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1.
Zootaxa ; 4718(2): zootaxa.4718.2.1, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230014

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the 10 species of the Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis group based on squamation, color pattern, and the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and its flanking tRNA regions, recovered the newly discovered populations from Datt Kyaik and Taung Wine Hills in Kayin State as the new species Cyrtodactylus dattkyaikensis sp. nov. and C. taungwineensis sp. nov. The Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic estimates supported C. dattkyaikensis sp. nov. as the sister species of C. bayinnyiensis and C. taungwineensis sp. nov. as the sister species of C. sinyineensis. Each new species is differentially diagnosable from all other C. sinyineensis group species based on their morphological placement in multivariate space and several statistically significant mean differences is meristic squamation and color pattern data. The C. sinyineensis group ranges across an archipelago of karstic habitat-islands in the Salween Basin of southern Myanmar. The discovery of these new species continues to underscore the unprecedented high degree of diversity and site-specific endemism in this relatively small region and the urgent need for the conservation of its karstic terranes.

2.
Zootaxa ; 4758(1): zootaxa.4758.1.2, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230154

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis based on morphology, color pattern, and the mitochondrial gene ND2 recovered four new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker that are endemic to the Shan Plateau or Salween Basin in eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ngwelwini sp. nov. from the Shan Plateau is part of the earlier described "eastern Myanmar clade" renamed herein as the north lineage and H. kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. and H. pinlaungensis sp. nov. of the Shan Plateau and H. zwegabinensis sp. nov. of the Salween Basin compose an entirely new Burmese clade herein referred to as the south lineage. Although the north and south lineages come within 46 km of one another on the Shan Plateau, they are not sister lineages but sequentially separated by two lineages from Yunnan, China and another from northwestern Thailand. Hemiphyllodactylus zwegabinensis sp. nov. is the first species of this genus to be recorded from the Salween Basin and is known only from a wind-blown cloud forest on the top of the insular, karstic mountain Zwegabin in Kayin State. All other Burmese species except for H. typus, are endemic to the various localities throughout the Shan Plateau. These four new species bring the total number of Hemiphyllodactylus in Myanmar to at least 10 which is certainly an extreme underestimate of the diversity of this genus given that we discover new species at every upland locality we survey.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.2, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230404

RESUMO

A survey of a limestone forest at Gunung Baling, Kedah, West Malaysia lead to the discovery of an undescribed species of Bent-toed Gecko from the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex. Cyrtodactylus evanquahi sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other species in the C. pulchellus complex by a suite of morphological and color pattern characteristics: prominent tuberculation, higher number of dark body bands, and a smaller maximum SVL. It is further differentiated from all other species as follows; no tubercles on the ventral surface of the forelimbs, gular region, or in the ventrolateral folds; 31-34 paravetebral dorsal tubercles; 18-23 longitudinal rows of tubercles; 29-33 ventral scales; 22-23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 32-36 femoroprecloacal pores; a shallow precloacal groove in males; body bands and nuchal loop edged with a thin white line bearing tubercles; no scattered white spots on the dorsum; six or seven dark body bands much thinner than interspaces; 9-11 dark caudal bands on original tail; bands on the original tail separated by immaculate white caudal bands. It is further differentiated by an uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence of 6.50-15.67% from all other congeners in the C. pulchellus complex. It is most closely related to C. pulchellus from Penang Island ∼76 km to the southwest. In addition to the new samples from Gunung Baling, we added four samples of C. bintangrendah from the new locality of Belukar Semang, Perak. The discovery of yet another new species of the C. pulchellus complex from a limestone habitat continues to underscore the high degree of endemism and the importance of these unique habitats for biodiversity, and the continued need for their conservation.

