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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(8): 2885-2896, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710775

RESUMO

We recently found a negative association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of localised prostate cancer (PCa), no association with advanced PCa, and a positive association with PCa-specific mortality. In a 15% subpopulation of that study, we here investigated the measures of abdominal adiposity including waist circumference (WC) and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in relation to PCa risk and mortality. We used data from 58,457 men from four Swedish cohorts to assess WC and ABSI in relation to PCa risk according to cancer risk category, including localised asymptomatic and symptomatic PCa and advanced PCa, and PCa-specific mortality. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During, on average, 10 years of follow-up, 3290 men were diagnosed with PCa and 387 died of PCa. WC was negatively associated with the risk of total PCa (HR per 10 cm, 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.99), localised PCa (HR per 10 cm, 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.96) and localised asymptomatic PCa cases detected through a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test (HR per 10 cm, 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94). WC was not associated with the risk of advanced PCa (HR per 10 cm, 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.14) or with PCa-specific mortality (HR per 10 cm, 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.19). ABSI showed no associations with the risk of PCa or PCa-specific mortality. While the negative association between WC and the risk of localised PCa was partially driven by PSA-detected PCa cases, no association was found between abdominal adiposity and clinically manifest PCa in our population.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 156, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536631

RESUMO

Iron is essential for many biological functions and iron deficiency and overload have major health implications. We performed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies from Iceland, the UK and Denmark of blood levels of ferritin (N = 246,139), total iron binding capacity (N = 135,430), iron (N = 163,511) and transferrin saturation (N = 131,471). We found 62 independent sequence variants associating with iron homeostasis parameters at 56 loci, including 46 novel loci. Variants at DUOX2, F5, SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron deficiency anemia, while variants at TF, HFE, TFR2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron overload. A HBS1L-MYB intergenic region variant associates both with increased risk of iron overload and reduced risk of iron deficiency anemia. The DUOX2 missense variant is present in 14% of the population, associates with all iron homeostasis biomarkers, and increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia by 29%. The associations implicate proteins contributing to the main physiological processes involved in iron homeostasis: iron sensing and storage, inflammation, absorption of iron from the gut, iron recycling, erythropoiesis and bleeding/menstruation.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595074

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models are used to identify high-risk individuals and guide statin-initiation. However, these models are usually derived from individuals who may initiate statins during follow-up. We present a simple approach to address statin-initiation to predict "statin-naïve" CVD risk. We analyzed primary care data (2004-2017) from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink for 1,678,727 individuals (40-85 years) without CVD or statin treatment history at study entry. We derived age- and sex-specific prediction models including conventional risk factors and a time-dependent effect of statin-initiation constrained to 25% risk reduction (from trial results). We compared predictive performance and measures of public-health impact (e.g., numbers-needed-to-screen to prevent one case) against models ignoring statin-initiation. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 103,163 individuals developed CVD. In models accounting for versus ignoring statin initiation, 10-year CVD risk predictions were slightly higher; predictive performance was moderately improved. However, few individuals were reclassified to a high-risk threshold, resulting in negligible improvements in numbers-needed-to-screen to prevent one case. In conclusion, incorporating statin effects from trial results into risk prediction models enables statin-naïve CVD risk estimation, provides moderate gains in predictive ability, but had a limited impact on treatment decision-making under current guidelines in this population.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
5.
Cancer Med ; 10(4): 1431-1438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between obesity, blood pressure (BP) and bladder cancer (BC) risk and mortality remains unclear, partially due to potential confounding by smoking, the strongest risk factor for BC, and not accounting for tumor stage and grade in such studies. We investigated body mass index (BMI) and BP in relation to BC risk by stage and grade, and BC-specific mortality, including separately among never-smokers aimed at minimizing confounding by smoking. METHODS: We analyzed 338,910 men from three Swedish cohorts, with 4895 incident BC's (940 among never-smokers) during follow-up. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for smoking status. HRs for BMI and BP were corrected for their regression dilution ratios, calculated from 280,456 individuals with 758,641 observations. RESULTS: Body mass index was positively associated with non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC, HR per 5 kg/m2 , 1.10 [1.02-1.19]) and NMIBC grade 3 (HR 1.17 [1.01-1.34]) in the full cohort, with similar effect sizes, albeit non-significant, among never-smokers. Systolic BP was positively associated with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC, HR per 10 mmHg, 1.25 [1.00-1.55]) and BC-specific mortality (HR 1.10 [1.01-1.20]) among never-smokers, with weaker and non-significant associations in the full cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In an analyses of BMI, BP and BC risk by stage and grade among men, we found modest positive associations between BMI and NMIBC and NMIBC grade 3. SBP was positively associated with MIBC and BC-specific mortality in an analysis of never-smokers, which may reflect the association, un-confounded by smoking, also in a broader population.

