Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 62
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-term pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial has shown that first-trimester screening followed by treatment of high-risk women with aspirin reduces the risk of pre-term pre-eclampsia. However, the biomarkers currently employed in risk prediction are only weakly associated with the outcome. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction study to analyse untargeted maternal serum metabolomics in samples from 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestational age (wkGA) in women with pre-eclampsia delivering at term (n = 165) and pre-term (n = 29), plus a random sample of the cohort (n = 325). We used longitudinal linear mixed models to identify candidate metabolites at 20/28 wkGA that differed by term pre-eclampsia status. Candidates were validated using measurements at 36 wkGA in the same women. We then tested the association between the 12-, 20- and 28-wkGA measurements and pre-term pre-eclampsia. We externally validated the association using 24- to 28-wkGA samples from the Born in Bradford study (25 cases and 953 controls). RESULTS: We identified 100 metabolites that differed most at 20/28 wkGA in term pre-eclampsia. Thirty-three of these were validated (P < 0.0005) at 36 wkGA. 4-Hydroxyglutamate and C-glycosyltryptophan were independently predictive at 36 wkGA of term pre-eclampsia. 4-Hydroxyglutamate was also predictive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 95% confidence interval) of pre-term pre-eclampsia at 12 (0.673, 0.558-0.787), 20 (0.731, 0.657-0.806) and 28 wkGA (0.733, 0.627-0.839). The predictive ability of 4-hydroxyglutamate at 12 wkGA was stronger than two existing protein biomarkers, namely PAPP-A (0.567, 0.439-0.695) and placenta growth factor (0.589, 0.463-0.714). Finally, 4-hydroxyglutamate at 24-28 wkGA was positively associated with pre-eclampsia (term or pre-term) among women from the Born in Bradford study. CONCLUSIONS: 4-hydroxyglutamate is a novel biochemical predictor of pre-eclampsia that provides better first-trimester prediction of pre-term disease than currently employed protein biomarkers.

2.
BMJ ; 364: l1042, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the shape of the causal relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. DESIGN: Linear and non-linear mendelian randomisation analyses. SETTING: Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study (Norway) and UK Biobank (United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS: Middle to early late aged participants of European descent: 56 150 from the HUNT Study and 366 385 from UK Biobank. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific (cardiovascular, cancer, and non-cardiovascular non-cancer) mortality. RESULTS: 12 015 and 10 344 participants died during a median of 18.5 and 7.0 years of follow-up in the HUNT Study and UK Biobank, respectively. Linear mendelian randomisation analyses indicated an overall positive association between genetically predicted BMI and the risk of all cause mortality. An increase of 1 unit in genetically predicted BMI led to a 5% (95% confidence interval 1% to 8%) higher risk of mortality in overweight participants (BMI 25.0-29.9) and a 9% (4% to 14%) higher risk of mortality in obese participants (BMI ≥30.0) but a 34% (16% to 48%) lower risk in underweight (BMI <18.5) and a 14% (-1% to 27%) lower risk in low normal weight participants (BMI 18.5-19.9). Non-linear mendelian randomisation indicated a J shaped relation between genetically predicted BMI and the risk of all cause mortality, with the lowest risk at a BMI of around 22-25 for the overall sample. Subgroup analyses by smoking status, however, suggested an always-increasing relation of BMI with mortality in never smokers and a J shaped relation in ever smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The previously observed J shaped relation between BMI and risk of all cause mortality appears to have a causal basis, but subgroup analyses by smoking status revealed that the BMI-mortality relation is likely comprised of at least two distinct curves, rather than one J shaped relation. An increased risk of mortality for being underweight was only evident in ever smokers.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/mortalidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 380(11): 1033-1042, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP citrate lyase is an enzyme in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway upstream of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the target of statins. Whether the genetic inhibition of ATP citrate lyase is associated with deleterious outcomes and whether it has the same effect, per unit decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, as the genetic inhibition of HMGCR is unclear. METHODS: We constructed genetic scores composed of independently inherited variants in the genes encoding ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) and HMGCR to create instruments that mimic the effect of ATP citrate lyase inhibitors and HMGCR inhibitors (statins), respectively. We then compared the associations of these genetic scores with plasma lipid levels, lipoprotein levels, and the risk of cardiovascular events and cancer. RESULTS: A total of 654,783 participants, including 105,429 participants who had major cardiovascular events, were included in the study. The ACLY and HMGCR scores were associated with similar patterns of changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels and with similar effects on the risk of cardiovascular events per decrease of 10 mg per deciliter in the LDL cholesterol level: odds ratio for cardiovascular events, 0.823 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.87; P = 4.0×10-14) for the ACLY score and 0.836 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.87; P = 3.9×10-19) for the HMGCR score. Neither lifelong genetic inhibition of ATP citrate lyase nor lifelong genetic inhibition of HMGCR was associated with an increased risk of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants that mimic the effect of ATP citrate lyase inhibitors and statins appeared to lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels by the same mechanism of action and were associated with similar effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease per unit decrease in the LDL cholesterol level. (Funded by Esperion Therapeutics and others.).


