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1.
Lancet ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894145

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a global prevalence of 25% and is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD encompasses a disease continuum from steatosis with or without mild inflammation (non-alcoholic fatty liver), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterised by necroinflammation and faster fibrosis progression than non-alcoholic fatty liver. NAFLD has a bidirectional association with components of the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cirrhosis and related complications. Although the leading causes of death in people with NAFLD are cardiovascular disease and extrahepatic malignancy, advanced liver fibrosis is a key prognostic marker for liver-related outcomes and overall mortality, and can be assessed with combinations of non-invasive tests. Patients with cirrhosis should be screened for hepatocellular carcinoma and oesophageal varices. There is currently no approved therapy for NAFLD, although several drugs are in advanced stages of development. Because of the complex pathophysiology and substantial heterogeneity of disease phenotypes, combination treatment is likely to be required for many patients with NAFLD. Healthy lifestyle and weight reduction remain crucial to the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5416, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686111

RESUMO

Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography (TE) is a non-invasive assessment for diagnosing and staging liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Evidence on its role as a longitudinal monitoring tool is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the role of TE in monitoring NAFLD improvement following bariatric surgery. This study prospectively recruited 101 morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery for intraoperative liver biopsy. Thirty-seven patients of the cohort received perioperative TE. Postoperative anthropometric, biochemical and LSM data were collected annually for 5 years. In 101 patients receiving liver biopsy (mean age 40.0 ± 10.3 years, mean body-mass-index (BMI) 40.0 ± 5.7 kg/m2), NASH and liver fibrosis were diagnosed in 42 (41.6%) and 48 (47.5%) patients respectively. There were 29 (28.7%) stage 1, 11 (10.9%) stage 2, 7 (6.9%) stage 3, and 1 (1.0%) stage 4 fibrosis. In 37 patients receiving TE (mean age 38.9 ± 10.8 years, mean BMI 41.1 ± 5.6 kg/m2), the percentages of total weight loss were 21.1 ± 7.6% at 1 year, 19.7 ± 8.3% at 3 years, and 17.1 ± 7.0% at 5 years after surgery. The mean LSM reduced significantly from 9.8 ± 4.6 kPa at baseline to 6.9 ± 3.4 kPa at 1 year, 7.3 ± 3.0 kPa at 3 years, and 6.8 ± 2.6 kPa at 5 years (P = 0.002). Using pre-defined LSM cut-offs, the rates of significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis being ruled out at 5 years improved from baseline values of 43.7 to 87.5% (P < 0.001), 56.8 to 91.7% (P < 0.001), and 64.9 to 91.7% (P < 0.001), respectively. TE was a useful monitoring tool in demonstrating the improvement of liver fibrosis following bariatric surgery.

3.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(3): e00324, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aspirin may reduce the risk of chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients receiving antiviral treatment. We aimed to investigate the impact of aspirin on reducing HCC risk in patients treated with first-line oral nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs; entecavir and/or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate). METHODS: We conducted a territorywide, retrospective cohort study in NA-treated CHB patients between 2000 and 2018 from the electronic healthcare data repository in Hong Kong. Subjects were classified into aspirin users for at least 90 days during NA treatment (aspirin group) or no aspirin or any other antiplatelet use during follow-up period (no aspirin group). Incidence rates of HCC and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in 2 groups with propensity score matching with 1:3 ratio. RESULTS: Of 35,111 NA-treated CHB patients of mean age of 53.0 years and 61.6% men, sixty-nine (4.0%) and 1,488 (4.5%) developed HCC at a median (interquartile range) of 2.7 (1.4-4.8) years and 3.2 (1.8-6.0) years in the aspirin group and no aspirin group, respectively. A duration-dependent association between aspirin and the risk of HCC was observed (subhazard ratio [sHR] 3 months-2 years: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.92; sHR 2-5 years: 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.94; sHR from ≥5 years: 0.41; 95% CI 0.18-0.91). Patients who took aspirin for ≤2 years had significantly higher risk of GIB (sHR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.79) than those not receiving aspirin. The risk of GIB started declining with the longer use of aspirin and becoming insignificant for ≥5 years' use (sHR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.19-3.21). DISCUSSION: Long-term aspirin use is associated with a lower risk of HCC in a duration-dependent manner in NA-treated CHB patients without a significant increase in the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects.

