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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271982

RESUMO

The development of a concise total synthesis of (±)-phyllantidine (1), a member of the securinega family of alkaloids containing an unusual oxazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core, is described. The synthesis employs a unique synthetic strategy featuring the ring expansion of a substituted cyclopentanone to a cyclic hydroxamic acid as a key step that allows facile installation of the embedded nitrogen-oxygen (N-O) bond. The optimization of this sequence to effect the desired regiochemical outcome and its mechanistic underpinnings were assessed both computationally and experimentally. This synthetic approach also features an early-stage diastereoselective aldol reaction to assemble the substituted cyclopentanone, a mild reduction of an amide intermediate without N-O bond cleavage, and the rapid assembly of the butenolide found in (1) via use of the Bestmann ylide.

2.
Sci Adv ; 6(8): eaax4568, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128393

RESUMO

Expression of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 in sensory neurons is required for pain sensation. We examined the role of NaV1.7 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord using an epitope-tagged NaV1.7 knock-in mouse. Immuno-electron microscopy showed the presence of NaV1.7 in dendrites of superficial dorsal horn neurons, despite the absence of mRNA. Rhizotomy of L5 afferent nerves lowered the levels of NaV1.7 in the dorsal horn. Peripheral nervous system-specific NaV1.7 null mutant mice showed central deficits, with lamina II dorsal horn tonic firing neurons more than halved and single spiking neurons more than doubled. NaV1.7 blocker PF05089771 diminished excitability in dorsal horn neurons but had no effect on NaV1.7 null mutant mice. These data demonstrate an unsuspected functional role of primary afferent neuron-generated NaV1.7 in dorsal horn neurons and an expression pattern that would not be predicted by transcriptomic analysis.

4.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(3): 24, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140789

RESUMO

Intramyocardial hemorrhage is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Iron deposition resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is pro-inflammatory and has been associated with adverse remodeling. The role of iron chelation in hemorrhagic acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardioprotection offered by the iron-chelating agent deferiprone (DFP) in a porcine AMI model by evaluating hemorrhage neutralization and subsequent cardiac remodeling. Two groups of animals underwent a reperfused AMI procedure: control and DFP treated (N = 7 each). A comprehensive MRI examination was performed in healthy state and up to week 4 post-AMI, followed by histological assessment. Infarct size was not significantly different between the two groups; however, the DFP group demonstrated earlier resolution of hemorrhage (by T2* imaging) and edema (by T2 imaging). Additionally, ventricular enlargement and myocardial hypertrophy (wall thickness and mass) were significantly smaller with DFP, suggesting reduced adverse remodeling, compared to control. The histologic results were consistent with the MRI findings. To date, there is no effective targeted therapy for reperfusion hemorrhage. Our proof-of-concept study is the first to identify hemorrhage-derived iron as a therapeutic target in I/R and exploit the cardioprotective properties of an iron-chelating drug candidate in the setting of AMI. Iron chelation could potentially serve as an adjunctive therapy in hemorrhagic AMI.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Deferiprona/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Miocárdio/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacocinética , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Deferiprona/farmacocinética , Deferiprona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragia/patologia , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacocinética , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Suínos
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106768, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081764

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenies are used as a basis for making inferences about macroevolutionary history. However, a robust phylogeny does not contain the information that is necessary to make many of these inferences. Complex methodologies that incorporate important assumptions about the nature of evolutionary history are therefore required. Here, we explore the implications of these assumptions for making inferences about the macroevolutionary history of Ipomoea - a large pantropical genus of flowering plants that contains the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a crop of global economic importance. We focus on assumptions that underlie inferences of divergence times, and diversification parameters (speciation rates, extinction rates, and net diversification rates). These are among the most fundamental variables in macroevolutionary research. We use a series of novel approaches to explore the implications of these assumptions for inferring the age of Ipomoea, the ages of major clades within Ipomoea, whether there are significant differences in diversification parameters among clades within Ipomoea, and whether the storage root of I. batatas evolved in pre-human times. We show that inferring an age estimate for Ipomoea and major clades within Ipomoea is highly problematic. Inferred divergence times are sensitive to uncertain fossil calibrations and differing assumptions about among-branch-substitution-rate-variation. Despite this uncertainty, we are able to make robust inferences about patterns of variation in diversification parameters within Ipomoea, and that the storage root of I. batatas evolved in pre-human times. Taken together, this study presents novel and generalizable insights into the implications of methodological assumptions for making inferences about macroevolutionary history. Further, by presenting novel findings relating to the temporal dynamics of evolution in Ipomoea, as well as more specifically to I. batatas, this study makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of tropical plant evolution, and the evolutionary context in which economically important crops evolve.

