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1.
Nature ; 599(7883): 67-73, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732866

RESUMO

Chemical doping is a key process for investigating charge transport in organic semiconductors and improving certain (opto)electronic devices1-9. N(electron)-doping is fundamentally more challenging than p(hole)-doping and typically achieves a very low doping efficiency (η) of less than 10%1,10. An efficient molecular n-dopant should simultaneously exhibit a high reducing power and air stability for broad applicability1,5,6,9,11, which is very challenging. Here we show a general concept of catalysed n-doping of organic semiconductors using air-stable precursor-type molecular dopants. Incorporation of a transition metal (for example, Pt, Au, Pd) as vapour-deposited nanoparticles or solution-processable organometallic complexes (for example, Pd2(dba)3) catalyses the reaction, as assessed by experimental and theoretical evidence, enabling greatly increased η in a much shorter doping time and high electrical conductivities (above 100 S cm-1; ref. 12). This methodology has technological implications for realizing improved semiconductor devices and offers a broad exploration space of ternary systems comprising catalysts, molecular dopants and semiconductors, thus opening new opportunities in n-doping research and applications12, 13.

2.
Small ; : e2104933, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846779

RESUMO

π-Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) have been studied as interlayers on top of a separate hole transport layer (HTL) to improve the wetting, interfacial defect passivation, and crystal growth of perovskites. However, very few CPE-based HTLs have been reported without rational molecular design as ideal HTLs for perovskite solar cells (PeSCs). In this study, the authors synthesize a triphenylamine-based anionic CPE (TPAFS-TMA) as an HTL for p-i-n-type PeSCs. TPAFS-TMA has appropriate frontier molecular orbital (FMO) levels similar to those of the commonly used poly(bis(4-phenyl)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylamine) (PTAA) HTL. The ionic and semiconducting TPAFS-TMA shows high compatibility, high transmittance, appropriate FMO energy levels for hole extraction and electron blocking, as well as defect passivating properties, which are confirmed using various optical and electrical analyses. Thus, the PeSC with the TPAFS-TMA HTL exhibits the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 20.86%, which is better than that of the PTAA-based device (PCE of 19.97%). In addition, it exhibits negligible device-to-device variations in its photovoltaic performance, contrary to the device with PTAA. Finally, a large-area PeSC (1 cm2 ) and mini-module (3 cm2 ), showing PCEs of 19.46% and 18.41%, respectively, are successfully fabricated. The newly synthesized TPAFS-TMA may suggest its great potential as an HTL for large-area PeSCs.

3.
Small ; : e2104215, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841671

RESUMO

Although the rapid development of polymer solar cells (PSCs) has been achieved, it is still a great challenge to explore efficient ways for improving power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs from materials and device engineering. Ternary strategy has been confirmed as an efficient way to improve PCE of PSCs by employing three kinds of materials. In this work, one polymer donor PM6, and two non-fullerene materials N3 and MF1 are selected to prepare ternary PSCs with layer-by-layer (LbL) or bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) structure. The LbL and BHJ-PSCs exhibit PCEs of 16.75% and 16.76% with 15 wt% MF1 content in acceptors, corresponding to over 5% or 4% PCE improvement compared with N3-based binary PSCs with LbL or BHJ structure. The PCE improvement is mainly attributed to the fill factor enhancement from 73.29% to 76.95% for LbL-PSCs or from 74.13% to 77.51% for BHJ-PSCs by employing the ternary strategy. This work indicates that ternary strategy has great potential in preparing highly efficient LbL-PSCs via simultaneously optimizing molecular arrangement and the thickness of each layer.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783150