4.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(3): 543-550, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709607

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly widespread in our daily lives, including healthcare applications. AI has brought many new insights into better ways we care for our patients with chronic liver disease, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver fibrosis. There are multiple ways to apply the AI technology on top of the conventional invasive (liver biopsy) and noninvasive (transient elastography, serum biomarkers, or clinical prediction models) approaches. In this review article, we discuss the principles of applying AI on electronic health records, liver biopsy, and liver images. A few common AI approaches include logistic regression, decision tree, random forest, and XGBoost for data at a single time stamp, recurrent neural networks for sequential data, and deep neural networks for histology and images.

5.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712438
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is debate among the hepatology community regarding the simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores (even it was developed for histological classification) in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether the presence of simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores could predict all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, and liver disease decompensation (liver failure, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or decompensated liver disease). METHODS: The pooled hazard ratio of prognostic factors and incidence rate per 1000 person-years in patients with NAFLD was calculated and further adjusted by two different models of handling the duplicated data. RESULTS: A total of 19 longitudinal studies were included. Most simple non-invasive scoring systems (Fibrosis-4 Score, BARD, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index ) and histological scores (NAFLD activity score, Brunt, and "steatosis, activity, and fibrosis" ) failed in predicting mortality, and only the NAFLD fibrosis score > 0.676 showed prognostic ability to all-cause mortality (four studies, 7564 patients, 118 352 person-years followed up, pooled hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.96). The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, and liver disease decompensation resulted in a pooled incidence rate per 1000 person-years of 22.65 (14 studies, 95% CI 9.62-53.31), 3.19 (7 studies, 95% CI 1.14-8.93), 6.02 (6 studies, 95% CI 4.69-7.74), and 11.46 (4 studies, 95% CI 5.33-24.63), respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score showed promising prognostic value to all-cause mortality. Most present simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores failed to predict clinical outcomes.

9.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(2): e00300, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600104

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been found to play a critical role in the development of metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of generalized obesity. METHODS: In this secondary study of prospectively acquired data, 625 participants underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical shift fat-water separation MRI (2-point Dixon) of the liver and whole abdomen, respectively, in a 3 Tesla magnet. Whole abdominal VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were extracted from the 2-point Dixon image series using an automated method. Clinical/anthropometric/blood biochemistry parameters were measured. Using region-specific body mass index, participants were classified into 3 paired subgroups (lean, overweight, and obese) and presence of NAFLD (liver fat content ≥ 5.5%). RESULTS: All relevant clinical/anthropometric/blood biochemistry characteristics and liver enzymes were statistically significant between groups (P < 0.001). NAFLD was found in 12.1%, 43.8%, and 68.3% and metabolic syndrome in 51.1%, 61.9%, and 65% of the lean, overweight, and obese, respectively. Odds ratio for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD was increased by 2.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-3.40) and 2.53 (95% CI 2.04-3.12), respectively, for 1SD increase in VAT volume while prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased by 2.26 (95% CI 1.83-2.79) for 1SD increase in liver fat content (%). VAT/SAT ratio in the lean with fatty liver showed the highest ratio (0.54) among all the subgroups, without a significant difference between the lean and obese with NAFLD (P = 0.127). DISCUSSION: Increased VAT volume/disproportional distribution of VAT/SAT may be vital drivers to the development of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD irrespective of body mass index category.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560651