6.
Am J Hematol ; 95(5): E120-E122, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048331
7.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 69: 8-15, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) helps predict the risk of vascular events, but the recommended phase contrast sampling rate is faster than what is utilized in most clinical sequences. There are many existing MRI databases obtained for assessment of cardiac output using lower temporal frequency sampling where information might be obtained about aortic stiffness (PWV). In this work, we sought to evaluate whether the Group Delay (GD) method can generate a reproducible measure of stiffness and describe expected age-related stiffening of the aortic arch using lower sampling rates in standard clinical sequences. METHODS: Phase contrast (PC) MRI was obtained on the ascending and descending aortic arch in a heterogeneous adult cohort (n = 23; 9 women) spanning over a wide range of ages (ages 24-89, mean 49.4 ± 18.4). Data was collected with standard cardiac MRI protocols for cardiac output evaluation (repetition time = 7.8 ms, views-per-segment = 4, encoding velocity = 200 cm/s). Pulse wave transit times (TT) were computed using the GD method, two other validated automated approaches (cross correlation TT Algorithm by Gaddum and Segment by Medviso), and the manual tangent method. Pressure waveforms from tonometry and flow waveforms from PC MRI were used to assess wave reflections. RESULTS: Group Delay and TT-Algorithm showed significant and high retest reproducibility (r = 0.86 for both) as well as high PWV correlation with age (r = 0.93, P-value < 0.00005 and r = 0.96, P-value < 0.00005 respectively) and with each other (r = 0.94, P-value < 0.00001, RMSE = 0.94 m/s). Arbitrary altering of the image acquisition trigger in the GD method introduced error of 10%-13%, but the TT-algorithm error range was 11%-25%. CONCLUSION: Group Delay enables reproducible assessment of transit time to derive PWV from low temporal resolution clinical cardiac MRI sequences that can also identify age-related stiffening.

8.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 32(4): e13782, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ephrin-B2/EphB receptor signaling contributes to persistent pain states such as postinflammatory and neuropathic pain. Visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) is a major mechanism underlying abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in remission, but the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the spinal ephrin-B2/EphB pathway in VHS in 2 murine models of VHS, that is, postinflammatory TNBS colitis and maternal separation (MS). METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking ephrin-B2 in Nav 1.8 nociceptive neurons (cKO) were studied. VHS was induced by: 1. intracolonic instillation of TNBS or 2. water avoidance stress (WAS) in mice that underwent maternal separation (MS). VHS was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor response (VMRs) during colorectal distention. Colonic tissue and spinal cord were collected for histology, gene, and protein expression evaluation. KEY RESULTS: In WT mice, but not cKO mice, TNBS induced VHS at day 14 after instillation, which returned to baseline perception from day 28 onwards. In MS WT mice, WAS induced VHS for up to 4 weeks. In cKO however, visceral pain perception returned to basal level by week 4. The development of VHS in WT mice was associated with significant upregulation of spinal ephrin-B2 and EphB1 mRNA expression or protein levels in the TNBS model and upregulation of spinal ephrin-B2 protein in the MS model. No changes were observed in cKO mice. VHS was not associated with persistent intestinal inflammation. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Overall, our data indicate that the ephrin-B2/EphB1 spinal signaling pathway is involved in VHS and may represent a novel therapeutic target.

9.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 83-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975906

RESUMO

Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD) and occurs when deoxygenated sickled red blood cells occlude the microvasculature. Any stimulus, such as mental stress, which decreases microvascular blood flow will increase the likelihood of red cell entrapment resulting in local vaso-occlusion and progression to VOC. Neurally mediated vasoconstriction might be the physiological link between crisis triggers and vaso-occlusion. In this study, we determined the effect of mental stress on microvascular blood flow and autonomic nervous system reactivity. Sickle cell patients and controls performed mentally stressful tasks, including a memory task, conflict test and pain anticipation test. Blood flow was measured using photoplethysmography, autonomic reactivity was derived from electrocardiography and perceived stress was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. Stress tasks induced a significant decrease in microvascular blood flow, parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation in all subjects. Of the various tests, pain anticipation caused the highest degree of vasoconstriction. The magnitude of vasoconstriction, sympathetic activation and perceived stress was greater during the Stroop conflict test than during the N-back memory test, indicating the relationship between magnitude of experimental stress and degree of regional vasoconstriction. Baseline anxiety had a significant effect on the vasoconstrictive response in sickle cell subjects but not in controls. In conclusion, mental stress caused vasoconstriction and autonomic nervous system reactivity in all subjects. Although the pattern of responses was not significantly different between the two groups, the consequences of vasoconstriction can be quite significant in SCD because of the resultant entrapment of sickle cells in the microvasculature. This suggests that mental stress can precipitate a VOC in SCD by causing neural-mediated vasoconstriction.

