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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661293

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The role of PI type Z heterozygotes and additional, rare variant genotypes in the gene encoding α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) in determining the COPD risk and severity is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of rare SERPINA1 variants on lung function and emphysema phenotypes in subjects with significant tobacco smoke exposure using deep gene resequencing and α1-antitrypsin concentrations. METHODS: DNA samples from 1,693 non-Hispanic Whites, 385 African Americans, and 90 Hispanics with ≥20 pack-years smoking were resequenced for the identification of rare variants (allele frequency<0.05) in 16.9kB of SERPINA1. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: White PI Z heterozygotes confirmed by sequencing (MZ, N=74) had lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (p=0.007), FEV1/FVC (p=0.003), and greater CT-based emphysema (p=0.02) compared to 1,411 Whites without PI Z, S, or additional, rare variants denoted as VR. PI Z-containing compound heterozygotes (ZS/ZVR, N=7) had lower FEV1/FVC (p=0.02) and FEF25-75% (p=0.009). 19 Whites heterozygote for five non-S/Z coding variants associated with lower α1-antitrypsin had greater CT-based emphysema compared to those without rare variants. In African Americans, a 5' untranslated region insertion (rs568223361) associated with lower α1-antitrypsin and functional small airways disease (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In this integrative deep sequencing study of SERPINA1 with α1-antitrypsin concentrations in a heavy smoker and COPD cohort, we confirmed the effects of PI Z heterozygote and compound heterozygote genotypes. We demonstrate the cumulative effects of multiple SERPINA1 variants on α1-antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, and emphysema, thus, significantly increasing the frequency of SERPINA1 variation associated with respiratory disease in at-risk smokers.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a common HIV comorbidity, and HIV-infected individuals have a higher incidence and earlier onset of COPD compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. While the pathogenesis of HIV-associated COPD is largely unknown, chronic inflammation may contribute. Four pneumoproteins known to be markers of lung injury and inflammation have been associated with COPD in HIV-uninfected individuals: PARC/CCL-18, SP-D, CC-16, and sRAGE. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether these pneumoproteins are also associated with pulmonary function and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Associations between plasma pneumoprotein levels and pulmonary function were determined in a cross-sectional study of otherwise healthy HIV-infected individuals enrolled between September 2016 and June 2017. Covariates included HIV-associated (antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count, and viral load) and COPD-associated (smoking and BMI) covariates. RESULTS: Among 65 participants, 78.5% were male, 50.8% had undetectable viral load, and 76.9% were ever-smokers. Mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was 0.71, and mean DLco%predicted was 61%. Higher PARC/CCL-18 was associated with lower DLco%predicted and higher CAT score. Higher CC-16 was associated with lower DLco%predicted and lower FVC%predicted. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory analysis is the first to characterize associations between these four pneumoproteins and pulmonary function in an HIV-infected cohort. Our findings suggest the pathogenesis of HIV-associated COPD may differ from that of non-HIV-associated COPD due to HIV-specific inflammatory changes affecting DLco. PARC/CCL-18 is associated with structural and functional pulmonary abnormalities and may be an important COPD biomarker candidate in HIV infection. Our study is a preliminary step toward finding clinically relevant COPD biomarkers in high-risk populations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596609

RESUMO

Primary human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) cultures are a useful model for studies of lung health and major airway diseases. However, mechanistic studies have been limited by our ability to selectively disrupt specific genes in these cells. Here, we optimize methods for gene targeting in HBECs by direct delivery of single guide RNA (sgRNA) and recombinant Cas9 (rCas9) complexes by electroporation, without a requirement for plasmids, viruses, or antibiotic selection. Variations in the method of delivery, sgRNA and rCas9 concentrations, and sgRNA sequences all had effects on targeting efficiency, allowing for predictable control of the extent of gene targeting and for near complete disruption of gene expression. To demonstrate the value of this system, we targeted SPDEF, which encodes a transcription factor previously shown to be essential for the differentiation of MUC5AC-producing goblet cells in mouse models of asthma. Targeting SPDEF led to proportional decreases in MUC5AC expression in HBECs stimulated with IL-13, a central mediator of allergic asthma. Near-complete targeting of SPDEF abolished IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression and goblet cell differentiation. In addition, targeting of SPDEF prevented IL-13-induced impairment of mucociliary clearance, which is likely to be an important contributor to airway obstruction, morbidity, and mortality in asthma. We conclude that direct delivery of sgRNA and rCas9 complexes allows for predictable and efficient gene targeting and enables mechanistic studies of disease-relevant pathways in primary HBECs.

