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1.
J Alloys Compd ; 857: 157555, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071463

RESUMO

In-situ thermal cycling neutron diffraction experiments were employed to unravel the effect of thermal history on the evolution of phase stability and internal stresses during the additive manufacturing (AM) process. While the fully-reversible martensite-austenite phase transformation was observed in the earlier thermal cycles where heating temperatures were higher than Af, the subsequent damped thermal cycles exhibited irreversible phase transformation forming reverted austenite. With increasing number of thermal cycles, the thermal stability of the retained austenite increased, which decreased the coefficient of thermal expansion. However, martensite revealed higher compressive residual stresses and lower dislocation density, indicating inhomogeneous distributions of the residual stresses and microstructures on the inside and on the surface of the AM component. The compressive residual stresses that acted on the martensite resulted preferentially from transformation strain and additionally from thermal misfit strain, and the decrease in the dislocation density might have been due to the strong recovery effect near the Ac1 temperature.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6829, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048776

RESUMO

Synergetic strengthening induced by plastic strain incompatibility at the interface, and the resulting extra geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) generated during plastic deformation, were investigated to understand the origin of extra strength in heterogeneous structured (HS) materials. The mechanism of extra GND generation in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP)-interstitial free (IF) steel layered sheet was quantitatively analyzed by conducting in situ neutron scattering tensile test. Load partitioning due to the different mechanical properties between the TWIP-steel core and IF-steel sheath at the TWIP/IF interface was observed during the in situ tensile testing. Because of the plastic strain incompatibility from load partitioning, extra GNDs are generated and saturate during tensile deformation. The extra GNDs can be correlated with the back-stress evolution of the HS materials, which contributes to the strength of layered materials. Because of the back-stress evolution caused by load partitioning, the strength of TWIP-IF layered steel is higher than the strength estimated by the rule-of-mixtures. This finding offers a mechanism by which extra GNDs are generated during load partitioning and shows how they contribute to the mechanical properties of HS materials.

3.
Scr Mater ; 1582019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858076

RESUMO

Micrometer to centimeter scale analyses of the crystalline phase volume fractions in a trip-assisted duplex stainless steel were performed under loading using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), in situ neutron diffraction, and energy selective neutron imaging (ESNI) methods. In contrast to the localized investigations of EBSD, ESNI provides macroscopic spatial distributions in a volume-averaged manner over the entire specimen with a spatial resolution of about 65 µm. The ESNI shows that the martensite is concentrated on the necking region and estimates its volume fraction of 14% at a strain of 0.2, which is comparable to the neutron diffraction result.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(4): 2323-2328, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486992

RESUMO

The thickness of steel plates used for large structures has been increasing with the rapid increase in the size of welding structures. The growing capacity of large-scale ships, such as container ships, has led to an increase in the thickness and strength of steel plates for shipbuilding. The steel plate toughness and resistance to brittle fractures tend to decrease for thick plates because of the so-called thickness effect. This study uses 80-mm-thick steel plates and two welding processes (i.e., flux cored arc welding process and electron gas welding process) to produce full-thickness weld joints. The welding residual stress in both welded joints is measured to evaluate the brittle crack propagation path. This study aims to investigate the effect of welding variables on the crack arrest toughness and crack propagation path of thick steel-plate welds. The thick steel plate has a high possibility in brittle fracture. A quantitative analysis is conducted through a temperature-gradient ESSO test to clarify the effect of the welding variables on the flux cored arc welding and electron gas welding process joints of steel plates with 50 and 80 mm thicknesses. The welding residual stress is also measured to evaluate the welding residual stress effect in both welding processes on the brittle crack propagation path using a neutron science analysis.

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