Assuntos
ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Razão de Chances , Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
J Proteome Res ; 18(6): 2397-2410, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887811

RESUMO

Direct infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry (DIHRMS) is a novel, high-throughput approach to rapidly and accurately profile hundreds of lipids in human serum without prior chromatography, facilitating in-depth lipid phenotyping for large epidemiological studies to reveal the detailed associations of individual lipids with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Intact lipid profiling by DIHRMS was performed on 5662 serum samples from healthy participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS). We developed a novel semi-targeted peak-picking algorithm to detect mass-to-charge ratios in positive and negative ionization modes. We analyzed lipid partial correlations, assessed the association of lipid principal components with established CHD risk factors and genetic variants, and examined differences between lipids for a common genetic polymorphism. The DIHRMS method provided information on 360 lipids (including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids), with a median coefficient of variation of 11.6% (range: 5.4-51.9). The lipids were highly correlated and exhibited a range of associations with clinical chemistry biomarkers and lifestyle factors. This platform can provide many novel insights into the effects of physiology and lifestyle on lipid metabolism, genetic determinants of lipids, and the relationship between individual lipids and CHD risk factors.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1060, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837465

RESUMO

Circulating levels of glycine have previously been associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it remains uncertain if glycine plays an aetiological role. We present a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for glycine in 80,003 participants and investigate the causality and potential mechanisms of the association between glycine and cardio-metabolic diseases using genetic approaches. We identify 27 genetic loci, of which 22 have not previously been reported for glycine. We show that glycine is genetically associated with lower CHD risk and find that this may be partly driven by blood pressure. Evidence for a genetic association of glycine with T2D is weaker, but we find a strong inverse genetic effect of hyperinsulinaemia on glycine. Our findings strengthen evidence for a protective effect of glycine on CHD and show that the glycine-T2D association may be driven by a glycine-lowering effect of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glicina/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.