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has dramatically improved the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic malignancies. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy may increase the risk of hepatitis, whereas it may also induce functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We evaluated the incidence of hepatitis flare, HBV reactivation, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance or seroreversion in patients with current or past HBV infection who had received immunotherapy. METHODS: This was a territory-wide observational cohort study in Hong Kong. We identified patients through electronic medical records based on the prescriptions of immune checkpoint inhibitors from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. Patients who were HBsAg positive or HBsAg negative with results for antibody to hepatitis B surface or core antigen (anti-HBs or anti-HBc) were included. RESULTS: A total of 990 patients (397 HBsAg-positive, 593 HBsAg-negative with 482 anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs positive, and 111 both anti-HBc and anti-HBs negative) were identified. All of HBsAg-positive and 15.9% HBsAg-negative patients were put on oral antiviral treatment. Hepatitis flare (alanine aminotransferase >2 times of the upper limit of normal) occurred in 39.3% HBsAg-positive and 30.4% HBsAg-negative patients. High baseline alanine aminotransferase and combination of immunotherapy increased the risk of hepatitis. HBV reactivation (≥2 log increase in HBV DNA from baseline) occurred in 2 HBsAg-positive patients; HBsAg seroclearance and seroreversion was observed in 1 HBsAg-positive and 1 HBsAg-negative patient, respectively (<1%). DISCUSSION: Hepatitis flare occurs in approximately 40% of HBsAg-positive patients and 30% of HBsAg-negative patients during immunotherapy. HBV reactivation, HBsAg seroclearance, and HBsAg seroreversion are rare. Current or past HBV infection has no impact on the emergence of hepatic flare associated with immunotherapy.

11.
Hepatology ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Manual histologic assessment is currently the accepted standard for diagnosing and monitoring disease progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but is limited by variability in interpretation and insensitivity to change. Thus, there is a critical need for improved tools to assess liver pathology in order to risk stratify NASH patients and monitor treatment response. APPROACH & RESULTS: Here, we describe a machine learning (ML)-based approach to liver histology assessment, which accurately characterizes disease severity and heterogeneity, and sensitively quantifies treatment response in NASH. We utilize samples from three randomized controlled trials to build and then validate deep convolutional neural networks to measure key histologic features in NASH including steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis. The ML-based predictions showed strong correlations with expert pathologists and were prognostic of progression to cirrhosis and liver-related clinical events. We developed a new heterogeneity-sensitive metric of fibrosis response, the Deep Learning Treatment Assessment (DELTA) Liver Fibrosis score, which measured anti-fibrotic treatment effects that went undetected by manual pathological staging and was concordant with histologic disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our ML method has shown reproducibility, sensitivity, and was prognostic for disease progression demonstrating the power of ML to advance our understanding of disease heterogeneity in NASH, risk stratify affected patients, and facilitate the development of novel therapies.

12.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631920

RESUMO

Background/Aim: Serum fibrosis scores comprised of common laboratory tests have high utility to assess severity of liver fibrosis. We aimed to derive and validate a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk score based on serum fibrosis scores to predict HCC in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods: 15,187 treatment-naïve adult CHB patients were identified to form the training cohort in this retrospective study. Individual fibrosis score was included to construct a new HCC prediction score. The score was externally validated in an independent treatment-naïve Korean CHB cohort. Results: 180/15,187 patients (1.2%) in training cohort and 47/4,286 patients (1.1%) in validation cohort developed HCC during a mean follow-up of 52 and 50 months, respectively. The newly developed HCC risk score, Liang score, is composed of gender, age, HBV DNA, FIB-4 index, and ranges from 0 to 22. Area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve of Liang score was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70-0.89). A cutoff value of 9 provided an extremely high negative predictive value of 99.9% and high sensitivity of 90.0% at 5 years in the validation cohort; which were higher than those of CU-HCC score, GAG-HCC score and REACH-B score. Patients with Liang score ≤9 had HCC incidence <0.2% per year in both training and validation cohorts, in whom HCC surveillance might be exempted. Conclusion: A novel HCC risk score, Liang score, based on FIB-4 index, is applicable and accurate to identify treatment-naïve CHB patients with very low risk of HCC to be exempted from HCC surveillance.

