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1.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 78(Pt 3 Pt 2): 459-475, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702963

RESUMO

Experimental and computational studies of ammonium carbamate have been carried out, with the objective of studying the elastic anisotropy of the framework manifested in (i) the thermal expansion and (ii) the compressibility; furthermore, the relative thermodynamic stability of the two known polymorphs has been evaluated computationally. Using high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data, the crystal structure of α-ammonium carbamate (ND4·ND2CO2) has been refined [space group Pbca, Z = 8, with a = 17.05189 (15), b = 6.43531 (7), c = 6.68093 (7) Šand V = 733.126 (9) Å3 at 4.2 K] and the thermal expansivity of α-ammonium carbamate has been measured over the temperature range 4.2-180 K. The expansivity shows a high degree of anisotropy, with the b axis most expandable. The ab initio computational studies were carried out on the α- and ß-polymorphs of ammonium carbamate using density functional theory. Fitting equations of state to the P(V) points of the simulations (run athermally) gave the following values: V0 = 744 (2) Å3 and bulk modulus K0 = 16.5 (4) GPa for the α-polymorph, and V0 = 713.6 (5) Å3 and K0 = 24.4 (4) GPa for the ß-polymorph. The simulations show good agreement with the thermoelastic behaviour of α-ammonium carbamate. Both phases show a high-degree of anisotropy; in particular, α-ammonium carbamate shows unusual compressive behaviour, being determined to have negative linear compressibility (NLC) along its a axis above 5 GPa. The thermodynamically stable phase at ambient pressure is the α-polymorph, with a calculated enthalpy difference with respect to the ß-polymorph of 0.399 kJ mol-1; a transition to the ß-polymorph could occur at ∼0.4 GPa.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Nêutrons , Carbamatos , Difração de Pó , Pós
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(52): 26389-26393, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826951

RESUMO

The lowermost portion of Earth's mantle (D″) above the core-mantle boundary shows anomalous seismic features, such as strong seismic anisotropy, related to the properties of the main mineral MgSiO3 postperovskite. But, after over a decade of investigations, the seismic observations still cannot be explained simply by flow models which assume dislocation creep in postperovskite. We have investigated the chemical diffusivity of perovskite and postperovskite phases by experiment and ab initio simulation, and derive equations for the observed anisotropic diffusion creep. There is excellent agreement between experiments and simulations for both phases in all of the chemical systems studied. Single-crystal diffusivity in postperovskite displays at least 3 orders of magnitude of anisotropy by experiment and simulation (Da = 1,000 Db; Db ≈ Dc) in zinc fluoride, and an even more extreme anisotropy is predicted (Da = 10,000 Dc; Dc = 10,000 Db) in the natural MgSiO3 system. Anisotropic chemical diffusivity results in anisotropic diffusion creep, texture generation, and a strain-weakening rheology. The results for MgSiO3 postperovskite strongly imply that regions within the D″ region of Earth dominated by postperovskite will 1) be substantially weaker than regions dominated by perovskite and 2) develop a strain-induced crystallographic-preferred orientation with strain-weakening rheology. This leads to strain localization and the possibility to bring regions with significantly varying textures into close proximity by strain on narrow shear zones. Anisotropic diffusion creep therefore provides an attractive alternative explanation for the complexity in observed seismic anisotropy and the rapid lateral changes in seismic velocities in D″.

3.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 3): 685-691, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896057

RESUMO

A low-temperature stage for X-ray powder diffraction in Bragg-Brentano reflection geometry is described. The temperature range covered is 40-315 K, with a temperature stability at the sample within ±0.1 K of the set point. The stage operates by means of a Gifford-McMahon (GM) closed-cycle He refrigerator; it requires no refrigerants and so can run for an extended period (in practice at least 5 d) without intervention by the user. The sample is cooled both by thermal conduction through the metal sample holder and by the presence of He exchange gas, at ambient pressure, within the sample chamber; the consumption of He gas is extremely low, being only 0.1 l min-1 during normal operation. A unique feature of this cold stage is that samples may be introduced into (and removed from) the stage at any temperature in the range 80-300 K, and thus materials which are not stable at room temperature, such as high-pressure phases that are recoverable to ambient pressure after quenching to liquid nitro-gen temperatures, can be readily examined. A further advantage of this arrangement is that, by enabling the use of pre-cooled samples, it greatly reduces the turnaround time when making measurements on a series of specimens at low temperature.

