but cholestasis can also be observed. We aimed to assess in subjects with NAFLD the impact of the (cholestatic) C pattern on the likelihood of developing major liver-related outcomes (MALO). METHODS: Five hundred and eighty-two consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD or a clinical diagnosis of NAFLD-related compensated cirrhosis were classified as hepatocellular (H), C and mixed (M) patterns, by using the formula (ALT/ALT Upper Limit of Normal-ULN)/(ALP/ALP ULN). MALO were recorded during follow-up. An external cohort of 1281 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients was enrolled as validation set. RESULTS: H, M and C patterns were found in 153 (26.3%), 272 (46.7%) and 157 (27%) patients respectively. During a median follow-up of 78 months, only 1 (0.6%) patient with H pattern experienced MALO, whilst 15 (5.5%) and 38 (24.2%) patients in M and C groups had MALO. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, age >55 years (HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.17-5.54; p = .01), platelets <150 000/mmc (HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.06-0.32; p < .001), albumin <4 g/L(HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.35-1.08; p = .09), C versus M pattern (HR 7.86, 95% CI 1.03-60.1; p = .04), C versus H pattern(HR 12.1, 95% CI 1.61-90.9; p = .01) and fibrosis F3-F4(HR 35.8, 95% CI 4.65-275.2; p < .001) were independent risk factors for MALO occurrence. C versus M pattern(HR 14.3, 95% CI 1.90-105.6; p = .008) and C versus H pattern (HR 15.6, 95% CI 2.10-115.1; p = .0068) were confirmed independently associated with MALO occurrence in the validation set. The immunohistochemical analysis found a significantly higher prevalence of moderate-high-grade ductular metaplasia combined with low-grade ductular proliferation in C pattern when compared with the biochemical H pattern. Gene expression analysis showed a lower expression of NR1H3, RXRα and VCAM1 in patients with the C pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a cholestatic pattern in patients with NAFLD predicts a higher risk of MALO independently from other features of liver disease.


Assuntos
Colestase , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biópsia , Colestase/complicações , Fibrose , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia
8.
JHEP Rep ; 4(3): 100441, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35198928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Accurate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk prediction facilitates appropriate surveillance strategy and reduces cancer mortality. We aimed to derive and validate novel machine learning models to predict HCC in a territory-wide cohort of patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) using data from the Hospital Authority Data Collaboration Lab (HADCL). METHODS: This was a territory-wide, retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients with CVH in Hong Kong in 2000-2018 identified from HADCL based on viral markers, diagnosis codes, and antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B and/or C. The cohort was randomly split into training and validation cohorts in a 7:3 ratio. Five popular machine learning methods, namely, logistic regression, ridge regression, AdaBoost, decision tree, and random forest, were performed and compared to find the best prediction model. RESULTS: A total of 124,006 patients with CVH with complete data were included to build the models. In the training cohort (n = 86,804; 6,821 HCC), ridge regression (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] 0.842), decision tree (0.952), and random forest (0.992) performed the best. In the validation cohort (n = 37,202; 2,875 HCC), ridge regression (AUROC 0.844) and random forest (0.837) maintained their accuracy, which was significantly higher than those of HCC risk scores: CU-HCC (0.672), GAG-HCC (0.745), REACH-B (0.671), PAGE-B (0.748), and REAL-B (0.712) scores. The low cut-off (0.07) of HCC ridge score (HCC-RS) achieved 90.0% sensitivity and 98.6% negative predictive value (NPV) in the validation cohort. The high cut-off (0.15) of HCC-RS achieved high specificity (90.0%) and NPV (95.6%); 31.1% of patients remained indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: HCC-RS from the ridge regression machine learning model accurately predicted HCC in patients with CVH. These machine learning models may be developed as built-in functional keys or calculators in electronic health systems to reduce cancer mortality. LAY SUMMARY: Novel machine learning models generated accurate risk scores for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. HCC ridge score was consistently more accurate than existing HCC risk scores. These models may be incorporated into electronic medical health systems to develop appropriate cancer surveillance strategies and reduce cancer death.