6.
Transfus Med ; 31(2): 94-103, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare four haemoglobin measurement methods in whole blood donors. BACKGROUND: To safeguard donors, blood services measure haemoglobin concentration in advance of each donation. NHS Blood and Transplant's (NHSBT) customary method have been capillary gravimetry (copper sulphate), followed by venous spectrophotometry (HemoCue) for donors failing gravimetry. However, NHSBT's customary method results in 10% of donors being inappropriately bled (ie, with haemoglobin values below the regulatory threshold). METHODS: We compared the following four methods in 21 840 blood donors (aged ≥18 years) recruited from 10 NHSBT centres in England, with the Sysmex XN-2000 haematology analyser, the reference standard: (1) NHSBT's customary method; (2) "post donation" approach, that is, estimating current haemoglobin concentration from that measured by a haematology analyser at a donor's most recent prior donation; (3) "portable haemoglobinometry" (using capillary HemoCue); (4) non-invasive spectrometry (using MBR Haemospect or Orsense NMB200). We assessed sensitivity; specificity; proportion who would have been inappropriately bled, or rejected from donation ("deferred") incorrectly; and test preference. RESULTS: Compared with the reference standard, the methods ranged in test sensitivity from 17.0% (MBR Haemospect) to 79.0% (portable haemoglobinometry) in men, and from 19.0% (MBR Haemospect) to 82.8% (portable haemoglobinometry) in women. For specificity, the methods ranged from 87.2% (MBR Haemospect) to 99.9% (NHSBT's customary method) in men, and from 74.1% (Orsense NMB200) to 99.8% (NHSBT's customary method) in women. The proportion of donors who would have been inappropriately bled ranged from 2.2% in men for portable haemoglobinometry to 18.9% in women for MBR Haemospect. The proportion of donors who would have been deferred incorrectly with haemoglobin concentration above the minimum threshold ranged from 0.1% in men for NHSBT's customary method to 20.3% in women for OrSense. Most donors preferred non-invasive spectrometry. CONCLUSION: In the largest study reporting head-to-head comparisons of four methods to measure haemoglobin prior to blood donation, our results support replacement of NHSBT's customary method with portable haemoglobinometry.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e038360, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is unknown how to improve prediction of cardiovascular (CV) risk in individuals with COPD. Traditional CV risk scores have been tested in different populations but not uniquely in COPD. The potential of alternative markers to improve CV risk prediction in individuals with COPD is unknown. We aimed to determine the predictive value of conventional CVD risk factors in COPD and to determine if additional markers improve prediction beyond conventional factors. DESIGN: Data from the Evaluation of the Role of Inflammation in Chronic Airways disease cohort, which enrolled 729 individuals with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II-IV COPD were used. Linked hospital episode statistics and survival data were prospectively collected for a median 4.6 years of follow-up. SETTING: Five UK centres interested in COPD. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based sample including 714 individuals with spirometry-defined COPD, smoked at least 10 pack years and who were clinically stable for >4 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline measurements included aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, spirometry and Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea and Exercise capacity (BODE) Index, 6 min walk test (6MWT) and 4 m gait speed (4MGS) test. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: New occurrence (first event) of fatal or non-fatal hospitalised CVD, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: Out of 714 participants, 192 (27%) had CV hospitalisation and 6 died due to CVD. The overall CV risk model C-statistic was 0.689 (95% CI 0.688 to 0.691). aPWV and CIMT neither had an association with study outcome nor improved model prediction. CRP, fibrinogen, GOLD stage, BODE Index, 4MGS and 6MWT were associated with the outcome, independently of conventional risk factors (p<0.05 for all). However, only 6MWT improved model discrimination (C=0.727, 95% CI 0.726 to 0.728). CONCLUSION: Poor physical performance defined by the 6MWT improves prediction of CV hospitalisation in individuals with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ID 11101.