4.
Cell ; 179(2): 417-431.e19, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585081

RESUMO

Severe asthma patients with low type 2 inflammation derive less clinical benefit from therapies targeting type 2 cytokines and represent an unmet need. We show that mast cell tryptase is elevated in severe asthma patients independent of type 2 biomarker status. Active ß-tryptase allele count correlates with blood tryptase levels, and asthma patients carrying more active alleles benefit less from anti-IgE treatment. We generated a noncompetitive inhibitory antibody against human ß-tryptase, which dissociates active tetramers into inactive monomers. A 2.15 Å crystal structure of a ß-tryptase/antibody complex coupled with biochemical studies reveal the molecular basis for allosteric destabilization of small and large interfaces required for tetramerization. This anti-tryptase antibody potently blocks tryptase enzymatic activity in a humanized mouse model, reducing IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis, and inhibits airway tryptase in Ascaris-sensitized cynomolgus monkeys with favorable pharmacokinetics. These data provide a foundation for developing anti-tryptase as a clinical therapy for severe asthma.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 54(4)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439683

RESUMO

The characteristics that predict progression to overt chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers without spirometric airflow obstruction are not clearly defined.We conducted a post hoc analysis of 849 current and former smokers (≥20 pack-years) with preserved spirometry from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort who had baseline computed tomography (CT) scans of lungs and serial spirometry. We examined whether CT-derived lung volumes representing air trapping could predict adverse respiratory outcomes and more rapid decline in spirometry to overt COPD using mixed-effect linear modelling.Among these subjects with normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, CT-measured residual volume (RVCT) to total lung capacity (TLCCT) ratio varied widely, from 21% to 59%. Over 2.5±0.7 years of follow-up, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT had a greater differential rate of decline in FEV1/FVC; those in the upper RVCT/TLCCT tertile had a 0.66% (95% CI 0.06%-1.27%) faster rate of decline per year compared with those in the lower tertile (p=0.015) regardless of demographics, baseline spirometry, respiratory symptoms score, smoking status (former versus current) or smoking burden (pack-years). Accordingly, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT were more likely to develop spirometric COPD (OR 5.7 (95% CI 2.4-13.2) in upper versus lower RVCT/TLCCT tertile; p<0.001). Other CT indices of air trapping showed similar patterns of association with lung function decline; however, when all CT indices of air trapping, emphysema, and airway disease were included in the same model, only RVCT/TLCCT retained its significance.Increased air trapping based on radiographic lung volumes predicts accelerated spirometry decline and progression to COPD in smokers without obstruction.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11367, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388056

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging science that can inform pathogenic mechanisms behind clinical phenotypes in COPD. We aimed to understand disturbances in the serum metabolome associated with respiratory outcomes in ever-smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort. We measured 27 serum metabolites, mostly amino acids, by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 157 white ever-smokers with and without COPD. We tested the association between log-transformed metabolite concentrations and one-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, body mass index, diabetes, inhaled or oral corticosteroid use, study site and clinical predictors of exacerbations, including FEV1% predicted and history of exacerbations. The mean age of participants was 53.7 years and 58% had COPD. Lower concentrations of serum amino acids were independently associated with 1-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations, including tryptophan (ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-7.0; -1.1], p = 0.007) and the branched-chain amino acids (leucine: ß = -6.0, 95% CI [-9.5; -2.4], p = 0.001; isoleucine: ß = -5.2, 95% CI [-8.6; -1.8], p = 0.003; valine: ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-6.9; -1.4], p = 0.003). Tryptophan concentration was inversely associated with the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.03) and the BODE index (p = 0.03). Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in ever-smokers with and without COPD are associated with an increased incidence of respiratory exacerbations.