9.
Hepatology ; 2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220620
10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(5): 532-546, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089884

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: For the detection of steatosis, quantitative ultrasound imaging techniques have achieved great progress in past years. Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction is currently the most accurate test to detect hepatic steatosis. Some blood biomarkers correlate with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but the accuracy is modest. Regarding liver fibrosis, liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography (TE) has high accuracy and is widely used across the world. Magnetic resonance elastography is marginally better than TE but is limited by its cost and availability. Several blood biomarkers of fibrosis have been used in clinical trials and hold promise for selecting patients for treatment and monitoring treatment response. This article reviews new developments in the non-invasive assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Accumulating evidence suggests that various non-invasive tests can be used to diagnose NAFLD, assess its severity, and predict the prognosis. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the tests as monitoring tools. We cannot overemphasize the importance of context in selecting appropriate tests.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of race on routinely available noninvasive tests of fibrosis is incompletely understood. This study evaluated the performance of noninvasive tests among white and Asian patients in the STELLAR trials (NCT03053050 and NCT03053063), which evaluated selonsertib in patients with advanced (F3-F4) fibrosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Baseline liver biopsies were centrally read using the NASH Clinical Research Network system, and 4 noninvasive tests (Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score [NFS], Fibrosis-4 index [FIB-4], Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test [ELF], and liver stiffness by vibration-controlled transient elastography) were measured. The performance of these tests to discriminate advanced fibrosis was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with 5-fold cross-validation repeated 100 times. RESULTS: Among 3207 patients screened with evaluable liver histology, 2281 were whites and 762 were Asians. Seventy-two percent of whites and 67% of Asians had advanced fibrosis. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves of the noninvasive tests for advanced fibrosis were similar in whites and Asians: 0.73 and 0.75 for NFS, 0.78 and 0.80 for FIB-4, 0.79 and 0.81 for ELF, and 0.80 and 0.83 for liver stiffness, respectively. At the published cutoffs, the tests had similar sensitivities and specificities in the 2 groups. However, the sensitivities of NFS, FIB-4, and ELF were low in both white and Asian patients younger than 40 years. CONCLUSIONS: In the global phase III STELLAR trials, the diagnostic performance of routinely available noninvasive tests for the detection of advanced fibrosis due to NASH was acceptable and similar between white and Asian patients.

12.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(1): 60-78, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707258

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a potentially serious liver disease that affects approximately one-quarter of the global adult population, causing a substantial burden of ill health with wide-ranging social and economic implications. It is a multisystem disease and is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Unlike other highly prevalent conditions, NAFLD has received little attention from the global public health community. Health system and public health responses to NAFLD have been weak and fragmented, and, despite its pervasiveness, NAFLD is largely unknown outside hepatology and gastroenterology. There is only a nascent global public health movement addressing NAFLD, and the disease is absent from nearly all national and international strategies and policies for non-communicable diseases, including obesity. In this global Delphi study, a multidisciplinary group of experts developed consensus statements and recommendations, which a larger group of collaborators reviewed over three rounds until consensus was achieved. The resulting consensus statements and recommendations address a broad range of topics - from epidemiology, awareness, care and treatment to public health policies and leadership - that have general relevance for policy-makers, health-care practitioners, civil society groups, research institutions and affected populations. These recommendations should provide a strong foundation for a comprehensive public health response to NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
13.
Hepatology ; 75(5): 1235-1246, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surrogate endpoints that predict complications are necessary for assessment and approval of NASH therapies. We assessed associations between histologic and noninvasive tests (NITs) of fibrosis with liver-related complications in patients with NASH cirrhosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Patients with compensated cirrhosis due to NASH were enrolled in two placebo-controlled trials of simtuzumab and selonsertib. Liver fibrosis at baseline and week 48 (W48) was staged by NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) and Ishak classifications and a machine learning (ML) approach, hepatic collagen and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were quantified by morphometry, liver stiffness (LS) was measured by transient elastography, and serum NITs (enhanced liver fibrosis [ELF], NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS], and Fibrosis-4 index [FIB-4]) were calculated. Cox regression determined associations between these parameters at baseline and their changes over time with adjudicated liver-related clinical events. Among 1,135 patients, 709 (62%) had Ishak stage 6 fibrosis, and median ELF and LS were 10.66 and 21.1 kPa, respectively. During a median follow-up of 16.6 months, 71 (6.3%) had a liver-related event; associated baseline factors included Ishak stage 6 fibrosis, and higher hepatic collagen, α-SMA expression, ML-based fibrosis parameters, LS, ELF, NFS, and FIB-4. Cirrhosis regression observed in 16% (176/1,135) between BL and W48 was associated with a lower risk of events versus nonregression (1.1% [2/176] vs. 7.2% [69/957]; HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04, 0.65 [p = 0.0104]). Conversely, after adjustment for baseline values, increases in hepatic collagen, α-SMA, ML-based fibrosis parameters, NFS, and LS were associated with an increased risk of events. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with compensated cirrhosis due to NASH, regression of fibrosis is associated with a reduction in liver-related complications. These data support the utility of histologic fibrosis regression and NITs as clinical trial endpoints for NASH cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
14.
Hepatology ; 75(1): 219-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537988