8.
JAMA ; 324(23): 2396-2405, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320224

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether depressive symptoms are independently associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Objective: To characterize the association between depressive symptoms and CVD incidence across the spectrum of lower mood. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis of individual-participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 162 036 participants; 21 cohorts; baseline surveys, 1960-2008; latest follow-up, March 2020) and the UK Biobank (401 219 participants; baseline surveys, 2006-2010; latest follow-up, March 2020). Eligible participants had information about self-reported depressive symptoms and no CVD history at baseline. Exposures: Depressive symptoms were recorded using validated instruments. ERFC scores were harmonized across studies to a scale representative of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (range, 0-60; ≥16 indicates possible depressive disorder). The UK Biobank recorded the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ-2; range, 0-6; ≥3 indicates possible depressive disorder). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were incident fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and CVD (composite of the 2). Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher log CES-D or PHQ-2 adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and diabetes were reported. Results: Among 162 036 participants from the ERFC (73%, women; mean age at baseline, 63 years [SD, 9 years]), 5078 CHD and 3932 stroke events were recorded (median follow-up, 9.5 years). Associations with CHD, stroke, and CVD were log linear. The HR per 1-SD higher depression score for CHD was 1.07 (95% CI, 1.03-1.11); stroke, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.10); and CVD, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.04-1.08). The corresponding incidence rates per 10 000 person-years of follow-up in the highest vs the lowest quintile of CES-D score (geometric mean CES-D score, 19 vs 1) were 36.3 vs 29.0 for CHD events, 28.0 vs 24.7 for stroke events, and 62.8 vs 53.5 for CVD events. Among 401 219 participants from the UK Biobank (55% were women, mean age at baseline, 56 years [SD, 8 years]), 4607 CHD and 3253 stroke events were recorded (median follow-up, 8.1 years). The HR per 1-SD higher depression score for CHD was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.08-1.14); stroke, 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.14); and CVD, 1.10 (95% CI, 1.08-1.13). The corresponding incidence rates per 10 000 person-years of follow-up among individuals with PHQ-2 scores of 4 or higher vs 0 were 20.9 vs 14.2 for CHD events, 15.3 vs 10.2 for stroke events, and 36.2 vs 24.5 for CVD events. The magnitude and statistical significance of the HRs were not materially changed after adjustment for additional risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In a pooled analysis of 563 255 participants in 22 cohorts, baseline depressive symptoms were associated with CVD incidence, including at symptom levels lower than the threshold indicative of a depressive disorder. However, the magnitude of associations was modest.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets rich in plant foods are associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is sparse information on fruit and vegetable subtypes and sources of dietary fibre. This study examined the associations of major plant foods, their subtypes and dietary fibre with risk of IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 490 311 men and women without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke at recruitment (12.6 years of follow-up, n cases = 8504), in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of IHD. RESULTS: There was a lower risk of IHD with a higher intake of fruit and vegetables combined [HR per 200 g/day higher intake 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.99, P-trend = 0.009], and with total fruits (per 100 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.021). There was no evidence for a reduced risk for fruit subtypes, except for bananas. Risk was lower with higher intakes of nuts and seeds (per 10 g/day 0.90, 0.82-0.98, P-trend = 0.020), total fibre (per 10 g/day 0.91, 0.85-0.98, P-trend = 0.015), fruit and vegetable fibre (per 4 g/day 0.95, 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.022) and fruit fibre (per 2 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.045). No associations were observed between vegetables, vegetables subtypes, legumes, cereals and IHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we found some small inverse associations between plant foods and IHD risk, with fruit and vegetables combined being the most strongly inversely associated with risk. Whether these small associations are causal remains unclear.

