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1.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.1, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712473

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Ptychozoon lionotum group across its range in Indochina and Sundaland recovers P. lionotum sensu lato Annandale, 1905 as paraphyletic with respect to P. popaense Grismer, Wood, Thura, Grismer, Brown, Stuart, 2018a and composed of four allopatric, genetically divergent, ND2 mitochondrial lineages. Multivariate and univariate analyses of continuous and discrete morphological and color pattern characters statistically and discretely diagnose each lineage from one another and together, with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, provide the foundation for the recognition of each lineage as a new species-hypotheses corroborated with a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent species delimitation analysis. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. ranges throughout Peninsular Malaysia to Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia; P. kabkaebin sp. nov. is endemic to northern and central Laos; and P. tokehos sp. nov. ranges from southern Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra northward to Chiang Mai, fringing the Chao Phraya Basin and ranging southward through Cambodia to southern Vietnam. Ptychozoon lionotum sensu stricto ranges from northwestern Laos through southern Myanmar to eastern India. The phylogeographic structure within each species varies considerably with P. lionotum s.s. showing no genetic divergence across its 1,100 km range compared to P. cicakterbang sp. nov. showing upwards of 8.2% sequence divergence between syntopic individuals. Significant phylogeographic structure exists within P. tokehos sp. nov. and increased sampling throughout Thailand may require additional taxonomic changes within this species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Indochina
2.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.3, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715722

RESUMO

Two new species of Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group are described from foothill areas occurring on opposite sides of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Cyrtodactylus nyinyikyawi sp. nov. from the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary, Magway Region in the east and C. pyadalinensis sp. nov. from the Panluang-Pyadalin Wildlife Sanctuary, Shan State in the west bear unique suits of morphological and color pattern character states separating them from all species in the peguensis group. Additionally, a molecular phylogeny based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that neither species is nested within, nor sister to any known species in the group. This study augments recent and ongoing studies showing that the Ayeyarwady Basin is herpetologically more diverse than previously considered and should be incorporated into ongoing discussions concerning conservation efforts in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cor , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.4, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715918

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Camboja , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia , Vietnã
4.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.1, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716208

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis group of the Shan Plateau recovered two new populations from isolated karst habitats near Pinlaung Town, Shan State as a new species, C. pinlaungensis sp. nov. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. is most closely related to a clade comprising C. linnwayensis and C. ywanganensis from the western edge of the Shan Plateau approximately 90 km to the northwest. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all members of the C. linnwayensis group by a number of statistically different morphological characters, discrete color pattern differences, and its heavy tuberculation. It also bears an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 5.0-7.6% from all other species combined based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs. The discovery of this new species on the Shan Plateau continues to underscore the fact that this region is rapidly emerging as a herpetological diversity hot-spot for Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.1, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716271

RESUMO

A herpetological survey of the Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary in Kachin State, Myanmar resulted in the discovery of a new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray along the eastern watershed of the Mokso Mountains. An integrative taxonomic analysis based on the mitochondrial ND2 gene, morphology, and color pattern recovered this new species, Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov., as the sister taxon to an undescribed species from Miao, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered notable genetically divergent (4.7%) phylogeographic structure between northern and southern populations of C. mombergi sp. nov. across only 14 km of continuous habitat. Conversely, genetic divergence did not exceed 9.2% between C. mombergi sp. nov. and the undescribed species from Miao from across 355 km of habitat. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. belongs to a well-supported, mitochondrial clade of 18 other species which now compose an expanded and redefined C. gansi group. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. is only the third species of Bent-toed Gecko reported from Kachin State and indicates that additional herpetological surveys are needed in unexplored forested areas.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Florestas , Índia , Mianmar , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.3, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716638

RESUMO

A new species of limestone karst-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. dayangbuntingensis sp. nov., is described from Dayang Bunting Island of the Langkawi Archipelago off the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the third species of the group to be described from the archipelago after C. langkawiensis and C. macrotuberculatus. The new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. This discovery underscores the need for continued surveys of the many islands in the archipelago to properly ascertain its true herpetological diversity.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4656(3): zootaxa.4656.3.11, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716818