11.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 3982-4001, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809538

RESUMO

To address the global burden of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the need for novel therapies, the American Society of Hematology partnered with the US Food and Drug Administration to engage the work of 7 panels of clinicians, investigators, and patients to develop consensus recommendations for clinical trial end points. The panels conducted their work through literature reviews, assessment of available evidence, and expert judgment focusing on end points related to: patient-reported outcomes (PROs), pain (non-PROs), the brain, end-organ considerations, biomarkers, measurement of cure, and low-resource settings. This article presents the findings and recommendations of the PROs, pain, and brain panels, as well as relevant findings and recommendations from the biomarkers panel. The panels identify end points, where there were supporting data, to use in clinical trials of SCD. In addition, the panels discuss where further research is needed to support the development and validation of additional clinical trial end points.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803010

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest cone degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) may result from intracellular energy depletion. We tested the hypothesis that cones die when depleted of energy by examining the effect of two bioenergetic, nutraceutical agents on cone survival. The study had three specific aims: firstly, we, studied the neuroprotective efficacies of glucose and creatine in an in vitro model of RP. Next, we utilized a well-characterized mouse model of RP to examine whether surviving cones, devoid of their inner segments, continue to express genes vital for glucose, and creatine utilization. Finally, we analyzed the neuroprotective properties of glucose and creatine on cone photoreceptors in a mouse model of RP. Two different bioenergy-based therapies were tested in rd1 mice: repeated local delivery of glucose and systemic creatine. Optomotor responses were tested and cone density was quantified on retinal wholemounts. The results showed that glucose supplementation increased survival of cones in culture subjected to mitochondrial stress or oxidative insult. Despite losing their inner segments, surviving cones in the rd1 retina continued to express the various glycolytic enzymes. Following a single subconjunctival injection, the mean vitreous glucose concentration was significantly elevated at 1 and 8 h, but not at 16 h after injection; however, daily subconjunctival injection of glucose neither enhanced spatial visual performance nor slowed cone cell degeneration in rd1 mice relative to isotonic saline. Creatine dose-dependently increased survival of cones in culture subjected to mitochondrial dysfunction, but not to oxidative stress. Despite the loss of their mitochondrial-rich inner segments, cone somas and axonal terminals in the rd1 retina were strongly positive for both the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of creatine kinase at each time point examined. Creatine-fed rd1 mice displayed enhanced optomotor responses compared to mice fed normal chow. Moreover, cone density was significantly greater in creatine-treated mice compared to controls. The overall results of this study provide tentative support for the hypothesis that creatine supplementation may delay secondary degeneration of cones in individuals with RP.

13.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 16(6): 595-604, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824822

RESUMO

Background: Reconstruction of large eyelid defects remains challenging due to the lack of suitable eyelid tarsus tissue substitutes. We aimed to evaluate a novel bioengineered chitosan scaffold for use as an eyelid tarsus substitute. Methods: Three-dimensional macroporous chitosan hydrogel scaffold were produced via cryogelation with specific biomechanical properties designed to directly match characteristics of native eyelid tarsus tissue. Scaffolds were characterized by confocal microscopy and tensile mechanical testing. To optimise biocompatibility, human eyelid skin fibroblasts were cultured from biopsy-sized samples of fresh eyelid skin. Immunological and gene expression analysis including specific fibroblast-specific markers were used to determine the rate of fibroblast de-differentiation in vitro and characterize cells cultured. Eyelid skin fibroblasts were then cultured over the chitosan scaffolds and the resultant adhesion and growth of cells were characterized using immunocytochemical staining. Results: The chitosan scaffolds were shown to support the attachment and proliferation of NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human orbital skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our novel bioengineered chitosan scaffold has demonstrated biomechanical compatibility and has the ability to support human eyelid skin fibroblast growth and proliferation. Conclusions: This bioengineered tissue has the potential to be used as a tarsus substitute during eyelid reconstruction, offering the opportunity to pre-seed the patient's own cells and represents a truly personalised approach to tissue engineering.