10.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894757

RESUMO

RATIONALE: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and common in older adults. The BODE Index is the most recognised mortality risk score in COPD but includes a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) that is seldom available in practise; the BODE Index may be better adopted if the 6MWT was replaced. OBJECTIVES: we investigated whether a modified BODE Index in which 6MWT was replaced by an alternative measure of physical capacity, specifically the short physical performance battery (SPPB) or components, retained its predictive ability for mortality in individuals with COPD. METHODS: we analysed 630 COPD patients from the ERICA cohort study for whom UK Office for National Statistics verified mortality data were available. Variables tested at baseline included spirometry, 6MWT, SPPB and its components (4-m gait speed test [4MGS], chair stand and balance). Predictive models were developed using stratified multivariable Cox regression, and assessed by C-indices and calibration plots with 10-fold cross-validation and replication. RESULTS: during median 2 years of follow-up, 60 (10%) individuals died. There was no significant difference between the discriminative ability of BODE6MWT (C-index 0.709, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.680-0.737), BODESPPB (C-index 0.683, 95% CI, 0.647-0.712), BODE4MGS (C-index 0.676, 95% CI, 0.643-0.700) and BODEBALANCE (C-index 0.686, 95% CI, 0.651-0.713) for predicting mortality. CONCLUSIONS: the SPPB, and its 4MGS and balance components, can potentially be used as an alternative to the 6MWT in the BODE Index without significant loss of predictive ability in all-cause mortality.

11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(11): 2246-2255, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Successful pregnancy requires the de novo creation of low-resistance utero-placental and feto-placental circulations and incomplete remodeling of this vasculature can lead to maternal or fetal compromise. Maternal BMI and fetal sex are known to influence vascular compliance and placental development, but it is unknown if these are independent or synergistic effects. Here we aim to investigate the impact of maternal obesity, fetal sex, and any interaction thereof on maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy, by assessing the physiological drop of uterine artery doppler pulsatility (UtA-PI) and umbilical artery doppler pulsatility index (UA-PI) over gestation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy participating in a prospective cohort study (n = 4212) underwent serial UtA-PI and UA-PI measurements at 20-, 28- and 36-weeks gestation. Linear mixed regression models were employed to investigate the influence of maternal BMI, fetal sex and interactions thereof on the magnitude of change in UtA-PI and UA-PI. RESULTS: Throughout gestation, UtA-PI was higher for male fetuses and UA-PI was higher for female fetuses. The physiological drop of UtA-PI was significantly smaller in overweight (change -24.3% [95%CI -22.3, -26.2]) and obese women (change -21.3% [-18.3, -24.3]), compared to normal-weight women (change -25.7% [-24.3, -27.0]) but did not differ by fetal sex. The physiological drop in UA-PI was greater for female than male fetuses (-32.5% [-31.5, -33.5] vs. -30.7% [-29.8, -31.7]) but did not differ by maternal BMI. No interactions between maternal BMI and fetal sex were found. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy is independently associated with maternal BMI and fetal sex. Our results imply sexual dimorphism in both maternal cardiovascular adaptation and feto-placental resistance.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525555

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for advanced, but not localised, prostate cancer (PCa), and for poor prognosis. However, the detection of localised PCa through asymptomatic screening might influence these associations. We investigated height and body mass index (BMI) among 431 902 men in five Swedish cohorts in relation to PCa risk, according to cancer risk category and detection mode, and PCa-specific mortality using Cox regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. Height was positively associated with localised intermediate-risk PCa (HR per 5 cm, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), while overweight and obesity were negatively associated with localised low- and intermediate-risk PCa (HRs per 5 kg/m2 , 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90, and 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). However, these associations were partially driven by PCa's detected by asymptomatic screening and, for height, also by symptoms unrelated to PCa. The HR of localised PCa's, per 5 kg/m2 , was 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.92 for screen-detected PCa's and 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.01 for PCa's detected through lower urinary tract symptoms. BMI was positively associated with PCa-specific mortality in the full population and in case-only analysis of each PCa risk category (HRs per 5 kg/m2 , 1.11-1.22, P for heterogeneity = .14). More active health-seeking behaviour among tall and normal-weight men may partially explain their higher risk of localised PCa. The higher PCa-specific mortality among obese men across all PCa risk categories in our study suggests obesity as a potential target to improve the prognosis of obese PCa patients.