13.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(3): 185-198, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tools for liver disease can now include estimation of the grade of hepatic steatosis (S0 to S3). Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for assessing hepatic steatosis that has become available for patients who are obese (FibroScan XL probe), but a consensus has not yet been reached regarding cutoffs and its diagnostic performance. We aimed to assess diagnostic properties and identify relevant covariates with use of an individual patient data meta-analysis. METHODS: We did an individual patient data meta-analysis, in which we searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies published from database inception until April 30, 2019. Studies reporting original biopsy-controlled data of CAP for non-invasive grading of steatosis were eligible. Probe recommendation was based on automated selection, manual assessment of skin-to-liver-capsule distance, and a body-mass index (BMI) criterion. Receiver operating characteristic methods and mixed models were used to assess diagnostic properties and covariates. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were analysed separately because they are the predominant patient group when using the XL probe. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018099284. FINDINGS: 16 studies reported histology-controlled CAP including the XL probe, and individual data from 13 papers and 2346 patients were included. Patients with a mean age of 46·5 years (SD 14·5) were recruited from 20 centres in nine countries. 2283 patients had data for BMI; 673 (29%) were normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), 530 (23%) were overweight (BMI ≥25 to <30 kg/m2), and 1080 (47%) were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). 1277 (54%) patients had NAFLD, 474 (20%) had viral hepatitis, 285 (12%) had alcohol-associated liver disease, and 310 (13%) had other liver disease aetiologies. The XL probe was recommended in 1050 patients, 930 (89%) of whom had NAFLD; among the patients with NAFLD, the areas under the curve were 0·819 (95% CI 0·769-0·869) for S0 versus S1 to S3 and 0·754 (0·720-0·787) for S0 to S1 versus S2 to S3. CAP values were independently affected by aetiology, diabetes, BMI, aspartate aminotransferase, and sex. Optimal cutoffs differed substantially across aetiologies. Risk of bias according to QUADAS-2 was low. INTERPRETATION: CAP cutoffs varied according to cause, and can effectively recognise significant steatosis in patients with viral hepatitis. CAP cannot grade steatosis in patients with NAFLD adequately, but its value in a NAFLD screening setting needs to be studied, ideally with methods beyond the traditional histological reference standard. FUNDING: The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Echosens.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic health record (EHR)-based research allows the capture of large amounts of data, which is necessary in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), where the risk of clinical liver outcomes is generally low. The lack of consensus on which International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes should be used as exposures and outcomes limits comparability and generalizability of results across studies. We aimed to establish consensus among a panel of experts on ICD codes that could become the reference standard and provide guidance around common methodological issues. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Researchers with an interest in EHR-based NAFLD research were invited to collectively define which administrative codes are most appropriate for documenting exposures and outcomes. We used a modified Delphi approach to reach consensus on several commonly encountered methodological challenges in the field. After two rounds of revision, a high level of agreement (>67%) was reached on all items considered. Full consensus was achieved on a comprehensive list of administrative codes to be considered for inclusion and exclusion criteria in defining exposures and outcomes in EHR-based NAFLD research. We also provide suggestions on how to approach commonly encountered methodological issues and identify areas for future research. CONCLUSIONS: This expert panel consensus statement can help harmonize and improve generalizability of EHR-based NAFLD research.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are closely related. The effect of AKI on the clinical outcomes of these two conditions is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective, territory-wide cohort study used an electronic public healthcare database in Hong Kong to identify patients with SARS or COVID-19 by diagnosis codes, virologic results, or both. The primary endpoint was a composite of intensive care unit admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, and/or death. RESULTS: We identified 1670 patients with SARS and 1040 patients with COVID-19 (median ages, 41 versus 35 years, respectively). Among patients with SARS, 26% met the primary endpoint versus 5.3% of those with COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus, abnormal liver function, and AKI were factors significantly associated with the primary endpoint among patients with either SARS or COVID-19. Among patients with SARS, 7.9%, 2.1%, and 3.7% developed stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI, respectively; among those with COVID-19, 6.6%, 0.4%, and 1.1% developed stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI, respectively. In both groups, factors significantly associated with AKI included diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Among patients with AKI, those with COVID-19 had a lower rate of major adverse clinical outcomes versus patients with SARS. Renal function recovery usually occurred within 30 days after an initial AKI event. CONCLUSIONS: AKI rates were higher among patients with SARS than those with COVID-19. AKI was associated with major adverse clinical outcomes for both diseases. Patients with diabetes mellitus and abnormal liver function were also at risk of developing severe consequences after SARS and COVID-19 infection.