4.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 3): 692-705, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896058

RESUMO

An apparatus is described for the compression of samples to ∼2 GPa at temperatures from 80 to 300 K, rapid chilling to 80 K whilst under load and subsequent recovery into liquid nitro-gen after the load is released. In this way, a variety of quenchable high-pressure phases of many materials may be preserved for examination outside the high-pressure sample environment, with the principal benefit being the ability to obtain high-resolution powder diffraction data for phase identification and structure solution. The use of this apparatus, in combination with a newly developed cold-loadable low-temperature stage for X-ray powder diffraction (the PheniX-FL), is illustrated using ice VI (a high-pressure polymorph of ordinary water ice that is thermodynamically stable only above ∼0.6 GPa) as an example. A second example using synthetic epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) reveals that, at ∼1.6 GPa and 293 K, it undergoes incongruent melting to form MgSO4·5H2O plus brine, contributing to a long-standing debate on the nature of the high-pressure behaviour of this and similar highly hydrated materials. The crystal structure of this new high-pressure polymorph of MgSO4·5H2O has been determined at 85 K in space group Pna21 from the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of a sample recovered into liquid nitro-gen and is found to differ from that of the known ambient-pressure phase of MgSO4·5H2O (pentahydrite, space group ), consisting of corner-sharing MgO6-SO4 ion pairs rather than infinite corner-sharing chains.

5.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 2): 470-480, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657568

RESUMO

On the basis of ab initio computer simulations, pre-melting phenomena have been suggested to occur in the elastic properties of hexagonal close-packed iron under the conditions of the Earth's inner core just before melting. The extent to which these pre-melting effects might also occur in the physical properties of face-centred cubic metals has been investigated here under more experimentally accessible conditions for gold, allowing for comparison with future computer simulations of this material. The thermal expansion of gold has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction from 40 K up to the melting point (1337 K). For the entire temperature range investigated, the unit-cell volume can be represented in the following way: a second-order Grüneisen approximation to the zero-pressure volumetric equation of state, with the internal energy calculated via a Debye model, is used to represent the thermal expansion of the 'perfect crystal'. Gold shows a nonlinear increase in thermal expansion that departs from this Grüneisen-Debye model prior to melting, which is probably a result of the generation of point defects over a large range of temperatures, beginning at T/Tm > 0.75 (a similar homologous T to where softening has been observed in the elastic moduli of Au). Therefore, the thermodynamic theory of point defects was used to include the additional volume of the vacancies at high temperatures ('real crystal'), resulting in the following fitted parameters: Q = (V0K0)/γ = 4.04 (1) × 10-18 J, V0 = 67.1671 (3) Å3, b = (K0' - 1)/2 = 3.84 (9), θD = 182 (2) K, (vf/Ω)exp(sf/kB) = 1.8 (23) and hf = 0.9 (2) eV, where V0 is the unit-cell volume at 0 K, K0 and K0' are the isothermal incompressibility and its first derivative with respect to pressure (evaluated at zero pressure), γ is a Grüneisen parameter, θD is the Debye temperature, vf, hf and sf are the vacancy formation volume, enthalpy and entropy, respectively, Ω is the average volume per atom, and kB is Boltzmann's constant.

6.
Phys Chem Miner ; 45(4): 311-322, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258241

RESUMO

ABF3 compounds have been found to make valuable low-pressure analogues for high-pressure silicate phases that are present in the Earth's deep interior and that may also occur in the interiors of exoplanets. The phase diagrams of two of these materials, KCaF3 and NaMgF3, have been investigated in detail by static ab initio computer simulations based on density functional theory. Six ABF3 polymorphs were considered, as follows: the orthorhombic perovskite structure (GdFeO3-type; space group Pbnm); the orthorhombic CaIrO3 structure (Cmcm; commonly referred to as the "post-perovskite" structure); the orthorhombic Sb2S3 and La2S3 structures (both Pmcn); the hexagonal structure previously suggested in computer simulations of NaMgF3 (P63/mmc); the monoclinic structure found to be intermediate between the perovskite and CaIrO3 structures in CaRhO3 (P21/m). Volumetric and axial equations of state of all phases considered are presented. For KCaF3, as expected, the perovskite phase is shown to be the most thermodynamically stable at atmospheric pressure. With increasing pressure, the relative stability of the KCaF3 phases then follows the sequence: perovskite â†’ La2S3 structure â†’ Sb2S3 structure â†’ P63/mmc structure; the CaIrO3 structure is never the most stable form. Above about 2.6 GPa, however, none of the KCaF3 polymorphs are stable with respect to dissociation into KF and CaF2. The possibility that high-pressure KCaF3 polymorphs might exist metastably at 300 K, or might be stabilised by chemical substitution so as to occur within the standard operating range of a multi-anvil press, is briefly discussed. For NaMgF3, the transitions to the high-pressure phases occur at pressures outside the normal range of a multi-anvil press. Two different sequences of transitions had previously been suggested from computer simulations. With increasing pressure, we find that the relative stability of the NaMgF3 phases follows the sequence: perovskite â†’ CaIrO3 structure â†’ Sb2S3 structure â†’ P63/mmc structure. However, only the perovskite and CaIrO3 structures are stable with respect to dissociation into NaF and MgF2.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(33): 335701, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632143