7.
JAMA ; 321(4): 364-373, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694319

RESUMO

Importance: Triglycerides and cholesterol are both carried in plasma by apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoprotein particles. It is unknown whether lowering plasma triglyceride levels reduces the risk of cardiovascular events to the same extent as lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Objective: To compare the association of triglyceride-lowering variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene and LDL-C-lowering variants in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR) with the risk of cardiovascular disease per unit change in ApoB. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization analyses evaluating the associations of genetic scores composed of triglyceride-lowering variants in the LPL gene and LDL-C-lowering variants in the LDLR gene, respectively, with the risk of cardiovascular events among participants enrolled in 63 cohort or case-control studies conducted in North America or Europe between 1948 and 2017. Exposures: Differences in plasma triglyceride, LDL-C, and ApoB levels associated with the LPL and LDLR genetic scores. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio (OR) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization-per 10-mg/dL lower concentration of ApoB-containing lipoproteins. Results: A total of 654 783 participants, including 91 129 cases of CHD, were included (mean age, 62.7 years; 51.4% women). For each 10-mg/dL lower level of ApoB-containing lipoproteins, the LPL score was associated with 69.9-mg/dL (95% CI, 68.1-71.6; P = 7.1 × 10-1363) lower triglyceride levels and 0.7-mg/dL (95% CI, 0.03-1.4; P = .04) higher LDL-C levels; while the LDLR score was associated with 14.2-mg/dL (95% CI, 13.6-14.8; P = 1.4 × 10-465) lower LDL-C and 1.9-mg/dL (95% CI, 0.1-3.9; P = .04) lower triglyceride levels. Despite these differences in associated lipid levels, the LPL and LDLR scores were associated with similar lower risk of CHD per 10-mg/dL lower level of ApoB-containing lipoproteins (OR, 0.771 [95% CI, 0.741-0.802], P = 3.9 × 10-38 and OR, 0.773 [95% CI, 0.747-0.801], P = 1.1 × 10-46, respectively). In multivariable mendelian randomization analyses, the associations between triglyceride and LDL-C levels with the risk of CHD became null after adjusting for differences in ApoB (triglycerides: OR, 1.014 [95% CI, 0.965-1.065], P = .19; LDL-C: OR, 1.010 [95% CI, 0.967-1.055], P = .19; ApoB: OR, 0.761 [95% CI, 0.723-0.798], P = 7.51 × 10-20). Conclusions and Relevance: Triglyceride-lowering LPL variants and LDL-C-lowering LDLR variants were associated with similar lower risk of CHD per unit difference in ApoB. Therefore, the clinical benefit of lowering triglyceride and LDL-C levels may be proportional to the absolute change in ApoB.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Thorax ; 74(5): 439-446, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional measures to evaluate COPD may fail to capture systemic problems, particularly musculoskeletal weakness and cardiovascular disease. Identifying these manifestations and assessing their association with clinical outcomes (ie, mortality, exacerbation and COPD hospital admission) is of increasing clinical importance. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between 6 min walk distance (6MWD), heart rate, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-alpha, quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, short physical performance battery, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and augmentation index and clinical outcomes in patients with stable COPD. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases (August 2018) and identified 61 studies, which were synthesised, including meta-analyses to estimate pooled HRs, following Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: Shorter 6MWD and elevated heart rate, fibrinogen, CRP and WCC were associated with higher risk of mortality. Pooled HRs were 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.89) per 50 m longer 6MWD, 1.10 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.18) per 10 bpm higher heart rate, 3.13 (95% CI 2.14 to 4.57) per twofold increase in fibrinogen, 1.17 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.28) per twofold increase in CRP and 2.07 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.31) per twofold increase in WCC. Shorter 6MWD and elevated fibrinogen and CRP were associated with exacerbation, and shorter 6MWD, higher heart rate, CRP and IL-6 were associated with hospitalisation. Few studies examined associations with musculoskeletal measures. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest 6MWD, heart rate, CRP, fibrinogen and WCC are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with stable COPD. Use of musculoskeletal measures to assess outcomes in patients with COPD requires further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016052075.