RESUMO

Intramolecular noncovalent interactions (INIs) have served as a powerful strategy for accessing organic semiconductors with enhanced charge transport properties. Herein, we apply the INI strategy for developing dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs) by constructing two small-molecular HTMs featuring an INI-integrated backbone for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). Upon incorporating noncovalent S⋅⋅⋅O interaction into their simple-structured backbones, the resulting HTMs, BTORA and BTORCNA, showed self-planarized backbones, tuned energy levels, enhanced thermal properties, appropriate film morphology, and effective defect passivation. More importantly, the high film crystallinity enables the materials with substantial hole mobilities, thus rendering them as promising dopant-free HTMs. Consequently, the BTORCNA-based inverted PVSCs delivered a power conversion efficiency of 21.10 % with encouraging long-term device stability, outperforming the devices based on BTRA without S⋅⋅⋅O interaction (18.40 %). This work offers a practical approach to designing charge transporting layers with high intrinsic mobilities for high-performance PVSCs.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2106235, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658088

RESUMO

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) hold promises for developing a variety of high-performance (bio-)electronic devices/circuits. While OECTs based on p-type semiconductors have achieved tremendous progress in recent years, n-type OECTs still suffer from low performance, hampering the development of power-efficient electronics. Here, we demonstrate that fine-tuning the molecular weight of the rigid, ladder-type n-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) by only one order of magnitude (from 4.9 to 51 kDa) enables the development of n-type OECTs with record-high geometry-normalized transconductance (gm,norm ≈ 11 S cm-1 ) and electron mobility × volumetric capacitance (µC* ≈ 26 F cm-1  V-1 s-1 ), fast temporal response (0.38 ms), and low threshold voltage (0.15 V). We ascribed this enhancement in OECT performance to a more efficient intermolecular charge transport in high-molecular-weight BBL than the low-molecular-weight counterpart. We also demonstrate OECT-based complementary inverters with record-high voltage gains of up to 100 V/V and ultra-low power consumption down to 0.32 nW, depending on the supply voltage, which are among the best sub-1V complementary inverters reported to date. These findings demonstrate the importance of molecular weight in optimizing the OECT performance of rigid organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors and open for a new generation of power-efficient organic (bio-)electronic devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 49076-49084, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628848

RESUMO

Three V-shaped host molecules with a cyclohexane linker were successfully synthesized for thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes (TADF-OLEDs). The unipolar host molecules, BBCzC and BTDC, contained two 9-phenyl-9H-3,9'-bicarbazole (PBCz) moieties and two 2,12-di-tert-butyl-7-phenyl-5,9-dioxa-13b-boranaphtho[3,2,1-de]anthracene (PDBNA) moieties, respectively. BCzTC, a bipolar host molecule, consisted of a donor unit, PBCz, and an acceptor unit, PDBNA, connected by a cyclohexane linker. Three host molecules showed good solubility in various organic solvents, making them suitable for solution processing. Among the solution-processed green TADF-OLEDs using three host molecules and a green TADF emitter, the one with BCzTC showed the highest external quantum efficiency of up to 30% with a high power efficiency of 71 lm W-1 and a current efficiency of 102 cd A-1. Compared with BBCzC and BTDC, BCzTC exhibited a relatively high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), an excellent balance in hole and electron transport properties in the emitting layer, and more efficient energy transfer to the emitter, giving such an excellent device performance.

7.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(8): nwaa305, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691710

RESUMO

A series of ternary organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are fabricated with one wide bandgap polymer D18-Cl as donor, and well compatible Y6 and Y6-1O as acceptor. The open-circuit-voltage (VOC ) of ternary OPVs is monotonously increased along with the incorporation of Y6-1O, indicating that the alloy state should be formed between Y6 and Y6-1O due to their excellent compatibility. The energy loss can be minimized by incorporating Y6-1O, leading to the VOC improvement of ternary OPVs. By finely adjusting the Y6-1O content, a power conversion efficiency of 17.91% is achieved in the optimal ternary OPVs with 30 wt% Y6-1O in acceptors, resulting from synchronously improved short-circuit-current density (JSC ) of 25.87 mA cm-2, fill factor (FF) of 76.92% and VOC of 0.900 V in comparison with those of D18-Cl : Y6 binary OPVs. The JSC and FF improvement of ternary OPVs should be ascribed to comprehensively optimal photon harvesting, exciton dissociation and charge transport in ternary active layers. The more efficient charge separation and transport process in ternary active layers can be confirmed by the magneto-photocurrent and impedance spectroscopy experimental results, respectively. This work provides new insight into constructing highly efficient ternary OPVs with well compatible Y6 and its derivative as acceptor.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9132-9135, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498626