7.
Korean J Radiol ; 20(7): 1236-1245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considering the different prevalence rates of diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Asians relative to other races, Koreans may have unique airway structure and lung function. This study aimed to investigate unique features of airway structure and lung function based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-imaging metrics in the Korean Asian population (Koreans) as compared with the White American population (Whites). MATERIALS AND METHODS: QCT data of healthy non-smokers (223 Koreans vs. 70 Whites) were collected, including QCT structural variables of wall thickness (WT) and hydraulic diameter (Dh) and functional variables of air volume, total air volume change in the lung (ΔVair), percent emphysema-like lung (Emph%), and percent functional small airway disease-like lung (fSAD%). Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare the two groups. RESULTS: As compared with Whites, Koreans had smaller volume at inspiration, ΔVair between inspiration and expiration (p < 0.001), and Emph% at inspiration (p < 0.001). Especially, Korean females had a decrease of ΔVair in the lower lobes (p < 0.001), associated with fSAD% at the lower lobes (p < 0.05). In addition, Koreans had smaller Dh and WT of the trachea (both, p < 0.05), correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (R = 0.49, 0.39; all p < 0.001) and forced vital capacity (R = 0.55, 0.45; all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Koreans had unique features of airway structure and lung function as compared with Whites, and the difference was clearer in female individuals. Discriminating structural and functional features between Koreans and Whites enables exploration of inter-racial differences of pulmonary disease in terms of severity, distribution, and phenotype.

8.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 153, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) imaging-based metrics enable to quantify smoking induced disease alterations and to identify imaging-based clusters for current smokers. We aimed to derive clinically meaningful sub-groups of former smokers using dimensional reduction and clustering methods to develop a new way of COPD phenotyping. METHODS: An imaging-based cluster analysis was performed for 406 former smokers with a comprehensive set of imaging metrics including 75 imaging-based metrics. They consisted of structural and functional variables at 10 segmental and 5 lobar locations. The structural variables included lung shape, branching angle, airway-circularity, airway-wall-thickness, airway diameter; the functional variables included regional ventilation, emphysema percentage, functional small airway disease percentage, Jacobian (volume change), anisotropic deformation index (directional preference in volume change), and tissue fractions at inspiration and expiration. RESULTS: We derived four distinct imaging-based clusters as possible phenotypes with the sizes of 100, 80, 141, and 85, respectively. Cluster 1 subjects were asymptomatic and showed relatively normal airway structure and lung function except airway wall thickening and moderate emphysema. Cluster 2 subjects populated with obese females showed an increase of tissue fraction at inspiration, minimal emphysema, and the lowest progression rate of emphysema. Cluster 3 subjects populated with older males showed small airway narrowing and a decreased tissue fraction at expiration, both indicating air-trapping. Cluster 4 subjects populated with lean males were likely to be severe COPD subjects showing the highest progression rate of emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: QCT imaging-based metrics for former smokers allow for the derivation of statistically stable clusters associated with unique clinical characteristics. This approach helps better categorization of COPD sub-populations; suggesting possible quantitative structural and functional phenotypes.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 380(21): 2009-2019, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many patients with mild, persistent asthma, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum is less than 2% (low eosinophil level). The appropriate treatment for these patients is unknown. METHODS: In this 42-week, double-blind, crossover trial, we assigned 295 patients who were at least 12 years of age and who had mild, persistent asthma to receive mometasone (an inhaled glucocorticoid), tiotropium (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist), or placebo. The patients were categorized according to the sputum eosinophil level (<2% or ≥2%). The primary outcome was the response to mometasone as compared with placebo and to tiotropium as compared with placebo among patients with a low sputum eosinophil level who had a prespecified differential response to one of the trial agents. The response was determined according to a hierarchical composite outcome that incorporated treatment failure, asthma control days, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second; a two-sided P value of less than 0.025 denoted statistical significance. A secondary outcome was a comparison of results in patients with a high sputum eosinophil level and those with a low level. RESULTS: A total of 73% of the patients had a low eosinophil level; of these patients, 59% had a differential response to a trial agent. However, there was no significant difference in the response to mometasone or tiotropium, as compared with placebo. Among the patients with a low eosinophil level who had a differential treatment response, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 66) had a better response to mometasone, and 43% (95% CI, 34 to 52) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.14). In contrast 60% (95% CI, 51 to 68) had a better response to tiotropium, whereas 40% (95% CI, 32 to 49) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.029). Among patients with a high eosinophil level, the response to mometasone was significantly better than the response to placebo (74% vs. 26%) but the response to tiotropium was not (57% vs. 43%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with mild, persistent asthma had a low sputum eosinophil level and had no significant difference in their response to either mometasone or tiotropium as compared with placebo. These data provide equipoise for a clinically directive trial to compare an inhaled glucocorticoid with other treatments in patients with a low eosinophil level. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SIENA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02066298.).