4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106731, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904508

RESUMO

Recent phylogenetic studies of gekkonid lizards have revealed unexpected, widespread paraphyly and polyphyly among genera, unclear generic boundaries, and a tendency towards the nesting of taxa exhibiting specialized, apomorphic morphologies within geographically widespread "generalist" clades. This is especially true in Australasia, where monophyly of Gekko proper has been questioned with respect to phenotypically ornate flap-legged geckos of the genus Luperosaurus, the Philippine false geckos of the genus Pseudogekko, and even the elaborately "derived" parachute geckos of the genus Ptychozoon. Here we employ sequence capture targeting 5060 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to infer phylogenomic relationships among 42 representative ingroup gekkonine lizard taxa. We analyze multiple datasets of varying degrees of completeness (10, 50, 75, 95, and 100 percent complete with 4715, 4051, 3376, 2366, and 772 UCEs, respectively) using concatenated maximum likelihood and multispecies coalescent methods. Our sampling scheme addresses four persistent systematic questions in this group: (1) Are Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon monophyletic, and are any of these named species truly nested within Gekko? (2) Are prior phylogenetic estimates of Sulawesi's L. iskandari as the sister taxon to Melanesian G. vittatus supported by our genome-scale dataset? (3) Is the high-elevation L. gulat of Palawan Island correctly placed within Gekko? (4) And, finally, where do the enigmatic taxa P. rhacophorus and L. browni fall in a higher-level gekkonid phylogeny? We resolve these issues; confirm with strong support some previously inferred findings (placement of Ptychozoon taxa within Gekko; the sister taxon relationship between L. iskandari and G. vittatus); resolve the systematic position of unplaced taxa (L. gulat, and L. browni); and transfer L. iskandari, L. gulat, L. browni, and all members of the genus Ptychozoon to the genus Gekko. Our unexpected and novel systematic inference of the placement of Ptychozoon rhacophorus suggests that this species is not grouped with Ptychozoon or even Luperosaurus (as previously expected) but may, in fact, be most closely related to several Indochinese species of Gekko. With our resolved and strongly supported phylogeny, we present a new classification emphasizing the most inclusive, original generic name (Gekko) for these ~60 taxa, arranged into seven subgenera.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.3, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715722

RESUMO

Two new species of Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group are described from foothill areas occurring on opposite sides of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Cyrtodactylus nyinyikyawi sp. nov. from the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary, Magway Region in the east and C. pyadalinensis sp. nov. from the Panluang-Pyadalin Wildlife Sanctuary, Shan State in the west bear unique suits of morphological and color pattern character states separating them from all species in the peguensis group. Additionally, a molecular phylogeny based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that neither species is nested within, nor sister to any known species in the group. This study augments recent and ongoing studies showing that the Ayeyarwady Basin is herpetologically more diverse than previously considered and should be incorporated into ongoing discussions concerning conservation efforts in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cor , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.4, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715918

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species-S. preylangensis sp. nov.-is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Camboja , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia , Vietnã
7.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.1, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716208

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis group of the Shan Plateau recovered two new populations from isolated karst habitats near Pinlaung Town, Shan State as a new species, C. pinlaungensis sp. nov. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. is most closely related to a clade comprising C. linnwayensis and C. ywanganensis from the western edge of the Shan Plateau approximately 90 km to the northwest. Cyrtodactylus pinlaungensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all members of the C. linnwayensis group by a number of statistically different morphological characters, discrete color pattern differences, and its heavy tuberculation. It also bears an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 5.0-7.6% from all other species combined based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs. The discovery of this new species on the Shan Plateau continues to underscore the fact that this region is rapidly emerging as a herpetological diversity hot-spot for Myanmar.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Mianmar , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.1, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716271

RESUMO

A herpetological survey of the Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary in Kachin State, Myanmar resulted in the discovery of a new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray along the eastern watershed of the Mokso Mountains. An integrative taxonomic analysis based on the mitochondrial ND2 gene, morphology, and color pattern recovered this new species, Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov., as the sister taxon to an undescribed species from Miao, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered notable genetically divergent (4.7%) phylogeographic structure between northern and southern populations of C. mombergi sp. nov. across only 14 km of continuous habitat. Conversely, genetic divergence did not exceed 9.2% between C. mombergi sp. nov. and the undescribed species from Miao from across 355 km of habitat. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. belongs to a well-supported, mitochondrial clade of 18 other species which now compose an expanded and redefined C. gansi group. Cyrtodactylus mombergi sp. nov. is only the third species of Bent-toed Gecko reported from Kachin State and indicates that additional herpetological surveys are needed in unexplored forested areas.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Florestas , Índia , Mianmar , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4668(1): zootaxa.4668.1.3, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716638