RESUMO

Here, new polymers named PBTT-Cn (n = 3, 4, or 5) have been designed based on carboxylate-functionalized thieno[3,2-b]thiophene units. The electroluminescence external quantum efficiencies (EQEEL) of pristine PBTT-C4 and C5 films are over 1 × 10-2, which are among the highest results for OPV materials. Through combination with BTP-eC9, the PBTT-C4-based film showed a high EQEEL of 6 × 10-4 and the Vnon-radloss is 0.19 eV. As a result, a high open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V and a satisfactory PCE of 15% were recorded in the PBTT-C4-based OPV cells.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(45): 24198-24205, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467624

RESUMO

The development of n-type organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) lags far behind their p-type counterparts. In order to address this dilemma, we report here two new fused bithiophene imide dimer (f-BTI2)-based n-type polymers with a branched methyl end-capped glycol side chain, which exhibit good solubility, low-lying LUMO energy levels, favorable polymer chain orientation, and efficient ion transport property, thus yielding a remarkable OECT electron mobility (µe ) of up to ≈10-2  cm2 V-1 s-1 and volumetric capacitance (C*) as high as 443 F cm-3 , simultaneously. As a result, the f-BTI2TEG-FT-based OECTs deliver a record-high maximum geometry-normalized transconductance of 4.60 S cm-1 and a maximum µC* product of 15.2 F cm-1 V-1 s-1 . The µC* figure of merit is more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art n-type OECTs. The emergence of f-BTI2TEG-FT brings a new paradigm for developing high-performance n-type polymers for low-power OECT applications.

10.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407946

RESUMO

An increase in the demand for completely foldable electronics has motivated efforts for the development of conducting polymer electrodes having extraordinary mechanical stability. However, weak physical adhesion at intrinsic heterojunctions has been a challenge in foldable electronics. This paper reports the completely foldable polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) and logic gate arrays. Homojunction-based PTFTs were fabricated by selectively doping p-type diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer films with FeCl3 to form source/drain electrodes. The doping process caused a gradual work function change with depth, which promoted charge injection to semiconducting regions and provided a low contact resistance. In addition, the interfacial adhesion in the PTFTs was improved by interfacial cross-linking between adjacent component layers. The electrical performance of the resulting PTFTs was maintained without noticeable degradation even after extreme folding, suggesting that the proposed fabrication strategy can further be applied to various semiconducting polymers for the realization of foldable electronics.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 40880-40890, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424668

RESUMO

The characteristics of field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) can be modulated by surface treatment of the active layers. In this study, an ionic π-conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(9,9-bis(4'-sulfonatobutyl)fluorene-alt-1,4-phenylene) potassium (FPS-K), was used for the surface treatment of MoSe2 and WS2 FETs. The photoluminescence (PL) intensities of monolayer (1L)-MoSe2 and 1L-WS2 clearly decreased, and the PL peaks were red-shifted after FPS-K treatment, suggesting a charge-transfer effect. In addition, the n-channel current of both the MoSe2 and WS2 FETs increased and the threshold voltage (Vth) shifted negatively after FPS-K treatment owing to the charge-transfer effect. The photoresponsivity of the MoSe2 FET under light irradiation (λex = 455 nm) increased considerably, from 5300 A W-1 to approximately 10 000 A W-1, after FPS-K treatment, and similar behavior was observed in the WS2 FET. The results can be explained in terms of the increase in electron concentration due to photogating. The external quantum efficiency and photodetectivity of both FETs were also enhanced by the charge-transfer effect resulting from surface treatment with FPS-K containing mobile cations (K+) and fixed anions (SO3-), as well as by the photogating effect. The variation in charge-carrier density due to the photogating and charge-transfer effects is estimated to be approximately 2 × 1012 cm-2. The results suggest that π-conjugated polyelectrolytes such as FPS-K can be a promising candidate for the passivation of TMDC-based FETs and obtaining enhanced photoresponsivity.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43174-43185, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460240