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Furoato de Mometasona/uso terapêutico , Escarro/imunologia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/imunologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
JCI Insight ; 4(9)2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045581

RESUMO

Conjugated bile acids (CBAs), such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), are known to resolve the inflammatory and unfolded protein response (UPR) in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. Whether CBAs exert their beneficial effects on allergic airway responses via 1 arm or several arms of the UPR, or alternatively through the signaling pathways for conserved bile acid receptor, remains largely unknown. We used a house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) murine model of asthma to evaluate and compare the effects of 5 CBAs and 1 unconjugated bile acid in attenuating allergen-induced UPR and airway responses. Expression of UPR-associated transcripts was assessed in airway brushings from human patients with asthma and healthy subjects. Here we show that CBAs, such as alanyl ß-muricholic acid (AßM) and TUDCA, significantly decreased inflammatory, immune, and cytokine responses; mucus metaplasia; and airway hyperresponsiveness, as compared with other CBAs in a model of allergic airway disease. CBAs predominantly bind to activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α) compared with the other canonical transducers of the UPR, subsequently decreasing allergen-induced UPR activation and resolving allergic airway disease, without significant activation of the bile acid receptors. TUDCA and AßM also attenuated other HDM-induced ER stress markers in the lungs of allergic mice. Quantitative mRNA analysis of airway epithelial brushings from human subjects demonstrated that several ATF6α-related transcripts were significantly upregulated in patients with asthma compared with healthy subjects. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CBA-based therapy potently inhibits the allergen-induced UPR and allergic airway disease in mice via preferential binding of the canonical transducer of the UPR, ATF6α. These results potentially suggest a novel avenue to treat allergic asthma using select CBAs.

12.
Respir Med ; 152: 89-96, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects the lungs in 90% of patients, but has a wide range of disease manifestations and outcomes including chronic and progressive courses. Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to assess these outcomes and guide decisions for long term monitoring and treatment. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, show promise in this regard because they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of and reflect the burden of granulomatous inflammation. CXCL11 has been reported to have unique functional properties in modulating adaptive immunity in model systems so our goal was to examine serum levels of CXCL11 in relation to clinical outcomes in a heterogeneous cohort of sarcoidosis subjects. METHODS: CXCL19, CXCL10, and CXCL11 serum levels were measured in sarcoidosis and healthy subjects using ELISA assay. We determined relationships between CXCL11 and standard clinical inflammatory markers, expression of IFN-γ-related genes in whole blood, organ involvement, dyspnea scores, and measures of pulmonary function. RESULTS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 104 sarcoidosis subjects, serum CXCL11 was significantly elevated compared to 49 healthy controls (p < 0.001). CXCL11 was positively correlated with CXCL9 and CXCL10 (p < 0.001), sedimentation rate (p < 0.01), and mean expression of three IFN-γ-related genes in whole blood (GBP1, STAT1, and STAT2) (p < 0.001). CXCL11 was inversely correlated with FVC %predicted (%pred) and FEV1 %pred and higher levels were associated with higher patient-reported dyspnea scores. We found positive correlations between CXCL11 and number of organs involved. Using survival analyses, we found that CXCL11 levels were predictive of future pulmonary function test (PFT) decline (log rank <0.001 and HR of log10(CXCL11) = 5.1, 95% CI 1.2-21, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of expression of serum CXCL11 in sarcoidosis patients suggests that this blood measure could be helpful in identifying patients that need longer-term monitoring for progressive thoracic and extra-thoracic sarcoidosis.