RESUMO

A new species of limestone karst-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. dayangbuntingensis sp. nov., is described from Dayang Bunting Island of the Langkawi Archipelago off the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the third species of the group to be described from the archipelago after C. langkawiensis and C. macrotuberculatus. The new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. This discovery underscores the need for continued surveys of the many islands in the archipelago to properly ascertain its true herpetological diversity.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4656(3): zootaxa.4656.3.11, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716818

RESUMO

A new species of Ansonia is described from the Shan Plateau of Myanmar based on an integrative taxonomic analysis that differentiates it from all other congeners. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNA-val recover A. kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. as the sister species to A. inthanon from Thailand but differs from it and other congeners by at least a 5.0% sequence divergence. It is further differentiated by the following combination of morphological characters: (1) maximum SVL 24 mm in males and females; (2) first finger shorter than second; (3) absence of interorbital and tarsal ridges; (4) presence of light-coloured interscapular spot; (5) presence of yellow rictal tubercle; (6) absence of wide, light-coloured patch below eye; (7) presence of large, discrete, bright-yellow submandibular spots along the underside of lower jaw; (8) iris yellow-gold; (9) presence of markings on the snout consisting of streaks below the eye to the lip, and on the canthus rostralis to the nostril; (10) dorsum grey-brown with orange-beige spots, a dark-brown X-shaped marking on the back surrounding the interscapular spot, and dark-coloured markings on rump; (11) fore- and hind limbs with orange-beige cross-bars; and (12) venter light-gray with yellow spotting, especially near flanks and underside of hind limbs. Ansonia kyaiktiyoensis sp. nov. is the westernmost known record for the genus and the only species west of the Salween Basin. Its discovery echoes the increasing number of herpetological discoveries being made in upland regions fringing the Ayeyarwady and Salween Basins.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tailândia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.1, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712473

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Ptychozoon lionotum group across its range in Indochina and Sundaland recovers P. lionotum sensu lato Annandale, 1905 as paraphyletic with respect to P. popaense Grismer, Wood, Thura, Grismer, Brown, Stuart, 2018a and composed of four allopatric, genetically divergent, ND2 mitochondrial lineages. Multivariate and univariate analyses of continuous and discrete morphological and color pattern characters statistically and discretely diagnose each lineage from one another and together, with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, provide the foundation for the recognition of each lineage as a new species-hypotheses corroborated with a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent species delimitation analysis. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. ranges throughout Peninsular Malaysia to Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia; P. kabkaebin sp. nov. is endemic to northern and central Laos; and P. tokehos sp. nov. ranges from southern Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra northward to Chiang Mai, fringing the Chao Phraya Basin and ranging southward through Cambodia to southern Vietnam. Ptychozoon lionotum sensu stricto ranges from northwestern Laos through southern Myanmar to eastern India. The phylogeographic structure within each species varies considerably with P. lionotum s.s. showing no genetic divergence across its 1,100 km range compared to P. cicakterbang sp. nov. showing upwards of 8.2% sequence divergence between syntopic individuals. Significant phylogeographic structure exists within P. tokehos sp. nov. and increased sampling throughout Thailand may require additional taxonomic changes within this species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Indochina
12.
Zookeys ; 858: 127-161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312094

RESUMO

We describe two new insular gecko species of the genus Cnemaspis from Tarutao, Adang, and Rawi islands in Satun Province, southern Thailand. The new species are distinguished from their congeners in having a unique combination of morphological, scalation, and color pattern characters, and by genetic divergence in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. Cnemaspistarutaoensis sp. nov. was found to be a member of the C.kumpoli group, but is distinguished from all other species in that group by having 8-9 supralabials and 8 infralabials; 4-5 pore-bearing precloacal scales, pores rounded; 17-19 paravertebral tubercles randomly arranged; 27-29 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; subcaudal region yellowish, with smooth scales and a single enlarged median row; black gular markings in males and females; and 17.24-22.36% uncorrected pairwise sequence divergences. Cnemaspisadangrawi sp. nov. was found to be a member of the C.siamensis group, but is distinguished from all other species in that group by having 10 supralabials and 9 infralabials; 6-8 pore-bearing precloacal scales, pores rounded and arranged in a chevron shape; 23-25 randomly arranged, separated paravertebral tubercle rows; 26-28 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; subcaudal scales keeled, without enlarged median row; gular region, abdomen, limbs and subcaudal region yellowish in males only; gular marking absent in males and females; and 8.30-26.38 % uncorrected pairwise sequence divergences. Cnemaspistarutaoensis sp. nov. occurs in karst formations on Tarutao Island, while Cnemaspisadangrawi sp. nov. is found near granitic, rocky streams on Adang and Rawi islands.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913266