RESUMO

Two kinds of dumbbell-shaped acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A)-type triad single-component (SC) photovoltaic molecules based on a benzodithiophene-rhodanine (BDTRh) core and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid (PC61BA) termini, BDTRh-C2-PC61BA and BDTRh-C10-PC61BA, were synthesized by modulating the alkyl (C2 and C10) spacer lengths. Both SC photovoltaic structures had similar UV-vis spectra in solution, but BDTRh-C10-PC61BA showed a significantly higher absorption coefficient as a thin film. In films, a more facile intermolecular photo-induced charge transfer was observed for BDTRh-C10-PC61BA in the broad-band transient absorption measurements. BDTRh-C10-PC61BA also exhibited a higher hole mobility (by 25 times) and less bimolecular recombination than BDTRh-C2-PC61BA. By plotting the normalized external quantum efficiency data, a higher charge-transfer state was measured for BDTRh-C10-PC61BA, reducing its voltage loss. A higher power conversion efficiency of ∼2% was obtained for BDTRh-C10-PC61BA, showing higher open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor than those of BDTRh-C2-PC61BA devices. The different carrier dynamics, voltage loss, and optical and photoelectrical characteristics depending on the spacer length were interpreted in terms of the film morphology. The longer decyl spacer in BDTRh-C10-PC61BA afforded a significantly enhanced intermolecular ordering of the p-type core compared to BDTRh-C2-PC61BA, suggesting that the alkyl spacer length plays a critical role in controlling the intermolecular packing interaction.

13.
Small ; 17(33): e2101839, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228396

RESUMO

The ideality factor (nid ) and photoluminescence (PL) analyses assess charge recombination characteristics in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs). However, their correlations with open-circuit voltage (Voc ) are often found to be complicated depending on the recombination types in the devices. Herein, the correlation of nid , PL characteristics and Voc is elucidated depending on the interfacial crystal quality in triple-cation mixed-halide perovskite, Cs0.05 (MA0.17 FA0.83 )0.95 Pb(I0.83 Br0.17 )3 , deposited on different hole transport layers (HTLs). In the devices with low quality interfacial crystals, Voc increases together with nid , which originates from the light intensity-dependence of majority carrier at the interface. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between Voc and nid is observed for devices with high quality interfacial crystals. The authors discuss the cases that PL enhancement by the improvement of overall crystal quality can fail to correlate with a Voc increase if interfacial crystal quality becomes worse. The study highlights that interfacial crystal quality evaluation can help to understand charge recombination via nid and PL measurements, and more importantly provide information of which defect engineering between at the interface and in the bulk would be more effective for device optimization.

14.
Adv Mater ; 33(32): e2101295, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176171

RESUMO

Two narrow-bandgap block conjugated polymers with a (D1-A1)-(D2-A2) backbone architecture, namely PBDB-T-b-PIDIC2T and PBDB-T-b-PTY6, are designed and synthesized for single-component organic solar cells (SCOSCs). Both polymers contain same donor polymer, PBDB-T, but different polymerized nonfullerene molecule acceptors. Compared to all previously reported materials for SCOSCs, PBDB-T-b-PIDIC2T and PBDB-T-b-PTY6 exhibit narrower bandgap for better light harvesting. When incorporated into SCOSCs, the short-circuit current density (Jsc ) is significantly improved to over 15 mA cm-2 , together with a record-high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.64%. Moreover, these block copolymers exhibit low energy loss due to high charge transfer (CT) states (Ect ) plus small non-radiative loss (0.26 eV), and improved stability under both ambient condition and continuous 80 °C thermal stresses for over 1000 h. Determination of the charge carrier dynamics and film morphology in these SCOSCs reveals increased carrier recombination, relative to binary bulk-heterojunction devices, which is mainly due to reduced ordering of both donor and acceptor fragments. The close structural relationship between block polymers and their binary counterparts also provides an excellent framework to explore further molecular features that impact the photovoltaic performance and boost the state-of-the-art efficiency of SCOSCs.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(22): 26227-26236, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036782