13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(9): 1076-1085, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888839

RESUMO

Rationale: Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases. NETs mediate inflammasome activation and IL-1ß secretion from monocytes and cause airway epithelial cell injury, but the role of eDNA, NETs, and IL-1ß in asthma is uncertain. Objectives: To characterize the role of activated neutrophils in severe asthma through measurement of NETs and inflammasome activation. Methods: We measured sputum eDNA in induced sputum from 399 patients with asthma in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and in 94 healthy control subjects. We subdivided subjects with asthma into eDNA-low and -high subgroups to compare outcomes of asthma severity and of neutrophil and inflammasome activation. We also examined if NETs cause airway epithelial cell damage that can be prevented by DNase. Measurements and Main Results: We found that 13% of the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 cohort is "eDNA-high," as defined by sputum eDNA concentrations above the upper 95th percentile value in health. Compared with eDNA-low patients with asthma, eDNA-high patients had lower Asthma Control Test scores, frequent history of chronic mucus hypersecretion, and frequent use of oral corticosteroids for maintenance of asthma control (all P values <0.05). Sputum eDNA in asthma was associated with airway neutrophilic inflammation, increases in soluble NET components, and increases in caspase 1 activity and IL-1ß (all P values <0.001). In in vitro studies, NETs caused cytotoxicity in airway epithelial cells that was prevented by disruption of NETs with DNase. Conclusions: High extracellular DNA concentrations in sputum mark a subset of patients with more severe asthma who have NETs and markers of inflammasome activation in their airways.

14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(6): 721-731, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925230

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with numerous genetic variants, yet the extent to which its genetic risk is mediated by variation in lung structure remains unknown.Objectives: To characterize associations between a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with COPD susceptibility and lung structure on computed tomography (CT).Methods: We analyzed data from MESA Lung (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study), a U.S. general population-based cohort, and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). A weighted GRS was calculated from 83 SNPs that were previously associated with lung function. Lung density, spatially matched airway dimensions, and airway counts were assessed on full-lung CT. Generalized linear models were adjusted for age, age squared, sex, height, principal components of genetic ancestry, smoking status, pack-years, CT model, milliamperes, and total lung volume.Measurements and Main Results: MESA Lung and SPIROMICS contributed 2,517 and 2,339 participants, respectively. Higher GRS was associated with lower lung function and increased COPD risk, as well as lower lung density, smaller airway lumens, and fewer small airways, without effect modification by smoking. Adjustment for CT lung structure, particularly small airway measures, attenuated associations between the GRS and FEV1/FVC by 100% and 60% in MESA and SPIROMICS, respectively. Lung structure (P < 0.0001), but not the GRS (P > 0.10), improved discrimination of moderate-to-severe COPD cases relative to clinical factors alone.Conclusions: A GRS associated with COPD susceptibility was associated with CT lung structure. Lung structure may be an important mediator of heritability and determinant of personalized COPD risk.

15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(4): 439-446, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653926