14.
Nat Plants ; 5(11): 1136-1144, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712754

RESUMO

Taxonomic monographs have the potential to make a unique contribution to the understanding of global biodiversity. However, such studies, now rare, are often considered too daunting to undertake within a realistic time frame, especially as the world's collections have doubled in size in recent times. Here, we report a global-scale monographic study of morning glories (Ipomoea) that integrated DNA barcodes and high-throughput sequencing with the morphological study of herbarium specimens. Our approach overhauled the taxonomy of this megadiverse group, described 63 new species and uncovered significant increases in net diversification rates comparable to the most iconic evolutionary radiations in the plant kingdom. Finally, we show that more than 60 species of Ipomoea, including sweet potato, independently evolved storage roots in pre-human times, indicating that the storage root is not solely a product of human domestication but a trait that predisposed the species for cultivation. This study demonstrates how the world's natural history collections can contribute to global challenges in the Anthropocene.

15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(6): H1243-H1253, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585044

RESUMO

The Fontan procedure for univentricular heart defects creates a nonphysiologic circulation where systemic venous blood drains directly into the pulmonary arteries, leading to multiorgan dysfunction secondary to chronic low-shear nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow and central venous hypertension. Although blood viscosity increases exponentially in this low-shear environment, the role of shear-dependent ("non-Newtonian") blood viscosity in this pathophysiology is unclear. We studied three-dimensional (3D)-printed Fontan models in an in vitro flow loop with a Philips 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. A 4D flow phase-contrast sequence was used to acquire a time-varying 3D velocity field for each experimental condition. On the basis of blood viscosity of a cohort of patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure, it was decided to use 0.04% xanthan gum as a non-Newtonian blood analog; 45% glycerol was used as a Newtonian control fluid. MRI data were analyzed using GTFlow and MATLAB software. The primary outcome, power loss, was significantly higher with the Newtonian fluid [14.8 (13.3, 16.4) vs. 8.1 (6.4, 9.8)%, medians with 95% confidence interval, P < 0.0001]. The Newtonian fluid also demonstrated marginally higher right pulmonary artery flow, marginally lower shear stress, and a trend toward higher caval flow mixing. Outcomes were modulated by Fontan model complexity, cardiac output, and caval flow ratio. Vortexes, helical flow, and stagnant flow were more prevalent with the non-Newtonian fluid. Our data demonstrate that shear-dependent viscosity significantly alters qualitative flow patterns, power loss, pulmonary flow distribution, shear stress, and caval flow mixing in synthetic models of the Fontan circulation. Potential clinical implications include effects on exercise capacity, ventilation-perfusion matching, risk of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and risk of thromboembolism.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although blood viscosity increases exponentially in low-shear environments, the role of shear-dependent ("non-Newtonian") blood viscosity in the pathophysiology of the low-shear Fontan circulation is unclear. We demonstrate that shear-dependent viscosity significantly alters qualitative flow patterns, power loss, pulmonary flow distribution, shear stress, and caval flow mixing in synthetic models of the Fontan circulation. Potential clinical implications include effects on exercise capacity, ventilation-perfusion matching, risk of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and risk of thromboembolism.

16.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in people with advanced cancer. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective for depression in people with cancer, it is unclear whether this is the case for people with advanced cancer and depression. AIMS: We sought to determine whether CBT is more clinically effective than treatment as usual (TAU) for treating depression in people with advanced cancer (trial registration number ISRCTN07622709). METHOD: A multi-centre, parallel-group single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing TAU with CBT (plus TAU). Participants (n = 230) with advanced cancer and depression were randomly allocated to (a) up to 12 sessions of individual CBT or (b) TAU. The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Secondary outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, and Satisfaction with Care. RESULTS: Multilevel modelling, including complier-average intention-to-treat analysis, found no benefit of CBT. CBT delivery was proficient, but there was no treatment effect (-0.84, 95% CI -2.76 to 1.08) or effects for secondary measures. Exploratory subgroup analysis suggested an effect of CBT on the BDI-II in those widowed, divorced or separated (-7.21, 95% CI -11.15 to -3.28). CONCLUSIONS: UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend CBT for treating depression. Delivery of CBT through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has been advocated for long-term conditions such as cancer. Although it is feasible to deliver CBT through IAPT proficiently to people with advanced cancer, this is not clinically effective. CBT for people widowed, divorced or separated needs further exploration. Alternate models of CBT delivery may yield different results. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: M.S. is a member of the Health Technology Assessment General Board.