10.
Stat Med ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328123

RESUMO

Multiple imputation (MI) has become popular for analyses with missing data in medical research. The standard implementation of MI is based on the assumption of data being missing at random (MAR). However, for missing data generated by missing not at random mechanisms, MI performed assuming MAR might not be satisfactory. For an incomplete variable in a given data set, its corresponding population marginal distribution might also be available in an external data source. We show how this information can be readily utilised in the imputation model to calibrate inference to the population by incorporating an appropriately calculated offset termed the "calibrated-δ adjustment." We describe the derivation of this offset from the population distribution of the incomplete variable and show how, in applications, it can be used to closely (and often exactly) match the post-imputation distribution to the population level. Through analytic and simulation studies, we show that our proposed calibrated-δ adjustment MI method can give the same inference as standard MI when data are MAR, and can produce more accurate inference under two general missing not at random missingness mechanisms. The method is used to impute missing ethnicity data in a type 2 diabetes prevalence case study using UK primary care electronic health records, where it results in scientifically relevant changes in inference for non-White ethnic groups compared with standard MI. Calibrated-δ adjustment MI represents a pragmatic approach for utilising available population-level information in a sensitivity analysis to explore potential departures from the MAR assumption.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(16): 1883-1893, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has substantial heritability and a polygenic architecture. However, the potential of genomic risk scores to help predict CAD outcomes has not been evaluated comprehensively, because available studies have involved limited genomic scope and limited sample sizes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to construct a genomic risk score for CAD and to estimate its potential as a screening tool for primary prevention. METHODS: Using a meta-analytic approach to combine large-scale, genome-wide, and targeted genetic association data, we developed a new genomic risk score for CAD (metaGRS) consisting of 1.7 million genetic variants. We externally tested metaGRS, both by itself and in combination with available data on conventional risk factors, in 22,242 CAD cases and 460,387 noncases from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for CAD was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.73) per SD increase in metaGRS, an association larger than any other externally tested genetic risk score previously published. The metaGRS stratified individuals into significantly different life course trajectories of CAD risk, with those in the top 20% of metaGRS distribution having an HR of 4.17 (95% CI: 3.97 to 4.38) compared with those in the bottom 20%. The corresponding HR was 2.83 (95% CI: 2.61 to 3.07) among individuals on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications. The metaGRS had a higher C-index (C = 0.623; 95% CI: 0.615 to 0.631) for incident CAD than any of 6 conventional factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, self-reported high cholesterol, and family history). For men in the top 20% of metaGRS with >2 conventional factors, 10% cumulative risk of CAD was reached by 48 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic score developed and evaluated here substantially advances the concept of using genomic information to stratify individuals with different trajectories of CAD risk and highlights the potential for genomic screening in early life to complement conventional risk prediction.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239796

RESUMO

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of molecular phenotypes such as metabolites, lipids and proteins through genome-wide association studies represents a powerful means of highlighting molecular mechanisms relevant to human diseases. However, a major challenge of this approach is to identify the causal gene(s) at the observed QTLs. Here, we present a framework for the 'Prioritization of candidate causal Genes at Molecular QTLs' (ProGeM), which incorporates biological domain-specific annotation data alongside genome annotation data from multiple repositories. We assessed the performance of ProGeM using a reference set of 227 previously reported and extensively curated metabolite QTLs. For 98% of these loci, the expert-curated gene was one of the candidate causal genes prioritized by ProGeM. Benchmarking analyses revealed that 69% of the causal candidates were nearest to the sentinel variant at the investigated molecular QTLs, indicating that genomic proximity is the most reliable indicator of 'true positive' causal genes. In contrast, cis-gene expression QTL data led to three false positive candidate causal gene assignments for every one true positive assignment. We provide evidence that these conclusions also apply to other molecular phenotypes, suggesting that ProGeM is a powerful and versatile tool for annotating molecular QTLs. ProGeM is freely available via GitHub.

13.
Biom J ; 2018 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175406

RESUMO

To help prevent anaemia, it is a requisite for blood donors to undergo a haemoglobin test to ensure levels are not too low before donation. It is therefore important to have an accurate testing device and strategy to ensure donors are not being inappropriately bled. A recent study in blood donors used a selective testing strategy where if a donor's haemoglobin level is below the level required for donation, then another reading is taken and if this occurs again, a third and final reading is used. This strategy can reduce the average number of readings required per donor compared to taking three measurements for all donors. However, the final decision-making measurement will on average be higher than a single measurement. In this paper, a selective testing strategy is compared against other strategies. Individual-level biases are derived for the selective strategy and are shown to depend on how close a donor's true haemoglobin level is to the donation threshold and the magnitude of error in the testing device. A simulation study was conducted using the distribution of haemoglobin levels from a large donor population to investigate the effects different strategies have on population performance. We consider scenarios based on varying the measurement device bias and error, including differential biases that depend on the underlying haemoglobin level. Discriminatory performance is shown to be affected when using the selective testing strategies, especially when measurement error is large and when differential bias is present in the device. We recommend that the average of a number of readings should be used in preference to selective testing strategies if multiple measurements are available.