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is an unmet need to investigate the lower airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to define pathogenesis and to identify potential markers to accelerate therapeutic development. Although bronchoscopy is well established to sample airways in various conditions, a comprehensive COPD research protocol has yet to be published. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of a comprehensive research bronchoscopy procedure suitable for multicenter trials and to identify factors associated with adverse events. METHODS: We report the detailed methodology used to conduct the bronchoscopy used in SPIROMICS (the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). The protocol entailed collection of tongue scrapings and oral rinses as well as bronchoscopy with airway inspection, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), protected brushings, and endobronchial biopsies. Visual airway characteristics were graded on a scale of 0 (normal appearance) to 3 (severe abnormality) in four domains: erythema, edema, secretions, and friability. Adverse events were defined as events requiring intervention. Logistic regression modeling assessed associations between adverse event occurrence and key variables. RESULTS: We enrolled 215 participants. They were 61 ± 9 years old, 71% were white, 53% were male, and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 89 ± 19% predicted. Self-reported asthma was present in 22% of bronchoscopy participants. Oral samples were obtained in greater than or equal to 99% of participants. Airway characteristics were recorded in 99% and were most often characterized as free of edema (61.9%). Less than 50% reported secretions, friability, or erythema. BAL yielded 111 ± 57 ml (50%) of the 223 ± 65 ml of infusate, brushes were completed in 98%, and endobronchial biopsies were performed in 82% of procedures. Adverse events requiring intervention occurred in 14 (6.7%) of 208 bronchoscopies. In logistic regression models, female sex (risk ratio [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.19), self-reported asthma (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), bronchodilator reversibility (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.32), COPD (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and secretions (RR, 1.85; 1.08-3.16) or friability (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04-2.57) observed during bronchoscopy were associated with adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: A research bronchoscopy procedure that includes oral sampling, BAL, endobronchial biopsy, and brushing can be safely performed. Airway characteristics during bronchoscopy, demographics, asthma or COPD, and lung function may convey increased risk for procedure-related events necessitating intervention.

16.
Chest ; 155(5): 908-917, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory symptoms and exacerbation-like events are common among ever-smokers without airflow limitation on spirometry. The pathobiology of respiratory disease in this subgroup remains poorly defined, but may be due to underlying inflammation that overlaps with COPD or asthma. We hypothesized that symptoms, exacerbations, and functional measures of disease severity among smokers with preserved spirometry would be associated with markers of systemic inflammation, similar to what is reported in bone fide COPD, rather than elevated type 2 inflammation, which is often present in asthma. METHODS: We measured inflammatory markers associated with COPD (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors [sTNFRSF1A and sTNFRSF1B], and blood/sputum neutrophils) and type 2 inflammation (IgE and blood/sputum eosinophils) in smokers with preserved spirometry (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.70) from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS). We evaluated the relationship of these markers with respiratory symptom burden (dichotomized by a COPD assessment test score cutoff of 10, diagnosis of chronic bronchitis), exacerbations, 6-minute walk distance, and lung function on the basis of FEV1. RESULTS: CRP was associated with increased symptom burden (on the basis of COPD assessment test score and diagnosis of chronic bronchitis) and a greater number of exacerbations in the year before study enrollment. sTNFRSF1A was associated with symptom burden on the basis of COPD assessment test score. CRP and sTNFRSF1A levels negatively correlated with 6-minute walk distance. IgE and eosinophils were not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of inflammation including CRP and sTNFRSF1A are enriched among symptomatic smokers with preserved spirometry, suggesting an overlap with the underlying pathophysiology of COPD.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17484, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504791

RESUMO

The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on demonstration of airflow obstruction. Traditional spirometric indices miss a number of subjects with respiratory symptoms or structural lung disease on imaging. We hypothesized that utilizing all data points on the expiratory spirometry curves to assess their shape will improve detection of mild airflow obstruction and structural lung disease. We analyzed spirometry data of 8307 participants enrolled in the COPDGene study, and derived metrics of airflow obstruction based on the shape on the volume-time (Parameter D), and flow-volume curves (Transition Point and Transition Distance). We tested associations of these parameters with CT measures of lung disease, respiratory morbidity, and mortality using regression analyses. There were significant correlations between FEV1/FVC with Parameter D (r = -0.83; p < 0.001), Transition Point (r = 0.69; p < 0.001), and Transition Distance (r = 0.50; p < 0.001). All metrics had significant associations with emphysema, small airway disease, dyspnea, and respiratory-quality of life (p < 0.001). The highest quartile for Parameter D was independently associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 3.22,95% CI 2.42-4.27; p < 0.001) but a substantial number of participants in the highest quartile were categorized as GOLD 0 and 1 by traditional criteria (1.8% and 33.7%). Parameter D identified an additional 9.5% of participants with mild or non-recognized disease as abnormal with greater burden of structural lung disease compared with controls. The data points on the flow-volume and volume-time curves can be used to derive indices of airflow obstruction that identify additional subjects with disease who are deemed to be normal by traditional criteria.