13.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 29(11): 3113-3134, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380893

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in precision medicine where individual heterogeneity is incorporated into decision-making and treatments are tailored to individuals to provide better healthcare. One important aspect of precision medicine is the estimation of the optimal individualized treatment rule (ITR) that optimizes the expected outcome. Most methods developed for this purpose are restricted to the setting with two treatments, while clinical studies with more than two treatments are common in practice. In this work, we summarize methods to estimate the optimal ITR in the multi-arm setting and compare their performance in large-scale clinical trials via simulation studies. We then illustrate their utilities with a case study using the data from the INTERVAL trial, which randomly assigned over 20,000 male blood donors from England to one of the three inter-donation intervals (12-week, 10-week, and eight-week) over two years. We estimate the optimal individualized donation strategies under three different objectives. Our findings are fairly consistent across five different approaches that are applied: when we target the maximization of the total units of blood collected, almost all donors are assigned to the eight-week inter-donation interval, whereas if we aim at minimizing the low hemoglobin deferral rates, almost all donors are assigned to donate every 12 weeks. However, when the goal is to maximize the utility score that "discounts" the total units of blood collected by the incidences of low hemoglobin deferrals, we observe some heterogeneity in the optimal inter-donation interval across donors and the optimal donor assignment strategy is highly dependent on the trade-off parameter in the utility function.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228940, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040531

RESUMO

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute exacerbation of COPD requiring hospital admission is associated with mortality and healthcare costs. The ERICA study assessed multiple clinical measures in people with COPD, including the short physical performance battery (SPPB), a simple test of physical function with 3 components (gait speed, balance and sit-to-stand). We tested the hypothesis that SPPB score would relate to risk of hospital admissions and length of hospital stay. Data were analysed from 714 of the total 729 participants (434 men and 280 women) with COPD. Data from this prospective observational longitudinal study were obtained from 4 secondary and 1 tertiary centres from England, Scotland, and Wales. The main outcome measures were to estimate the risk of hospitalisation with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD and length of hospital stay derived from hospital episode statistics (HES). In total, 291 of 714 individuals experienced 762 hospitalised AECOPD during five-year follow up. Poorer performance of SPPB was associated with both higher rate (IRR 1.08 per 1 point decrease, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) and increased length of stay (IRR 1.18 per 1 point decrease, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.27) for hospitalised AECOPD. For the individual sit-to-stand component of the SPPB, the association was even stronger (IRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.26 for rate and IRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.49 for length of stay for hospitalised AECOPD). The SPPB, and in particular the sit-to-stand component can both evaluate the risk of H-AECOPD and length of hospital stay in COPD. The SPPB can aid in clinical decision making and when prioritising healthcare resources.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
15.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2632-2640, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090257