14.
JCI Insight ; 3(13)2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997303

RESUMO

Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are major causes of the more than 5 million perinatal and infant deaths occurring globally each year, and both are associated with placental dysfunction. The risk of perinatal and infant death is greater in males, but the mechanisms are unclear. We studied data and biological samples from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study, a prospective cohort study that followed 4,212 women having first pregnancies from their dating ultrasound scan through delivery. We tested the hypothesis that fetal sex would be associated with altered placental function using multiomic and targeted analyses. We found that spermine synthase (SMS) escapes X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the placenta and is expressed at lower levels in male primary trophoblast cells, and male cells were more sensitive to polyamine depletion. The spermine metabolite N1,N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSpm) was higher in the female placenta and in the serum of women pregnant with a female fetus. Higher maternal serum levels of DiAcSpm increased the risk of preeclampsia but decreased the risk of FGR. To our knowledge, DiAcSpm is the first maternal biomarker to demonstrate opposite associations with preeclampsia and FGR, and this is the first evidence to implicate polyamine metabolism in sex-related differences in placentally related complications of human pregnancy.

15.
Biometrics ; 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870056

RESUMO

The nested case-control and case-cohort designs are two main approaches for carrying out a substudy within a prospective cohort. This article adapts multiple imputation (MI) methods for handling missing covariates in full-cohort studies for nested case-control and case-cohort studies. We consider data missing by design and data missing by chance. MI analyses that make use of full-cohort data and MI analyses based on substudy data only are described, alongside an intermediate approach in which the imputation uses full-cohort data but the analysis uses only the substudy. We describe adaptations to two imputation methods: the approximate method (MI-approx) of White and Royston () and the "substantive model compatible" (MI-SMC) method of Bartlett et al. (). We also apply the "MI matched set" approach of Seaman and Keogh () to nested case-control studies, which does not require any full-cohort information. The methods are investigated using simulation studies and all perform well when their assumptions hold. Substantial gains in efficiency can be made by imputing data missing by design using the full-cohort approach or by imputing data missing by chance in analyses using the substudy only. The intermediate approach brings greater gains in efficiency relative to the substudy approach and is more robust to imputation model misspecification than the full-cohort approach. The methods are illustrated using the ARIC Study cohort. Supplementary Materials provide R and Stata code.

16.
Nature ; 558(7708): 73-79, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875488

RESUMO

Although plasma proteins have important roles in biological processes and are the direct targets of many drugs, the genetic factors that control inter-individual variation in plasma protein levels are not well understood. Here we characterize the genetic architecture of the human plasma proteome in healthy blood donors from the INTERVAL study. We identify 1,927 genetic associations with 1,478 proteins, a fourfold increase on existing knowledge, including trans associations for 1,104 proteins. To understand the consequences of perturbations in plasma protein levels, we apply an integrated approach that links genetic variation with biological pathway, disease, and drug databases. We show that protein quantitative trait loci overlap with gene expression quantitative trait loci, as well as with disease-associated loci, and find evidence that protein biomarkers have causal roles in disease using Mendelian randomization analysis. By linking genetic factors to diseases via specific proteins, our analyses highlight potential therapeutic targets, opportunities for matching existing drugs with new disease indications, and potential safety concerns for drugs under development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Genômica , Proteoma/genética , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mieloblastina/genética , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Vasculite/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(9): 1258-1270, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800275

RESUMO

In the last decade, over 175 genetic loci have robustly been associated to levels of major circulating blood lipids. Most loci are specific to one or two lipids, whereas some (SUGP1, ZPR1, TRIB1, HERPUD1, and FADS1) are associated to all. While exposing the polygenic architecture of circulating lipids and the underpinnings of dyslipidaemia, these genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided further evidence of the critical role that lipids play in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, as indicated by the 2.7-fold enrichment for macrophage gene expression in atherosclerotic plaques and the association of 25 loci (such as PCSK9, APOB, ABCG5-G8, KCNK5, LPL, HMGCR, NPC1L1, CETP, TRIB1, ABO, PMAIP1-MC4R, and LDLR) with CHD. These GWAS also confirmed known and commonly used therapeutic targets, including HMGCR (statins), PCSK9 (antibodies), and NPC1L1 (ezetimibe). As we head into the post-GWAS era, we offer suggestions for how to move forward beyond genetic risk loci, towards refining the biology behind the associations and identifying causal genes and therapeutic targets. Deep phenotyping through lipidomics and metabolomics will refine and increase the resolution to find causal and druggable targets, and studies aimed at demonstrating gene transcriptional and regulatory effects of lipid associated loci will further aid in identifying these targets. Thus, we argue the need for deeply phenotyped, large genetic association studies to reduce costs and failures and increase the efficiency of the drug discovery pipeline. We conjecture that in the next decade a paradigm shift will tip the balance towards a data-driven approach to therapeutic target development and the application of precision medicine where human genomics takes centre stage.