17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4360-4377, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634394

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the neuroprotective properties of creatine in the retina using in vitro and in vivo models of injury. Methods: Two different rat retinal culture systems (one containing retinal ganglion cells [RGC] and one not) were subjected to either metabolic stress, via treatments with the mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor sodium azide, or excitotoxic stress, via treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate for 24 hours, in the presence or absence of creatine (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Neuronal survival was assessed by immunolabeling for cell-specific antigens. Putative mechanisms of creatine action were investigated in vitro. Expression of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes in the rat retina was examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The effect of oral creatine supplementation (2%, wt/wt) on retinal and blood creatine levels was determined as well as RGC survival in rats treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 10 nmol) or high IOP-induced ischemia reperfusion. Results: Creatine significantly prevented neuronal death induced by sodium azide and NMDA in both culture systems. Creatine administration did not alter cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Inhibition of CK blocked the protective effect of creatine. Retinal neurons, including RGCs, expressed predominantly mitochondrial CK isoforms, while glial cells expressed exclusively cytoplasmic CKs. In vivo, NMDA and ischemia reperfusion caused substantial loss of RGCs. Creatine supplementation led to elevated blood and retinal levels of this compound but did not significantly augment RGC survival in either model. Conclusions: Creatine increased neuronal survival in retinal cultures; however, no significant protection of RGCs was evident in vivo, despite elevated levels of this compound being present in the retina after oral supplementation.


Assuntos
Creatina/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Eletrorretinografia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Retina/enzimologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Azida Sódica/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
BMC Neurosci ; 20(1): 46, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pde6brd1 (Rd1) mouse is widely used as a murine model for human retinitis pigmentosa. Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of cone degeneration is important for evaluating potential treatments. In the present study we performed a systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal patterns of S- and M/L-opsin+ cone outer segment and cell body degeneration in Rd1 mice, described the distribution and proportion of dual cones in Rd1 retinas, and examined the kinetics of microglial activation during the period of cone degeneration. RESULTS: Outer segments of S- and M/L-cones degenerated far more rapidly than their somas. Loss of both S- and M/L-opsin+ outer segments was fundamentally complete by P21 in the central retina, and 90% complete by P45 in the peripheral retina. In comparison, degeneration of S- and M/L-opsin+ cell bodies proceeded at a slower rate. There was a marked hemispheric asymmetry in the rate of S-opsin+ and M/L-opsin+ cell body degeneration. M/L-opsin+ cones were more resilient to degeneration in the superior retina, whilst S-opsin+ cones were relatively preserved in the inferior retina. In addition, cone outer segment and cell body degeneration occurred far more rapidly in the central than the peripheral retina. At P14, the superior retina comprised a minority of genuine S-cones with a much greater complement of genuine M/L-opsin cones and dual cones, whilst the other three retinal quadrants had broadly similar numbers of genuine S-cones, genuine M/L-cones and dual cones. At P60, approximately 50% of surviving cones in the superior, nasal and temporal quadrants were dual cones. In contrast, the inferior peripheral retina at P60 contained almost exclusively genuine S-cones with a tiny minority of dual cones. Microglial number and activity were stimulated during rod breakdown, remained relatively high during cone outer segment degeneration and loss of cone somas in the central retina, and decreased thereafter in the period coincident with slow degeneration of cone cell bodies in the peripheral retina. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide valuable insights into cone degeneration in the Rd1 mouse, substantiating and extending conclusions drawn from earlier studies.

19.
Data Brief ; 23: 103721, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372389

RESUMO

Müller cells (MCs), the major type of glial cell of the vertebrate retina, have a vital role in retinal physiology and pathology. They provide structural and functional support for retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, and are implicated in various retinal diseases. Primary and immortalized MCs are important experimental tools for MC research. Here we present high throughput RNA sequencing data of 3 populations of cultured rat MCs: primary cells, the spontaneously immortalized rat MC line, SIRMu-1, and the SV40-transformed rat MC line, rMC-1. These data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE123161). For data analysis, interpretation and discussion, please refer to the research article, "Characterization of the novel spontaneously immortalized rat Müller cell line SIRMu-1" (Kittipassorn et al., 2019). This dataset is valuable for gaining insight into gene expression profiles of different types of cultured MCs and the roles of MCs in health and disease.

20.
Tetrahedron ; 75(24): 3154-3159, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258206

RESUMO

The 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) moiety is a core feature of many natural products and medicinally relevant scaffolds. As part of our efforts directed towards a total synthesis of penicisulfuranol B, we have developed and report herein: (1) the preparation of an N-hydroxy diketopiperazine intermediate accessible via a molybdenum-mediated oxidation of a parent diketopiperazine, and (2) further synthetic studies leading to a novel spirocyclic dihydrobenzofuran-containing diketopiperazine.

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