18.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 257, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a two-to-five fold increase in the risk of coronary artery disease independent of shared risk factors. This association is hypothesized to be mediated by systemic inflammation but this link has not been established. METHODS: We included 300 participants enrolled in the SPIROMICS cohort, 75 each of lifetime non-smokers, smokers without airflow obstruction, mild-moderate COPD, and severe-very severe COPD. We quantified emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography, characterized visual emphysema subtypes (centrilobular and paraseptal) and airway disease, and used the Weston visual score to quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC). We used the Sobel test to determine whether markers of systemic inflammation mediated a link between spirometric and radiographic features of COPD and CAC. RESULTS: FEV1/FVC but not quantitative emphysema or airway wall thickening was associated with CAC (p = 0.036), after adjustment for demographics, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, statin use, and CT scanner type. To explain this discordance, we examined visual subtypes of emphysema and airway disease, and found that centrilobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema or bronchial thickening was independently associated with CAC (p = 0.019). MMP3, VCAM1, CXCL5 and CXCL9 mediated 8, 8, 7 and 16% of the association between FEV1/FVC and CAC, respectively. Similar biomarkers partially mediated the association between centrilobular emphysema and CAC. CONCLUSIONS: The association between airflow obstruction and coronary calcification is driven primarily by the centrilobular subtype of emphysema, and is linked through bioactive molecules implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier: NCT01969344 .


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/sangue , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
19.
Cell Rep ; 25(5): 1346-1358, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380423

RESUMO

Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) and other small RNAs are implicated in cellular communication and may be useful as disease biomarkers. We systematically compared small RNAs in 12 human biofluid types using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). miRNAs and tRNA-derived RNAs (tDRs) accounted for the majority of mapped reads in all biofluids, but the ratio of miRNA to tDR reads varied from 72 in plasma to 0.004 in bile. miRNA levels were highly correlated across all biofluids, but levels of some miRNAs differed markedly between biofluids. tDR populations differed extensively between biofluids. Y RNA fragments were seen in all biofluids and accounted for >10% of reads in blood plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Reads mapping exclusively to Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) were very rare, except in seminal plasma. These results demonstrate extensive differences in small RNAs between human biofluids and provide a useful resource for investigating extracellular RNA biology and developing biomarkers.

20.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous smoking-related disease characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation. This inflammation may persist even after smoking cessation and responds variably to corticosteroids. Personalizing treatment to biologically similar "molecular phenotypes" may improve therapeutic efficacy in COPD. IL-17A is involved in neutrophilic inflammation and corticosteroid resistance, and thus may be particularly important in a COPD molecular phenotype. METHODS: We generated a gene expression signature of IL-17A response in bronchial airway epithelial brushings from smokers with and without COPD (n = 238), and validated it using data from 2 randomized trials of IL-17 blockade in psoriasis. This IL-17 signature was related to clinical and pathologic characteristics in 2 additional human studies of COPD: (a) SPIROMICS (n = 47), which included former and current smokers with COPD, and (b) GLUCOLD (n = 79), in which COPD participants were randomized to placebo or corticosteroids. RESULTS: The IL-17 signature was associated with an inflammatory profile characteristic of an IL-17 response, including increased airway neutrophils and macrophages. In SPIROMICS the signature was associated with increased airway obstruction and functional small airways disease on quantitative chest CT. In GLUCOLD the signature was associated with decreased response to corticosteroids, irrespective of airway eosinophilic or type 2 inflammation. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a gene signature of IL-17 airway epithelial response distinguishes a biologically, radiographically, and clinically distinct COPD subgroup that may benefit from personalized therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01969344. FUNDING: Primary support from the NIH, grants K23HL123778, K12HL11999, U19AI077439, DK072517, U01HL137880, K24HL137013 and R01HL121774 and contracts HHSN268200900013C, HHSN268200900014C, HHSN268200900015C, HHSN268200900016C, HHSN268200900017C, HHSN268200900018C, HHSN268200900019C and HHSN268200900020C.

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