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations between major foods and dietary fibre with subtypes of stroke in a large prospective cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data on 418 329 men and women from nine European countries, with an average of 12.7 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed using validated country-specific questionnaires which asked about habitual intake over the past year, calibrated using 24-h recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke associated with consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, cereals, fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, and dietary fibre. For ischaemic stroke (4281 cases), lower risks were observed with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR; 95% CI per 200 g/day higher intake, 0.87; 0.82-0.93, P-trend < 0.001), dietary fibre (per 10 g/day, 0.77; 0.69-0.86, P-trend < 0.001), milk (per 200 g/day, 0.95; 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.02), yogurt (per 100 g/day, 0.91; 0.85-0.97, P-trend = 0.004), and cheese (per 30 g/day, 0.88; 0.81-0.97, P-trend = 0.008), while higher risk was observed with higher red meat consumption which attenuated when adjusted for the other statistically significant foods (per 50 g/day, 1.07; 0.96-1.20, P-trend = 0.20). For haemorrhagic stroke (1430 cases), higher risk was associated with higher egg consumption (per 20 g/day, 1.25; 1.09-1.43, P-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Risk of ischaemic stroke was inversely associated with consumption of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and dairy foods, while risk of haemorrhagic stroke was positively associated with egg consumption. The apparent differences in the associations highlight the importance of examining ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke subtypes separately.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 301-311, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-term pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial has shown that first-trimester screening followed by treatment of high-risk women with aspirin reduces the risk of pre-term pre-eclampsia. However, the biomarkers currently employed in risk prediction are only weakly associated with the outcome. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction study to analyse untargeted maternal serum metabolomics in samples from 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestational age (wkGA) in women with pre-eclampsia delivering at term (n = 165) and pre-term (n = 29), plus a random sample of the cohort (n = 325). We used longitudinal linear mixed models to identify candidate metabolites at 20/28 wkGA that differed by term pre-eclampsia status. Candidates were validated using measurements at 36 wkGA in the same women. We then tested the association between the 12-, 20- and 28-wkGA measurements and pre-term pre-eclampsia. We externally validated the association using 24- to 28-wkGA samples from the Born in Bradford study (25 cases and 953 controls). RESULTS: We identified 100 metabolites that differed most at 20/28 wkGA in term pre-eclampsia. Thirty-three of these were validated (P < 0.0005) at 36 wkGA. 4-Hydroxyglutamate and C-glycosyltryptophan were independently predictive at 36 wkGA of term pre-eclampsia. 4-Hydroxyglutamate was also predictive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 95% confidence interval) of pre-term pre-eclampsia at 12 (0.673, 0.558-0.787), 20 (0.731, 0.657-0.806) and 28 wkGA (0.733, 0.627-0.839). The predictive ability of 4-hydroxyglutamate at 12 wkGA was stronger than two existing protein biomarkers, namely PAPP-A (0.567, 0.439-0.695) and placenta growth factor (0.589, 0.463-0.714). Finally, 4-hydroxyglutamate at 24-28 wkGA was positively associated with pre-eclampsia (term or pre-term) among women from the Born in Bradford study. CONCLUSIONS: 4-hydroxyglutamate is a novel biochemical predictor of pre-eclampsia that provides better first-trimester prediction of pre-term disease than currently employed protein biomarkers.


Assuntos
Glutetimida/análogos & derivados , Metabolômica , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Glutetimida/sangue , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez de Alto Risco/sangue , Curva ROC , Risco Ajustado
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 386, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence is sparse about the effects of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of adverse perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. The current study aims to assess the effect of interpregnancy weight change on the risk of developing gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm birth, or delivering a large- or small-for-gestational age neonate. METHODS: Pubmed, Ovid Embase, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane library were systematically searched up until July 24th, 2019. Interpregnancy weight change was defined as the difference between pre-pregnancy weight of an index pregnancy and a consecutive pregnancy. Inclusion criteria included full text original articles reporting quantitative data about interpregnancy weight change in multiparous women with any time interval between consecutive births and the risk of any perinatal complication of interest. Studies reporting adjusted odds ratios and a reference group of - 1 to + 1 BMI unit change between pregnancies were harmonised by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-three cohort studies identified a total of 671,906 women with two or more consecutive pregnancies. Seven of these studies were included in the meta-analysis (280,672 women). Interpregnancy weight gain was consistently associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and large-for-gestational age births. In contrast, interpregnancy weight loss was associated with a lower risk of delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate. The effect magnitude (relative risk) of interpregnancy weight gain on pregnancy induced hypertension or delivering a large-for-gestational age neonate was greater among women with a normal BMI in the index pregnancy compared to women with a starting BMI ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that interpregnancy weight change impacts the risk of developing perinatal complications in a subsequent pregnancy. This provides evidence in support of guidelines encouraging women to achieve post-partum weight loss, as their risk of perinatal complications might be minimised if they return to their pre-pregnancy weight before conceiving again. Prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017067326).