16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Whether chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients during immune-tolerant (IT) phase are at low risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial. We performed a multicenter study to determine their long-term prognosis. METHODS: Untreated IT group included patients < 40 years of age, with persistently hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] positivity, serum HBV-DNA>6 log10IU/mL, and ALT level < 40 U/L, using age and HBV-DNA criteria by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guideline. Cumulative HCC risk of untreated IT group (n=194) was compared to HBeAg-positive patients undergoing antiviral therapy according to the practice and reimbursement guidelines (treated HBeAg[+] group, n=454). Patients with history of cirrhosis or HCC at baseline were excluded. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 62.1 months), HCC did not develop in any patient among untreated IT group, whereas the cumulative probability of HCC at 3, 5, and 9 years in the treated HBeAg(+) group was 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.3%, respectively (p=0.203). Ninety-seven patients among untreated IT group entered immune-active phase, of whom 86 (88.7%) started antiviral treatment. A high normal ALT level (20-39 U/L) was associated with an increased risk of a phase change, compared to ALT < 20 U/L. After censoring at the time of phase change, the cumulative HCC risk was also not significantly different between two groups (p=0.258). CONCLUSIONS: No actual HCC risk during untreated IT phase defined by age and HBV-DNA criteria of the AASLD guideline exists, supporting their diagnostic validity from the perspective of long-term prognosis. Further validation studies are required.

17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease is common, with fibrosis the major determinant of adverse outcomes. Population-based screening tools with high diagnostic accuracy for the staging of fibrosis are lacking. METHODS: Three independent cohorts, 2 with both liver biopsy and liver stiffness measurements (LSMs, n = 254 and 65) and a population sample (n = 713), were studied. The performance of a recently developed noninvasive algorithm (ADAPT [age, diabetes, PRO-C3 and platelets panel]) as well as aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, and LSM was used to stage patients for significant (≥F2) and advanced (≥F3) fibrosis. RESULTS: In the hospital-based cohorts, the N-terminal propeptide of type 3 collagen (Pro-C3) increased with fibrosis stage (P < 0.0001) and independently associated with advanced fibrosis (odds ratio = 1.091, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.053-1.113, P = 0.0001). ADAPT showed areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.831 (95% CI: 0.779-0.875) in the derivation and 0.879 (95% CI: 0.774-0.946) in the validation cohort for advanced fibrosis. This was superior to the existing fibrosis scores, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4, BARD (BMI, aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio [AAR], diabetes), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score in most comparisons and comparable with LSM. Serial use of ADAPT and LSM had diagnostic accuracy of 92.5%, with 98% and 100% negative predictive value in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. In the population cohort, PRO-C3 associated with advanced fibrosis (P = 0.04), while ADAPT had a negative predictive value of 98% for excluding advanced fibrosis. DISCUSSION: PRO-C3 and ADAPT reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in low-risk populations. The serial combination of ADAPT with LSM has high diagnostic accuracy with a low requirement for liver biopsy. The proposed algorithm would help stratify those who need biopsies and narrow down those patients who would need to be referred to specialty clinics.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who achieved hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance spontaneously or following anti-viral therapy have similar clinical outcomes. AIM: To compare the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with CHB who either cleared HBsAg spontaneously or following anti-viral therapy METHODS: Adult CHB-monoinfected patients who cleared HBsAg between January 2000 and March 2019 were identified from a territory-wide database in Hong Kong. Patients with liver transplantation and/or HCC before HBsAg loss were excluded. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, anti-viral treatment, laboratory parameters and HCC development were analysed. RESULTS: Of 7,124 identified patients with CHB who cleared HBsAg, mean age was 58.1 ± 13.8 years; 4,340 (60.9%) were male; 451 (6.3%) had cirrhosis; 5,917 (83.1%) and 1,207 (16.9%) had spontaneous and nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-induced HBsAg seroclearance, respectively. Most patients had normal liver function at HBsAg loss. Patients with NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance were younger, and more likely to be male and cirrhotic than patients with spontaneous HBsAg loss. At a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 4.3 (2.2-7.6) years, 97 (1.6%) and 16 (1.3%) patients with spontaneous and NA-induced HBsAg loss developed HCC, respectively. Patients who achieved NA-induced HBsAg loss had comparable HCC risk as those with spontaneous HBsAg loss (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.43-1.32, P = 0.323). The results remained robust in propensity score weighting and matching analyses. CONCLUSION: The HCC risk was similarly low after either spontaneous or NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance in a territory-wide cohort of patients with CHB who had cleared HBsAg.