RESUMO

A new species of Ansonia is described from the Shan Plateau of Myanmar based on an integrative taxonomic analysis that differentiates it from all other congeners. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNA-val recover A. kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. as the sister species to A. inthanon from Thailand but differs from it and other congeners by at least a 5.0% sequence divergence. It is further differentiated by the following combination of morphological characters: (1) maximum SVL 24 mm in males and females; (2) first finger shorter than second; (3) absence of interorbital and tarsal ridges; (4) presence of light-coloured interscapular spot; (5) presence of yellow rictal tubercle; (6) absence of wide, light-coloured patch below eye; (7) presence of large, discrete, bright-yellow submandibular spots along the underside of lower jaw; (8) iris yellow-gold; (9) presence of markings on the snout consisting of streaks below the eye to the lip, and on the canthus rostralis to the nostril; (10) dorsum grey-brown with orange-beige spots, a dark-brown X-shaped marking on the back surrounding the interscapular spot, and dark-coloured markings on rump; (11) fore- and hind limbs with orange-beige cross-bars; and (12) venter light-gray with yellow spotting, especially near flanks and underside of hind limbs. Ansonia kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. is the westernmost known record for the genus and the only species west of the Salween Basin. Its discovery echoes the increasing number of herpetological discoveries being made in upland regions fringing the Ayeyarwady and Salween Basins.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4554(1): 1-62, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790979

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis using color pattern, morphology, and 1449 base pairs of the ND2 mitochondrial gene and its five flanking tRNAs demonstrated that eight species-level lineages occur within the Cyrtodactylus intermedius complex (Cyrtodactylus intermedius sensu stricto, C. phuquocensis and related populations) of the Cardamom mountains and associated highlands that have a sequence divergence ranging 3.4-8.9%. Additionally, each lineage is discretely diagnosable from one another based on morphology and color pattern and most occur in specific geographic regions (upland areas, karst formations or islands) that prevent or greatly restrict interpopulation gene flow. Six of these lineages were masquerading under the nomen C. intermedius and are described as the following: Cyrtodactylus auralensis sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Aural, the highest mountain in Cambodia; C. bokorensis sp. nov. endemic to the Bokor Plateau, Cambodia; C. cardamomensis sp. nov. from the main block of the Cardamom mountains; C. thylacodactylus sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Dalai the northernmost peak of the Cardamom mountains; C. laangensis sp. nov. endemic to the Phnom Laang karst formation, Cambodia; and C. septimontium sp. nov. from the Bay Núi Hills of southwest Vietnam.


Assuntos
Elettaria , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Camboja , Filogenia , Vietnã
9.
Zootaxa ; 4514(1): 53-64, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485952

RESUMO

The taxonomic position of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray to other species of homalopsids has remained uncertain due to the scarcity of specimens in collections and the lack of genetic material for comparison. Here we report the first molecular phylogenetic examination of this species based on recently acquired material. The study recovered R. indica nested within the clade of advanced, fanged homalopsids and the sister species to Erpeton tentaculatus Lácèpede. We also present notes on variation observed in the new specimens as well as range extensions for the species.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Filogenia , Animais , Malásia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4514(2): 202-214, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486214

RESUMO

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano-a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar-is a new species, P. popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P. lionotum  which manifests considerable geographic substructuring of genetic variation but differs from the nominate taxon by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 16.0-17.1% and by discrete differences in morphology and color pattern. This discovery highlights the unique, insular nature of the Bago Yoma mountains of the Ayeyarwady Basin, which support other endemic gekkonids. It also underscores the growing diversity in this highly derived clade of cryptic, parachuting, geckos characterized by highly divergent genetic lineages, which may indicate the presence of additional, unrecognized species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Mianmar
11.
Zootaxa ; 4425(1): 87-107, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313468