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545794

RESUMO

Methods have been developed for Mendelian randomization that can obtain consistent causal estimates under weaker assumptions than the standard instrumental variable assumptions. The median-based estimator and MR-Egger are examples of such methods. However, these methods can be sensitive to genetic variants with heterogeneous causal estimates. Such heterogeneity may arise from over-dispersion in the causal estimates, or specific variants with outlying causal estimates. In this paper, we develop three extensions to robust methods for Mendelian randomization with summarized data: 1) robust regression (MM-estimation); 2) penalized weights; and 3) Lasso penalization. Methods using these approaches are considered in two applied examples: one where there is evidence of over-dispersion in the causal estimates (the causal effect of body mass index on schizophrenia risk), and the other containing outliers (the causal effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on Alzheimer's disease risk). Through an extensive simulation study, we demonstrate that robust regression applied to the inverse-variance weighted method with penalized weights is a worthwhile additional sensitivity analysis for Mendelian randomization to provide robustness to variants with outlying causal estimates. The results from the applied examples and simulation study highlight the importance of using methods that make different assumptions to assess the robustness of findings from Mendelian randomization investigations with multiple genetic variants.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
19.
BMJ ; 364: l1042, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the shape of the causal relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. DESIGN: Linear and non-linear mendelian randomisation analyses. SETTING: Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study (Norway) and UK Biobank (United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS: Middle to early late aged participants of European descent: 56 150 from the HUNT Study and 366 385 from UK Biobank. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific (cardiovascular, cancer, and non-cardiovascular non-cancer) mortality. RESULTS: 12 015 and 10 344 participants died during a median of 18.5 and 7.0 years of follow-up in the HUNT Study and UK Biobank, respectively. Linear mendelian randomisation analyses indicated an overall positive association between genetically predicted BMI and the risk of all cause mortality. An increase of 1 unit in genetically predicted BMI led to a 5% (95% confidence interval 1% to 8%) higher risk of mortality in overweight participants (BMI 25.0-29.9) and a 9% (4% to 14%) higher risk of mortality in obese participants (BMI ≥30.0) but a 34% (16% to 48%) lower risk in underweight (BMI <18.5) and a 14% (-1% to 27%) lower risk in low normal weight participants (BMI 18.5-19.9). Non-linear mendelian randomisation indicated a J shaped relation between genetically predicted BMI and the risk of all cause mortality, with the lowest risk at a BMI of around 22-25 for the overall sample. Subgroup analyses by smoking status, however, suggested an always-increasing relation of BMI with mortality in never smokers and a J shaped relation in ever smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The previously observed J shaped relation between BMI and risk of all cause mortality appears to have a causal basis, but subgroup analyses by smoking status revealed that the BMI-mortality relation is likely comprised of at least two distinct curves, rather than one J shaped relation. An increased risk of mortality for being underweight was only evident in ever smokers.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/mortalidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
J Proteome Res ; 18(6): 2397-2410, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887811

RESUMO

Direct infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry (DIHRMS) is a novel, high-throughput approach to rapidly and accurately profile hundreds of lipids in human serum without prior chromatography, facilitating in-depth lipid phenotyping for large epidemiological studies to reveal the detailed associations of individual lipids with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Intact lipid profiling by DIHRMS was performed on 5662 serum samples from healthy participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS). We developed a novel semi-targeted peak-picking algorithm to detect mass-to-charge ratios in positive and negative ionization modes. We analyzed lipid partial correlations, assessed the association of lipid principal components with established CHD risk factors and genetic variants, and examined differences between lipids for a common genetic polymorphism. The DIHRMS method provided information on 360 lipids (including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids), with a median coefficient of variation of 11.6% (range: 5.4-51.9). The lipids were highly correlated and exhibited a range of associations with clinical chemistry biomarkers and lifestyle factors. This platform can provide many novel insights into the effects of physiology and lifestyle on lipid metabolism, genetic determinants of lipids, and the relationship between individual lipids and CHD risk factors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Glicerofosfolipídeos/sangue , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Esfingolipídeos/genética , Esteróis/sangue
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