19.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(11): 1624-1636, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163833

RESUMO

The current alanine aminotransferase (ALT) upper limit of normal was defined using selected healthy Caucasian blood donors. Given the global rise in obesity and different body habitus in Asians, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis combined with bootstrap modeling and individual patient data validation to estimate the ALT upper threshold for Asians, including the overweight and diabetics. We included studies from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database searches that identified individuals without known liver diseases (i.e., viral hepatitis, alcohol, and ultrasound-detected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). The mean ALT (U/L) was estimated using a random-effects mixed model and upper threshold (95th-percentile value, U/L) via a bootstrap model with 10,000 resamples. We screened 4,995 studies and identified 86 studies that reported ALT values for 526,641 individuals without excessive alcohol intake or known liver diseases, yielding a mean ALT of 19 and ALT upper threshold of 32. The ALT upper threshold was 37 in males versus 31 in females, 39 in overweight versus 28 in normal-weight individuals, and 36 for diabetics versus 33 for nondiabetics. We validated our study level data with individual patient level data in 6,058 individuals from five study centers in Japan. Consistent with our study-level data, we found that the ALT upper threshold in our individual patient data analysis was indeed higher in overweight versus normal-weight individuals (39 vs. 32) and in diabetics versus nondiabetics (42 vs. 33). Conclusion: We provide validated reference ranges for ALT upper threshold derived from Asians without known liver disease, including individuals with ultrasound-detected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who are normal weight, overweight, nondiabetic, and diabetic, to inform practice.

20.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(11): 1637-1650, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163834

RESUMO

Fatigue and pruritus are common in patients with chronic liver diseases of all etiologies, but clinical awareness is mostly restricted to those with cholestatic liver diseases. We assessed the impact of fatigue and pruritus on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of patients with advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Specifically, PROs (Short Form-36, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-NASH, Euro-Qol 5 Dimension, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment instruments) were assessed at baseline in patients with histologically confirmed bridging fibrosis (F3) or compensated cirrhosis (F4) due to NASH enrolled in STELLAR 3 and 4. Presence of fatigue and pruritus were indicated by a score of 4 or less on the respective items of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-NASH (scale range, 1-7). Among the included 1,669 patients with advanced NASH (mean age = 58 ± 9 years, 48% F3, 42% with psychiatric comorbidities), 33% and 27% had fatigue and pruritus, respectively. Patients with NASH with fatigue were younger, more likely to be female, cirrhotic, and diabetic, and had higher body mass index and more comorbidities (all P < 0.05). All PRO scores of patients with fatigue were significantly impaired (mean up to -31% of a PRO range size in comparison to patients without fatigue). In multivariate analysis, predictors of fatigue included diabetes, history of depression or nervous system comorbidities, and lower serum albumin (P < 0.05). Patients with pruritus had demographic characteristics similar to those with fatigue, but a higher prevalence of dermatologic comorbidities. All PROs were impaired (by up to -19% of a range size, all P < 0.01) in patients with NASH with pruritus. Female gender, lower serum albumin, and a history of depression, nervous system, and dermatologic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of pruritus (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically significant fatigue and pruritus are common in patients with advanced NASH, and these symptoms negatively affect PROs.

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