RESUMO

Cirrhosis, highly prevalent worldwide, develops after years of hepatic inflammation triggering progressive fibrosis. Currently, the main etiologies of cirrhosis are non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcohol-related liver disease, although chronic hepatitis B and C infections are still major etiological factors in some areas of the world. Recent studies have shown that liver fibrosis can be assessed with relatively high accuracy noninvasively by serological tests, transient elastography, and radiological methods. These modalities may be utilized for screening for liver fibrosis in at-risk populations. Thus far, a limited number of population-based studies using noninvasive tests in different areas of the world indicate that a significant percentage of subjects without known liver disease (around 5% in general populations and a higher rate -18% to 27%-in populations with risk factors for liver disease) have significant undetected liver fibrosis or established cirrhosis. Larger international studies are required to show the harms and benefits before concluding that screening for liver fibrosis should be applied to populations at risk for chronic liver diseases. Screening for liver fibrosis has the potential for changing the current approach from diagnosing chronic liver diseases late when patients have already developed complications of cirrhosis to diagnosing liver fibrosis in asymptomatic subjects providing the opportunity of preventing disease progression.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Carga Global da Doença , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Hepatol ; 76(3): 726-734, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619251

RESUMO

Recent data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major public health problem in Asia, with an updated population prevalence of 34%. In parallel, NAFLD-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also on the rise. In this review, we describe the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asia over the past 30 years. While traditional risk factors for HCC (older age, male sex and metabolic factors) are also important in Asia, the PNPLA3 gene polymorphism is particularly prevalent in East Asia and may increase the risk of HCC. NAFLD among non-obese individuals is also commonly described in Asia. Because NAFLD is often undiagnosed, few patients receive HCC surveillance, and the target surveillance population beyond patients with cirrhosis remains poorly defined. As a result, NAFLD-associated HCC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, rendering curative treatment impossible. Finally, despite around 20-30 years of universal vaccination, chronic HBV infection remains prevalent in Asia, and emerging evidence highlights the importance of metabolic factors and concomitant hepatic steatosis on HCC development in infected patients. Future studies should explore the role of metabolic treatments in HCC prevention among patients with hepatic steatosis and concomitant liver diseases.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Ásia/etnologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etnologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 28(1): 77-90, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to determine the association between blood urea level and incident cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS: The association between blood urea level and liver fibrosis/liver-related events were evaluated on continuous scale with restricted cubic spline curves based on generalized additive model or Cox proportional hazards models. Then, the above associations were evaluated by urea level within intervals. RESULTS: Among 4,282 patients who had undergone liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography, baseline urea level had a U-shaped association with LSM and hepatic decompensation development after a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Compared to patients with urea of 3.6-9.9 mmol/L, those with urea ≤3.5 mmol/L (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-10.24) and ≥10 mmol/L (aHR, 5.22; 95% CI, 1.86-14.67) had higher risk of hepatic decompensation. Patients with urea ≤3.5 mmol/L also had higher risk of incident cirrhosis (aHR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.50-6.98). The association between low urea level and incident cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation was consistently observed in subgroups by age, gender, albumin level, and comorbidities. The U-shaped relationship between urea level and LSM was validated in another population screening study (n=917). Likewise, urea ≤3.5 mmol/L was associated with a higher risk of incident cirrhosis in a territory-wide cohort of 12,476 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at a median follow-up of 9.9 years (aHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.57). CONCLUSION: We identified a U-shaped relationship between the urea level and liver fibrosis/incident cirrhosis/hepatic decompensation in patients with CLD.