RESUMO

A series of green-emitting fluorophores based on a tetra-azaacene core is synthesized by introducing nitrile substituents at different positions. Their molecular structure-optical property relationship [i.e., vibronic transitions in photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra] is investigated to obtain a sharp emission where the vibronic peak ν0-0 should be intensified by suppressing ν0-n (n = 1, 2, 3...) transitions. The intensity ratios (I0-1/I0-0) of the ν0-1 and ν0-0 vibronic transitions in the PL spectra of DBBNP, DBBNP2CN1, and DBBNP2CN2 in hexane are 1.13, 0.80, and 0.67, respectively. Theoretical calculations explain that the CN substitution at positions 8 and 13 in DBBNP2CN2 induces a uniform charge distribution and reduces the Huang-Rhys factors (HRFs) of the vibrational normal modes coupled to the electronic transition. The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabricated with DBBNP2CN2 shows a narrower green EL emission at 518 nm with a smaller bandwidth (50 nm) than those of devices adopting DBBNP or DBBNP2CN1. The careful modification of the molecular structures and positions of substituents enables us to reduce the HRFs of vibrations to achieve a narrow emission bandwidth with decreased I0-1/I0-0, which suggests a design strategy to develop narrowband organic fluorophores to improve the color purity for wide-gamut OLED displays.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 14(17): 3579-3589, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037333

RESUMO

Tuning molecular aggregation via structure design to manipulate the film morphology still remains as a challenge for polymer solar cells based on unfused non-fullerene acceptors (UF-NFAs). Herein, a strategy was developed to modulate the aggregation patterns of UF-NFAs by systematically varying the π-bridge (D) unit and central core (A') unit in A-D-A'-D-A framework (A and D refer to electron-withdrawing and electron-donating moieties, respectively). Specifically, the quantified contents of H- or J-aggregation and crystallite disorder of three UF-NFAs (BDIC2F, BCIC2F, and TCIC2F) were analyzed via UV/Vis spectrometry and grazing incidence X-ray scattering. The results showed that the H-aggregate-dominated BCIC2F with less crystallite disorder exhibited a more favorable blend morphology with polymer donor PBDB-T (poly[(2,6-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene)-co-(1,3-di(5-thiophene-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2-ethylhexyl)benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']dithiophene-4,8-dione)]) relative the other two UF-NFAs, resulting in improved exciton dissociation and charge tranport. Consequently, photovoltaic devices based on BCIC2F delivered a promising power conversion efficiency of 12.4 % with an exceptionally high short-circuit current density of 22.1 mA cm-2 .

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(35): 19241-19252, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051037

RESUMO

A dissymmetric backbone and selenophene substitution on the central core was used for the synthesis of symmetric or dissymmetric A-DA'D-A type non-fullerene small molecular acceptors (NF-SMAs) with different numbers of selenophene. From S-YSS-Cl to A-WSSe-Cl and to S-WSeSe-Cl, a gradually red-shifted absorption and a gradually larger electron mobility and crystallinity in neat thin film was observed. A-WSSe-Cl and S-WSeSe-Cl exhibit stronger and tighter intermolecular π-π stacking interactions, extra S⋅⋅⋅N non-covalent intermolecular interactions from central benzothiadiazole, better ordered 3D interpenetrating charge-transfer networks in comparison with thiophene-based S-YSS-Cl. The dissymmetric A-WSSe-Cl-based device has a PCE of 17.51 %, which is the highest value for selenophene-based NF-SMAs in binary polymer solar cells. The combination of dissymmetric core and precise replacement of selenophene on the central core is effective to improve Jsc and FF without sacrificing Voc .