RESUMO

Two new species of diminutive, sympatric, lowland, leaf-litter skinks of the genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos Brown from the Sekayu region of Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu State in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia are described on the basis genetic and morphological data. One of the new species, T. monticolus sp. nov., was collected in a hilly riparian area along Sungai (=river) Bubu and is most closely related to an undescribed species from the Tembak Reservoir area. The other, T. keciktuek sp. nov. collected along Sungai Peres, is most closely related to T. perhentianensis Grismer, Wood, Grismer from Pulau (=island) Perhentian Besar. Sympatry and syntopy of multiple, specialized, unrelated, leaf-litter species of Tytthoscincus was previously only known from upland areas and these new species represent the first example of lowland of sympatry. More importantly, however, these endemic species add to a growing body of research and discoveries that continue to underscore the unrealized biodiversity of the riparian systems of Hulu Terengganu and the Sekayu region and their need for protection and continued study.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Simpatria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ilhas , Malásia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4483(2): 295-316, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313789

RESUMO

An integrative phylogenetic analysis recovers two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus (Bleeker) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. and H. uga sp. nov. are nested within the eastern Myanmar clade of a previous genus-wide phylogenetic analysis and form a more exclusive monophyletic group with H. linnwayensis. These species differ from each other and all other Hemiphyllodactylus in having unique combinations of character states involving postmental and subcaudal scale morphology; maximum SVL; digital formulae; numbers of chin scales, circumnasals, intersupranasals (=postrostrals), labials, longitudinally arranged dorsal and ventral scales, and pore-bearing femoroprecloacal scales; as well as subtle differences in coloration and pattern. The phylogenetic affinities of the eastern Myanmar clade are similar to those of an endemic clade of Cyrtodactylus from the Shan Hills in that both are more closely related to Indochinese taxa east of Myanmar as opposed to other Indo-Burmese species. The discovery of these new species underscores the underappreciated herpetological diversity of limestone ecosystems as well as the remote nature of the rugged uplands of the Shan Hills and emphasizes the need for continued field work in this region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar
13.
Zootaxa ; 4446(4): 477-500, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313871

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis indicates that a newly discovered population of Cyrtodactylus from the vicinity of Ywangan Town in the Shan Hills, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species (C. ywanganensis sp. nov.) and the earliest diverging member of the linnwayensis group within the previously defined Indochinese clade. The DIVALIKE+J model of a BioGeoBEARS biogeographic analysis indicates that the Indochinese clade evolved in the Shan Hills and Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar and dispersed into Indochina on at least three separate occasions from 18.6-13.4 mya. Once there, uplift of the Tenasserim Mountains and Thai Highlands created the intermedius group, the oldhami group, and C. tigroides of western and southern Thailand which form sister lineages to the linnwayensis group, yathepyanensis group, and the sinyineensis group, respectively, of eastern Myanmar. Diverging lineages within the Indochinese clade highlight the importance of the Thai Highlands and Tenasserim Mountains in that group's evolution and speciation. The discovery of C. ywanganensis sp. nov. in karstic habitats in the Shan Hills continues to underscore the unrealized karst-associated herpetological diversity of this vast, relatively unexplored, upland region and the need for additional field studies.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar , Tailândia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4441(2): 366-378, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314015

RESUMO

The family Xenophidiidae is an extremely rare and little-known family of snakes that contains only two species, Xenophidion acanthognathus Günther Manthey and X. schaeferi Günther Manthey that are each known only from their holotypes. We report on the rediscovery of X. schaeferi from two new locations in southern Peninsular Malaysia. The new specimens differ markedly from the holotype of X. schaeferi in colour pattern and are more akin to the patterning of X. acanthognathus from Borneo. However, molecular analyses of one of the new specimens reveal that it only differs from the holotype of X. schaeferi by a minimum sequence divergence of 0.27%. An expanded description of the species based on these specimens is provided and phenotypic variation within the species is discussed. We also report the first record of the genus Xenophidion from West Sumatra, Indonesia. These sensational discoveries continue to underscore the fact that southern Peninsular Malaysia and upland areas of Southeast Asia in general still harbour unrealized herpetological diversity and are still in need of field research-based taxonomic studies.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia , Malásia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4527(2): 151-185, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651460