17.
Gut ; 71(5): 1006-1019, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is still needed for fibrosis staging in many patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aims of this study were to evaluate the individual diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement by vibration controlled transient elastography (LSM-VCTE), Fibrosis-4 Index (FIB-4) and NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) Fibrosis Score (NFS) and to derive diagnostic strategies that could reduce the need for liver biopsies. DESIGN: Individual patient data meta-analysis of studies evaluating LSM-VCTE against liver histology was conducted. FIB-4 and NFS were computed where possible. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) were calculated. Biomarkers were assessed individually and in sequential combinations. RESULTS: Data were included from 37 primary studies (n=5735; 45% women; median age: 54 years; median body mass index: 30 kg/m2; 33% had type 2 diabetes; 30% had advanced fibrosis). AUROCs of individual LSM-VCTE, FIB-4 and NFS for advanced fibrosis were 0.85, 0.76 and 0.73. Sequential combination of FIB-4 cut-offs (<1.3; ≥2.67) followed by LSM-VCTE cut-offs (<8.0; ≥10.0 kPa) to rule-in or rule-out advanced fibrosis had sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 66% (63-68) and 86% (84-87) with 33% needing a biopsy to establish a final diagnosis. FIB-4 cut-offs (<1.3; ≥3.48) followed by LSM cut-offs (<8.0; ≥20.0 kPa) to rule out advanced fibrosis or rule in cirrhosis had a sensitivity of 38% (37-39) and specificity of 90% (89-91) with 19% needing biopsy. CONCLUSION: Sequential combinations of markers with a lower cut-off to rule-out advanced fibrosis and a higher cut-off to rule-in cirrhosis can reduce the need for liver biopsies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
19.
Hepatology ; 75(4): 1051-1052, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392551
20.
Metabolism ; 126: 154911, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) population is non-obese. Prior studies reporting the severity of NAFLD amongst non-obese patients were heterogenous. Our study, using data from the largest biopsy-proven NAFLD international registry within Asia, aims to characterize the demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: 1812 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients across nine countries in Asia assessed between 2006 and 2019 were pooled into a curated clinical registry. Demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients were evaluated. The performance of Fibrosis-4 index for liver fibrosis (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) to identify advanced liver disease across the varying obesity subgroups was compared. A random forest analysis was performed to identify novel predictors of fibrosis and steatohepatitis in non-obese patients. FINDINGS: One-fifth (21.6%) of NAFLD patients were non-obese. Non-obese NAFLD patients had lower proportions of NASH (50.5% vs 56.5%, p = 0.033) and advanced fibrosis (14.0% vs 18.7%, p = 0.033). Metabolic syndrome in non-obese individuals was associated with NASH (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.54, p = 0.047) and advanced fibrosis (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.99-3.54, p = 0.051). FIB-4 performed better than the NFS score (AUROC 81.5% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001) when classifying patients with F2-4 fibrosis amongst non-obese NAFLD patients. Haemoglobin, GGT, waist circumference and cholesterol are additional variables found on random forest analysis useful for identifying non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of non-obese NAFLD patients has NASH or advanced fibrosis. FIB-4, compared to NFS better identifies non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. Serum GGT, cholesterol, haemoglobin and waist circumference, which are neither components of NFS nor FIB-4, are important biomarkers for advanced liver disease in non-obese patients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
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