RESUMO

Accurate species delimitation and description are necessary to guide effective conservation of imperiled species, and this synergy is maximized when multiple data sources are used to delimit species. We illustrate this point by examining Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a large, federally-protected species in North America that was recently divided into two species based on gene sequence data from three loci and heuristic morphological assessment. Here, we re-evaluate the two-species hypothesis for D. couperi by evaluating both population genetic and gene sequence data. Our analyses of 14 microsatellite markers revealed 6-8 genetic population clusters with significant admixture, particularly across the contact zone between the two hypothesized species. Phylogenetic analyses of gene sequence data with maximum-likelihood methods suggested discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers and provided phylogenetic support for one species rather than two. For these reasons, we place Drymarchon kolpobasileus into synonymy with D. couperi. We suggest inconsistent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA are driven by high dispersal of males relative to females. We advocate for species delimitation exercises that evaluate admixture and gene flow in addition to phylogenetic analyses, particularly when the latter reveal monophyletic lineages. This is particularly important for taxa, such as squamates, that exhibit strong sex-biased dispersal. Problems associated with over-delimitation of species richness can become particularly acute for threatened and endangered species, because of high costs to conservation when taxonomy demands protection of more individual species than are supported by accumulating data.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Núcleo Celular/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Mitocôndrias/genética , Serpentes/classificação , Serpentes/genética , Animais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Zootaxa ; 4554(1): 1-62, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790979

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis using color pattern, morphology, and 1449 base pairs of the ND2 mitochondrial gene and its five flanking tRNAs demonstrated that eight species-level lineages occur within the Cyrtodactylus intermedius complex (Cyrtodactylus intermedius sensu stricto, C. phuquocensis and related populations) of the Cardamom mountains and associated highlands that have a sequence divergence ranging 3.4-8.9%. Additionally, each lineage is discretely diagnosable from one another based on morphology and color pattern and most occur in specific geographic regions (upland areas, karst formations or islands) that prevent or greatly restrict interpopulation gene flow. Six of these lineages were masquerading under the nomen C. intermedius and are described as the following: Cyrtodactylus auralensis sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Aural, the highest mountain in Cambodia; C. bokorensis sp. nov. endemic to the Bokor Plateau, Cambodia; C. cardamomensis sp. nov. from the main block of the Cardamom mountains; C. thylacodactylus sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Dalai the northernmost peak of the Cardamom mountains; C. laangensis sp. nov. endemic to the Phnom Laang karst formation, Cambodia; and C. septimontium sp. nov. from the Bay Núi Hills of southwest Vietnam.


Assuntos
Elettaria , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Camboja , Filogenia , Vietnã
15.
Zootaxa ; 4514(1): 53-64, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485952

RESUMO

The taxonomic position of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray to other species of homalopsids has remained uncertain due to the scarcity of specimens in collections and the lack of genetic material for comparison. Here we report the first molecular phylogenetic examination of this species based on recently acquired material. The study recovered R. indica nested within the clade of advanced, fanged homalopsids and the sister species to Erpeton tentaculatus Lácèpede. We also present notes on variation observed in the new specimens as well as range extensions for the species.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Filogenia , Animais , Malásia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4500(4): 553-573, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486050

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis of a monophyletic subgroup of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton revealed that a newly discovered population from Ngar Su Village, 1 km south of Ywangan, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species and most closely related to T. shanorum from approximately 80 km to the west in the vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan State. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. differs from other closely related species of Tylototriton on basis of varying combinations of characteristics associated with it shorter head, larger size, rib nodule morphology, and overall drab, very dark, coloration, along with its genetic differentiation. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. also appears to breed later in the year than most other species. Unfortunately, this species like many other Asian newts, is being harvested for the pet and medicinal trade and given its restricted distribution, this could pose a serious threat to its long-term survival.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Filogenia , Animais , Mianmar , Salamandridae
17.
Zootaxa ; 4514(2): 202-214, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486214