RESUMO

We have measured the thermal expansion of (Fe1-y Ni y )Si for y = 0, 0.1 and 0.2, between 40 and 1273 K. Above ~700 K the unit-cell volumes of the samples decrease approximately linearly with increasing Ni content. Below ~200 K the unit-cell volume of FeSi falls to a value between that of (Fe0.9Ni0.1)Si and (Fe0.8Ni0.2)Si. We attribute this extra contraction of the FeSi, which is a narrow band-gap semiconductor, to the depopulation of the conduction band at low temperatures; in the two alloys the additional electrons introduced by the substitution of Ni lead to the conduction band always being populated. We have fit the unit-cell volume data with a Debye internal energy model of thermal expansion and an additional volume term, above 800 K, to take account of the volumetric changes associated with changes in the composition of the sample. Using the thermophysical parameters of the fit we have estimated the band gap in FeSi to be 21(1) meV and the unit-cell volume change in FeSi associated with the depopulation of the conduction band to be 0.066(35) Å3/unit-cell.

8.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 72(Pt 10): 1438-1445, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746937

RESUMO

Single crystals of glycine zinc sulfate penta-hydrate [systematic name: hexa-aqua-zinc tetra-aquadiglycinezinc bis-(sulfate)], [Zn(H2O)6][Zn(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, have been grown by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solution at room temperature and characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The unit cell contains two unique ZnO6 octa-hedra on sites of symmetry -1 and two SO4 tetra-hedra with site symmetry 1; the octa-hedra comprise one [tetra-aqua-diglycine zinc]2+ ion (centred on one Zn atom) and one [hexa-aqua-zinc]2+ ion (centred on the other Zn atom); the glycine zwitterion, NH3+CH2COO-, adopts a monodentate coordination to the first Zn atom. All other atoms sit on general positions of site symmetry 1. Glycine forms centrosymmetric closed cyclic dimers due to N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amine and carboxyl-ate groups of adjacent zwitterions and exhibits torsion angles varying from ideal planarity by no more than 1.2°, the smallest values for any known glycine zwitterion not otherwise constrained by a mirror plane. This work confirms the H-atom locations estimated in three earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies with the addition of independently refined fractional coordinates and Uij parameters, which provide accurate inter-nuclear X-H (X = N, O) bond lengths and consequently a more accurate and precise depiction of the hydrogen-bond framework.

9.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 72(Pt 3): 203-16, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942430

RESUMO

We have identified a new compound in the glycine-MgSO4-water ternary system, namely glycine magnesium sulfate trihydrate (or Gly·MgSO4·3H2O) {systematic name: catena-poly[[tetraaquamagnesium(II)]-µ-glycine-κ(2)O:O'-[diaquabis(sulfato-κO)magnesium(II)]-µ-glycine-κ(2)O:O']; [Mg(SO4)(C2D5NO2)(D2O)3]n}, which can be grown from a supersaturated solution at ∼350 K and which may also be formed by heating the previously known glycine magnesium sulfate pentahydrate (or Gly·MgSO4·5H2O) {systematic name: hexaaquamagnesium(II) tetraaquadiglycinemagnesium(II) disulfate; [Mg(D2O)6][Mg(C2D5NO2)2(D2O)4](SO4)2} above ∼330 K in air. X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveals that the trihydrate phase is monoclinic (space group P21/n), with a unit-cell metric very similar to that of recently identified Gly·CoSO4·3H2O [Tepavitcharova et al. (2012). J. Mol. Struct. 1018, 113-121]. In order to obtain an accurate determination of all structural parameters, including the locations of H atoms, and to better understand the relationship between the pentahydrate and the trihydrate, neutron powder diffraction measurements of both (fully deuterated) phases were carried out at 10 K at the ISIS neutron spallation source, these being complemented with X-ray powder diffraction measurements and Raman spectroscopy. At 10 K, glycine magnesium sulfate pentahydrate, structurally described by the `double' formula [Gly(d5)·MgSO4·5D2O]2, is triclinic (space group P-1, Z = 1), and glycine magnesium sulfate trihydrate, which may be described by the formula Gly(d5)·MgSO4·3D2O, is monoclinic (space group P21/n, Z = 4). In the pentahydrate, there are two symmetry-inequivalent MgO6 octahedra on sites of -1 symmetry and two SO4 tetrahedra with site symmetry 1. The octahedra comprise one [tetraaquadiglcyinemagnesium](2+) ion (centred on Mg1) and one [hexaaquamagnesium](2+) ion (centred on Mg2), and the glycine zwitterion, NH3(+)CH2COO(-), adopts a monodentate coordination to Mg2. In the trihydrate, there are two pairs of symmetry-inequivalent MgO6 octahedra on sites of -1 symmetry and two pairs of SO4 tetrahedra with site symmetry 1; the glycine zwitterion adopts a binuclear-bidentate bridging function between Mg1 and Mg2, whilst the Mg2 octahedra form a corner-sharing arrangement with the sulfate tetrahedra. These bridged polyhedra thus constitute infinite polymeric chains extending along the b axis of the crystal. A range of O-H...O, N-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds, including some three-centred interactions, complete the three-dimensional framework of each crystal.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Glicina/química , Sulfato de Magnésio/química , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Nêutrons , Difração de Pó , Difração de Raios X
10.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 48(Pt 6): 1914-1920, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664346