RESUMO

The karstic foothills and hilly western edge of the Shan Plateau of eastern Myanmar continue to be sources of discovery for new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus. Two new karst-associated species within this unique landscape from Mandalay Region-C. aunglini sp. nov. from the Kyauk Nagar Cave and C. myaleiktaung sp. nov. from Mya Leik Taung Mountain-are described on the basis of color pattern, morphology, and genetics. A molecular phylogeny of the C. gansi group (defined herein) based on 1481 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs place C. aunglini sp. nov. as the sister species to C. gansi and C. myaleiktaung sp. nov. as the sister species of C. chrysopylos. A new population of C. chrysopylos from a boulder-strewn, karstic ridge near the village of Yane, Shan State at an elevation 951 m is reported here. Genetic and geographic variation as well as differences in natural history between it and the lowland cave population of C. chrysopylos from the type locality in the Panlaung-Pyadalin Cave Wildlife Sanctuary, Shan State at 303 m are discussed. Hatchlings of the new population from Yane are nearly uniformly bright-orange in color. We provide evidence in support of a hypothesis claiming this color functions as a mechanism for crypsis during low levels of illumination and is not involved in intraspecific communication.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Cor , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar
16.
Zootaxa ; 4238(4): 571-582, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603251

RESUMO

A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1-4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142-152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41-58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4173(1): 29-44, 2016 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701201

RESUMO

Recently discovered populations of skinks of the genus Sphenomorphus from central Peninsular Malaysia represent a new species, S. sungaicolus sp. nov., and the first riparian skink known from Peninsular Malaysia. Morphological analyses of an earlier specimen reported as S. tersus from the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor indicate that it too is the new riparian species S. sungaicolus sp. nov. Additionally, two specimens from the Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu, Kelantan and another from Ulu Gombak, Selangor have been diagnosed as new the species. The latter specimen remained unidentified in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii since its collection in June 1962. Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrate that S. sungaicolus sp. nov. forms a clade with the Indochinese species S. maculatus, S. indicus, and S. tersus and is the sister species of the latter. Sphenomorphus sungaicolus sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other members of this clade by having a smaller SVL (66.5-89.6 mm); 39-44 midbody scale rows; 72-81 paravertebral scales; 74-86 ventral scales; a primitive plantar scale arrangement; and 20-22 scale rows around the tail at the position of the 10th subcaudal.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Zootaxa ; 4147(1): 59-66, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515603

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis based on additional specimens and color photographs of Lipinia sekayuensis and additional color photographs of L. surda from Pulau Tioman and the Gunung Panti Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia confirm the previous hypotheses that L. sekayuensis is a valid species and is the sister species of L. surda. The two species share a 12.8% sequence divergence between them.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Zootaxa ; 4136(3): 461-90, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395729

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malásia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Simpatria
20.
Zootaxa ; 4092(2): 231-42, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394452

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs indicate the diminutive upland and insular species Sphenomorphus bukitensis, S. butleri, S. langkawiensis, S. perhentianensis, and S. temengorensis form a monophyletic group that is phylogenetically embedded within the Southeast Asian genus Tytthoscincus. The analyses also indicate that a new swamp-dwelling skink from the Bukit Panchor State Park, Pulau Pinang, Peninsular Malaysia is the sister species to the swamp-dwelling species S. sibuensis from Pulau Sibu, Johor and Singapore and that these two are also embedded in the genus Tytthoscincus. By transferring the two Peninsular Malaysian clades of Sphenomorphus into the genus Tytthoscincus, the monophyly of the latter is maintained. The new species T. panchorensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other species of Tytthoscincus by having a unique combination of morphological and color pattern characteristics.


Assuntos
Classificação , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética , Animais , Demografia , Genes Mitocondriais , Especiação Genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Malásia , Áreas Alagadas
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