RESUMO

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano-a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar-is a new species, P. popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P. lionotum  which manifests considerable geographic substructuring of genetic variation but differs from the nominate taxon by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 16.0-17.1% and by discrete differences in morphology and color pattern. This discovery highlights the unique, insular nature of the Bago Yoma mountains of the Ayeyarwady Basin, which support other endemic gekkonids. It also underscores the growing diversity in this highly derived clade of cryptic, parachuting, geckos characterized by highly divergent genetic lineages, which may indicate the presence of additional, unrecognized species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Mianmar
18.
Zootaxa ; 4425(1): 87-107, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313468

RESUMO

Two new species of diminutive, sympatric, lowland, leaf-litter skinks of the genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos Brown from the Sekayu region of Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu State in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia are described on the basis genetic and morphological data. One of the new species, T. monticolus sp. nov., was collected in a hilly riparian area along Sungai (=river) Bubu and is most closely related to an undescribed species from the Tembak Reservoir area. The other, T. keciktuek sp. nov. collected along Sungai Peres, is most closely related to T. perhentianensis Grismer, Wood, Grismer from Pulau (=island) Perhentian Besar. Sympatry and syntopy of multiple, specialized, unrelated, leaf-litter species of Tytthoscincus was previously only known from upland areas and these new species represent the first example of lowland of sympatry. More importantly, however, these endemic species add to a growing body of research and discoveries that continue to underscore the unrealized biodiversity of the riparian systems of Hulu Terengganu and the Sekayu region and their need for protection and continued study.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Simpatria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ilhas , Malásia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4483(2): 295-316, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313789

RESUMO

An integrative phylogenetic analysis recovers two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus (Bleeker) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. and H. uga sp. nov. are nested within the eastern Myanmar clade of a previous genus-wide phylogenetic analysis and form a more exclusive monophyletic group with H. linnwayensis. These species differ from each other and all other Hemiphyllodactylus in having unique combinations of character states involving postmental and subcaudal scale morphology; maximum SVL; digital formulae; numbers of chin scales, circumnasals, intersupranasals (=postrostrals), labials, longitudinally arranged dorsal and ventral scales, and pore-bearing femoroprecloacal scales; as well as subtle differences in coloration and pattern. The phylogenetic affinities of the eastern Myanmar clade are similar to those of an endemic clade of Cyrtodactylus from the Shan Hills in that both are more closely related to Indochinese taxa east of Myanmar as opposed to other Indo-Burmese species. The discovery of these new species underscores the underappreciated herpetological diversity of limestone ecosystems as well as the remote nature of the rugged uplands of the Shan Hills and emphasizes the need for continued field work in this region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar
20.
Zootaxa ; 4446(4): 477-500, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313871

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis indicates that a newly discovered population of Cyrtodactylus from the vicinity of Ywangan Town in the Shan Hills, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species (C. ywanganensis sp. nov.) and the earliest diverging member of the linnwayensis group within the previously defined Indochinese clade. The DIVALIKE+J model of a BioGeoBEARS biogeographic analysis indicates that the Indochinese clade evolved in the Shan Hills and Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar and dispersed into Indochina on at least three separate occasions from 18.6-13.4 mya. Once there, uplift of the Tenasserim Mountains and Thai Highlands created the intermedius group, the oldhami group, and C. tigroides of western and southern Thailand which form sister lineages to the linnwayensis group, yathepyanensis group, and the sinyineensis group, respectively, of eastern Myanmar. Diverging lineages within the Indochinese clade highlight the importance of the Thai Highlands and Tenasserim Mountains in that group's evolution and speciation. The discovery of C. ywanganensis sp. nov. in karstic habitats in the Shan Hills continues to underscore the unrealized karst-associated herpetological diversity of this vast, relatively unexplored, upland region and the need for additional field studies.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar , Tailândia
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