RESUMO

The equation of state of the orthorhombic phase of NiSi with Pmmn symmetry has been determined at room temperature from synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements of its lattice parameters, made in a diamond anvil cell. Measurements were performed up to 44 GPa, using Ne as the pressure medium and Au as the pressure standard. The resulting pressure-volume (P-V) data have been fitted with a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state of third order to yield V0 = 11.650 (7) Å3 atom-1, K0 = 162 (3) GPa and K0' = 4.6 (2). In addition, P-V data have been collected on Ni53Si47 in the B20 structure using both Ne and He as the pressure media and Cu and Au as the pressure standards, also to 44 GPa. A fit using the same Birch-Murnaghan equation of state of third order yields V0 = 11.364 (6) Å3 atom-1, K0 = 171 (4) GPa and K0' = 5.5 (3).

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25449618

RESUMO

We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047 (3), b = 4.453 (1), c = 11.023 (3) Šand V = 591.3 (3) Å(3) [ρcalc = 1281.8 (7) kg m(-3)] at 10 K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100 K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273 K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263 K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273 K; above 273 K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (EHB ≃ 30-40 kJ mol(-1)), on the basis of H...O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ∼ 36 kJ mol(-1). The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/química , Elétrons , Água/química , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
12.
Science ; 342(6157): 466-8, 2013 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24114785

RESUMO

The observed shear-wave velocity VS in Earth's core is much lower than expected from mineralogical models derived from both calculations and experiments. A number of explanations have been proposed, but none sufficiently explain the seismological observations. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we obtained the elastic properties of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) at 360 gigapascals up to its melting temperature Tm. We found that Fe shows a strong nonlinear shear weakening just before melting (when T/Tm > 0.96), with a corresponding reduction in VS. Because temperatures range from T/Tm = 1 at the inner-outer core boundary to T/Tm ≈ 0.99 at the center, this strong nonlinear effect on VS should occur in the inner core, providing a compelling explanation for the low VS observed.

13.
Acta Crystallogr C ; 69(Pt 4): 324-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23579697

RESUMO

Hexaaquamagnesium(II) sulfate pentahydrate, [Mg(H2O)6]SO4·5H2O, and hexaaquamagnesium(II) chromate(II) pentahydrate, [Mg(H2O)6][CrO4]·5H2O, are isomorphous, being composed of hexaaquamagnesium(II) octahedra, [Mg(H2O)6](2+), and sulfate (chromate) tetrahedral oxyanions, SO4(2-) (CrO4(2-)), linked by hydrogen bonds. There are two symmetry-inequivalent centrosymmetric octahedra: M1 at (0, 0, 0) donates hydrogen bonds directly to the tetrahedral oxyanion, T1, at (0.405, 0.320, 0.201), whereas the M2 octahedron at (0, 0, ½) is linked to the oxyanion via five interstitial water molecules. Substitution of Cr(VI) for S(VI) leads to a substantial expansion of T1, since the Cr-O bond is approximately 12% longer than the S-O bond. This expansion is propagated through the hydrogen-bonded framework to produce a 3.3% increase in unit-cell volume; the greatest part of this chemically induced strain is manifested along the b* direction. The hydrogen bonds in the chromate compound mitigate ~20% of the expected strain due to the larger oxyanion, becoming shorter (i.e. stronger) and more linear than in the sulfate analogue. The bifurcated hydrogen bond donated by one of the interstitial water molecules is significantly more symmetrical in the chromate analogue.

14.
Org Lett ; 5(14): 2517-8, 2003 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12841769

RESUMO

[reaction: see text] Tryptophan-derived azoninoindole imines select partners of the same chirality for dimerization to helical macrocycles.

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