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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(2): 735-739, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614053

RESUMO

Control of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermomechanical behavior of poly(diketoenamine) vitrimers is shown by incorporating linear polymer segments varying in molecular weight (MW) and conformational degrees of freedom into the dynamic covalent network. While increasing MW of linear segments yields a lower storage modulus at the rubbery plateau after softening above the glass transition (Tg ), both Tg and the characteristic time of stress relaxation are independently governed by the conformational entropy of the embodied linear segments. Activation energies for bond exchange in the solid state are lower for networks incorporating flexible chains; the network topology freezing temperature decreases with increasing MW of flexible linear segments but increases with increasing MW of stiff segments. Vitrimer reconfigurability is therefore influenced not only by the energetics of bond exchange for a given network density, but also the entropy of polymer chains within the network.

2.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(7): 1250-1260, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403073

RESUMO

Nonaqueous polyelectrolyte solutions have been recently proposed as high Li+ transference number electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. However, the atomistic phenomena governing ion diffusion and migration in polyelectrolytes are poorly understood, particularly in nonaqueous solvents. Here, the structural and transport properties of a model polyelectrolyte solution, poly(allyl glycidyl ether-lithium sulfonate) in dimethyl sulfoxide, are studied using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the static structural analysis of Li+ ion pairing is insufficient to fully explain the overall conductivity trend, necessitating a dynamic analysis of the diffusion mechanism, in which we observe a shift from largely vehicular transport to more structural diffusion as the Li+ concentration increases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that despite the significantly higher diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion, the negatively charged polyion is responsible for the majority of the solution conductivity at all concentrations, corresponding to Li+ transference numbers much lower than previously estimated experimentally. We quantify the ion-ion correlations unique to polyelectrolyte systems that are responsible for this surprising behavior. These results highlight the need to reconsider the approximations typically made for transport in polyelectrolyte solutions.

3.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 376(3): 19, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700688

RESUMO

Fundamental molecular-level understanding of functional properties of liquid solutions provides an important basis for designing optimized electrolytes for numerous applications. In particular, exhaustive knowledge of solvation structure, stability, and transport properties is critical for developing stable electrolytes for fast-charging and high-energy-density next-generation energy storage systems. Accordingly, there is growing interest in the rational design of electrolytes for beyond lithium-ion systems by tuning the molecular-level interactions of solvate species present in the electrolytes. Here we present a review of the solvation structure of multivalent electrolytes and its impact on the electrochemical performance of these batteries. A direct correlation between solvate species present in the solution and macroscopic properties of electrolytes is sparse for multivalent electrolytes and contradictory results have been reported in the literature. This review aims to illustrate the current understanding, compare results, and highlight future needs and directions to enable the deep understanding needed for the rational design of improved multivalent electrolytes.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(17): 10323-9, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25111737

RESUMO

Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Esterco/análise , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Água/química , Agricultura , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Carvão Mineral , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais/análise
5.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 110(10): 2624-32, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23568780

RESUMO

The production of dry-grind corn ethanol results in the generation of intermediate products, thin and whole stillage, which require energy-intensive downstream processing for conversion into commercial animal feed products. Hydrothermal carbonization of thin and whole stillage coupled with anaerobic digestion was investigated as alternative processing methods that could benefit the industry. By substantially eliminating evaporation of water, reductions in downstream energy consumption from 65% to 73% were achieved while generating hydrochar, fatty acids, treated process water, and biogas co-products providing new opportunities for the industry. Processing whole stillage in this manner produced the four co-products, eliminated centrifugation and evaporation, and substantially reduced drying. With thin stillage, all four co-products were again produced, as well as a high quality animal feed. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous product stream from the hydrothermal carbonization of thin stillage reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by more than 90% and converted 83% of the initial COD to methane. Internal use of this biogas could entirely fuel the HTC process and reduce overall natural gas usage.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Carbono/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Ração Animal , Biocombustíveis , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
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