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(29): 15935-15943, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939259

RESUMO

All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) progressed tremendously due to recent advances in polymerized small molecule acceptors (PSMAs), and their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) have exceeded 15 %. However, the practical applications of all-PSCs are still restricted by a lack of PSMAs with a broad absorption, high electron mobility, low energy loss, and good batch-to-batch reproducibility. A multi-selenophene-containing PSMA, PFY-3Se, was developed based on a selenophene-fused SMA framework and a selenophene π-spacer. Compared to its thiophene analogue PFY-0Se, PFY-3Se shows a ≈30 nm red-shifted absorption, increased electron mobility, and improved intermolecular interaction. In all-PSCs, PFY-3Se achieved an impressive PCE of 15.1 % with both high short-circuit current density of 23.6 mA cm-2 and high fill factor of 0.737, and a low energy loss, which are among the best values in all-PSCs reported to date and much better than PFY-0Se (PCE=13.0 %). Notably, PFY-3Se maintains similarly good batch-to-batch properties for realizing reproducible device performance, which is the first reported and also very rare for the PSMAs. Moreover, the PFY-3Se-based all-PSCs show low dependence of PCE on device area (0.045-1.0 cm2 ) and active layer thickness (110-250 nm), indicating the great potential toward practical applications.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16754-16765, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793188

RESUMO

Crosslinkable polymers have attracted tremendous attention in various fields of science and technology, owing to their potential utilization in applications requiring dimensional and morphological stability under thermal and mechanical stress. In this study, random terpolymers were successfully synthesized by introducing thiophene-based monomers bearing vinyl functional groups in the side-chain of the polymer donor (PBDBT-BV20) and polymer acceptor (N2200-TV10) structures. The physical properties of the blend films of PBDBT-BV20 and N2200-TV10 before and after thermal crosslinking were extensively investigated and compared to those of the homogeneous individual polymer films. The results revealed that a network polymer with donor and acceptor polymer chains, which can lock the internal morphology, could be achieved by inducing crosslinking between the vinyl groups in the mixed state of PBDBT-BV20 and N2200-TV10. In addition, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cells (PSCs) containing the blend films that were crosslinked by a two-step thermal annealing process was improved. The enhanced PCE could be attributed to the individual crystallization of PBDBT-BV20 and N2200-TV10 in the blend phase at 120 °C and then thermal crosslinking at 140 °C. In addition, the PSCs with the crosslinked blend film exhibited an excellent shelf-life of over 1200 h and a thermally stable PCE. Furthermore, the crosslinked blend film exhibited excellent mechanical stability under bending stress in flexible PSCs using plastic substrates.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2354, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883549

RESUMO

Conducting polymers, such as the p-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have enabled the development of an array of opto- and bio-electronics devices. However, to make these technologies truly pervasive, stable and easily processable, n-doped conducting polymers are also needed. Despite major efforts, no n-type equivalents to the benchmark PEDOT:PSS exist to date. Here, we report on the development of poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline):poly(ethyleneimine) (BBL:PEI) as an ethanol-based n-type conductive ink. BBL:PEI thin films yield an n-type electrical conductivity reaching 8 S cm-1, along with excellent thermal, ambient, and solvent stability. This printable n-type mixed ion-electron conductor has several technological implications for realizing high-performance organic electronic devices, as demonstrated for organic thermoelectric generators with record high power output and n-type organic electrochemical transistors with a unique depletion mode of operation. BBL:PEI inks hold promise for the development of next-generation bioelectronics and wearable devices, in particular targeting novel functionality, efficiency, and power performance.

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