18.
Lancet ; 391(10129): 1513-1523, 2018 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12·5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5·6 years [5th-95th percentile 1·04-13·5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies. FINDINGS: In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1·14, 95% CI, 1·10-1·17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1·06, 1·00-1·11), heart failure (1·09, 1·03-1·15), fatal hypertensive disease (1·24, 1·15-1·33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1·15, 1·03-1·28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was log-linearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0·94, 0·91-0·97). In comparison to those who reported drinking >0-≤100 g per week, those who reported drinking >100-≤200 g per week, >200-≤350 g per week, or >350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1-2 years, or 4-5 years, respectively. INTERPRETATION: In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower disease risk. These data support limits for alcohol consumption that are lower than those recommended in most current guidelines. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, European Union Framework 7, and European Research Council.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(7): 1530-1538, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584812

RESUMO

The benefits of using electronic health records (EHRs) for disease risk screening and personalized health-care decisions are being increasingly recognized. Here we present a computationally feasible statistical approach with which to address the methodological challenges involved in utilizing historical repeat measures of multiple risk factors recorded in EHRs to systematically identify patients at high risk of future disease. The approach is principally based on a 2-stage dynamic landmark model. The first stage estimates current risk factor values from all available historical repeat risk factor measurements via landmark-age-specific multivariate linear mixed-effects models with correlated random intercepts, which account for sporadically recorded repeat measures, unobserved data, and measurement errors. The second stage predicts future disease risk from a sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards model, with estimated current risk factor values from the first stage. We exemplify these methods by developing and validating a dynamic 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction model using primary-care EHRs for age, diabetes status, hypertension treatment, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 41,373 persons from 10 primary-care practices in England and Wales contributing to The Health Improvement Network (1997-2016). Using cross-validation, the model was well-calibrated (Brier score = 0.041, 95% confidence interval: 0.039, 0.042) and had good discrimination (C-index = 0.768, 95% confidence interval: 0.759, 0.777).

20.
Stat Med ; 36(29): 4705-4718, 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960498

RESUMO

Methods have been developed for Mendelian randomization that can obtain consistent causal estimates while relaxing the instrumental variable assumptions. These include multivariable Mendelian randomization, in which a genetic variant may be associated with multiple risk factors so long as any association with the outcome is via the measured risk factors (measured pleiotropy), and the MR-Egger (Mendelian randomization-Egger) method, in which a genetic variant may be directly associated with the outcome not via the risk factor of interest, so long as the direct effects of the variants on the outcome are uncorrelated with their associations with the risk factor (unmeasured pleiotropy). In this paper, we extend the MR-Egger method to a multivariable setting to correct for both measured and unmeasured pleiotropy. We show, through theoretical arguments and a simulation study, that the multivariable MR-Egger method has advantages over its univariable counterpart in terms of plausibility of the assumption needed for consistent causal estimation and power to detect a causal effect when this assumption is satisfied. The methods are compared in an applied analysis to investigate the causal effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on coronary heart disease risk. The multivariable MR-Egger method will be useful to analyse high-dimensional data in situations where the risk factors are highly related and it is difficult to find genetic variants specifically associated with the risk factor of interest (multivariable by design), and as a sensitivity analysis when the genetic variants are known to have pleiotropic effects on measured risk factors.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Causalidade , HDL-Colesterol , Simulação por Computador , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA