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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

2.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10827, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616716

RESUMO

Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a rare disorder displaying short stature, brachydactyly and joint stiffness, and ocular features including microspherophakia and ectopia lentis. Brachydactyly and joint stiffness appear less commonly in patients with WMS4 caused by pathogenic ADAMTS17 variants. Here, we investigated a large family with WMS from Newfoundland, Canada. These patients displayed core WMS features, but with proportionate hands that were clinically equivocal for brachydactyly. Whole exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping unveiled a novel pathogenic missense ADAMTS17 variant (c.3068 G > A, p.C1023Y). Sanger sequencing demonstrated variant co-segregation with WMS, and absence in 150 population matched controls. Given ADAMTS17 involvement, we performed deep phenotyping of the patients' hands. Anthropometrics applied to hand roentgenograms showed that metacarpophalangeal measurements of affected patients were smaller than expected for their age and sex, and when compared to their unaffected sibling. Furthermore, we found a possible sub-clinical phenotype involving markedly shortened metacarpophalangeal bones with intrafamilial variability. Transfection of the variant ADAMTS17 into HEK293T cells revealed significantly reduced secretion into the extracellular medium compared to wild-type. This work expands understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ADAMTS17, clarifies the variable hand phenotype, and underscores a role for anthropometrics in characterizing sub-clinical brachydactyly in these patients.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

6.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3563-3573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), likely through perturbations in metabolic traits (e.g. insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis). Identification of interactions between variation in genes and these metabolic risk factors may identify novel biologic insights into CRC etiology. METHODS: To improve statistical power and interpretation for gene-environment interaction (G × E) testing, we tested genetic variants that regulate expression of a gene together for interaction with BMI (kg/m2 ) and diabetes on CRC risk among 26 017 cases and 20 692 controls. Each variant was weighted based on PrediXcan analysis of gene expression data from colon tissue generated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project for all genes with heritability ≥1%. We used a mixed-effects model to jointly measure the G × E interaction in a gene by partitioning the interactions into the predicted gene expression levels (fixed effects), and residual G × E effects (random effects). G × BMI analyses were stratified by sex as BMI-CRC associations differ by sex. We used false discovery rates to account for multiple comparisons and reported all results with FDR <0.2. RESULTS: Among 4839 genes tested, genetically predicted expressions of FOXA1 (P = 3.15 × 10-5 ), PSMC5 (P = 4.51 × 10-4 ) and CD33 (P = 2.71 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for men; KIAA0753 (P = 2.29 × 10-5 ) and SCN1B (P = 2.76 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for women; and PTPN2 modified the association between diabetes and CRC risk in both sexes (P = 2.31 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregating G × E interactions and incorporating functional information, we discovered novel genes that may interact with BMI and diabetes on CRC risk.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 46(5): 518-526, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is an expansion of the weakened arterial wall that is often asymptomatic until rupture, resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Here we describe the high prevalence of familial IA in a cohort of Newfoundland ancestry. We began to investigate the genetic etiology of IA in affected family members, as the inheritance of this disease is poorly understood. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was completed for a cohort of 12 affected individuals from two multiplex families with a strong family history of IA. A filtering strategy was implemented to identify rare, shared variants. Filtered variants were prioritized based on validation by Sanger sequencing and segregation within the families. RESULTS: In family R1352, six variants passed filtering; while in family R1256, 68 variants remained, so further filtering was pursued. Following validation by Sanger sequencing, top candidates were investigated in a set of population controls, namely, C4orf6 c.A1G (p.M1V) and SPDYE4c.C103T (p.P35S). Neither was detected in 100 Newfoundland control samples. CONCLUSION: Rare and potentially deleterious variants were identified in both families, though incomplete segregation was identified for all filtered variants. Alternate methods of variant prioritization and broader considerations regarding the interplay of genetic and environmental factors are necessary in future studies of this disease.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terra Nova e Labrador , Linhagem , Projetos Piloto
11.
PeerJ ; 6: e5854, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397551

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high incident rate in both men and women and is affecting millions of people every year. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on CRC have successfully revealed common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk. However, they can only explain a very limited fraction of the disease heritability. One reason may be the common uni-variable analyses in GWAS where genetic variants are examined one at a time. Given the complexity of cancers, the non-additive interaction effects among multiple genetic variants have a potential of explaining the missing heritability. In this study, we employed two powerful ensemble learning algorithms, random forests and gradient boosting machine (GBM), to search for SNPs that contribute to the disease risk through non-additive gene-gene interactions. We were able to find 44 possible susceptibility SNPs that were ranked most significant by both algorithms. Out of those 44 SNPs, 29 are in coding regions. The 29 genes include ARRDC5, DCC, ALK, and ITGA1, which have been found previously associated with CRC, and E2F3 and NID2, which are potentially related to CRC since they have known associations with other types of cancer. We performed pairwise and three-way interaction analysis on the 44 SNPs using information theoretical techniques and found 17 pairwise (p < 0.02) and 16 three-way (p ≤ 0.001) interactions among them. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis suggested 16 functional terms or biological pathways that may help us better understand the etiology of the disease.

12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(6): 1021-1030, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal cancer is caused by Lynch Syndrome (LS; an autosomal dominant condition) or by Familial Colorectal Cancer Type-X (FCCTX; a condition of high family risk that fulfills Amsterdam criteria). The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) in FCCTX family members is high and CRC occurs later than in LS. METHODS: To determine the impact of primary prevention colonoscopic screening in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of incident CRC cases in 20 families with FCCTX, we compared cancer incidence and survival in 79 males and 83 females, assumed to be at 50% risk of inheriting a genetic CRC susceptibility factor, who entered screening to an unscreened control group from the families, matched for age at entry into screening and for sex. RESULTS: In males, median age at entry into screening was 44.8 years, median follow-up 12.4 years, 12% developed CRC, and 46% died after 30 years of follow-up. Compared to the unscreened group, relative risk of CRC was 0.27 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.10-0.71). In screened females, comparable results were 44.5 years at entry, 11.2 years of follow-up, 7.1% developed CRC, and 7.2% died after 30 years of follow-up. The relative risk of CRC compared to the unscreened group was 0.19 (95% CI 0.07-0.48). CONCLUSION: Primary prevention screening colonoscopy in asymptomatic family members significantly decreased the risk of CRC in FCCTX.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1092-1101, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749045

RESUMO

Characterizing moderate penetrance susceptibility genes is an emerging frontier in colorectal cancer (CRC) research. GALNT12 is a strong candidate CRC-susceptibility gene given previous linkage and association studies, and inactivating somatic and germline alleles in CRC patients. Previously, we found rare segregating germline GALNT12 variants in a clinic-based cohort (N = 118) with predisposition for CRC. Here, we screened a new population-based cohort of incident CRC cases (N = 479) for rare (MAF ≤1%) deleterious germline GALNT12 variants. GALNT12 screening revealed eight rare variants. Two variants were previously described (p.Asp303Asn, p.Arg297Trp), and additionally, we found six other rare variants: five missense (p.His101Gln, p.Ile142Thr, p.Glu239Gln, p.Thr286Met, p.Val290Phe) and one putative splice-altering variant (c.732-8 G>T). Sequencing of population-matched controls (N = 400) revealed higher burden of these variants in CRC cases compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0381). We then functionally characterized the impact of substitutions on GALNT12 enzyme activity using in vitro-derived peptide substrates. Three of the newly identified GALNT12 missense variants (p.His101Gln, p.Ile142Thr, p.Val290Phe) demonstrated a marked loss (>2-fold reduction) of enzymatic activity compared with wild-type (P ≤ 0.05), whereas p.Glu239Gln exhibited a ∼2-fold reduction in activity (P = 0.077). These findings provide strong, independent evidence for the association of GALNT12 defects with CRC-susceptibility; underscoring implications for glycosylation pathway defects in CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
14.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Menarca/genética , Menopausa/genética , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
15.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2152-2164.e19, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy history for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registry. RESULTS: In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.63) for women; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. CONCLUSIONS: We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Fam Cancer ; 17(2): 205-208, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660566

RESUMO

The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) reports one of the highest incidence rates of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide. The NL population is an invaluable resource for studying genetic disorders because of a unique ancestry, and a willingness to participate in research studies. Familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) describes a cluster of families with strong predisposition for CRC, of unknown etiology. A putative link between FCCTX and BMPR1a mutations has been identified in the Finnish population; however these findings have not been independently replicated. To investigate a potential connection between BMPR1a and FCCTX, we screened a cohort of 22 probands from unrelated NL FCCTX families using Sanger sequencing. This analysis did not independently replicate findings seen in Finland; as no candidate pathogenic BMPR1a mutations were uncovered. Our findings highlight that BMPR1a mutations are not a major contributor of FCCTX incidence in NL. Further investigation of additional FCCTX populations may assist in delineating a role for BMPR1a, if any, in FCCTX globally.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Terra Nova e Labrador/epidemiologia
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(3): 1736-1742, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28324114

RESUMO

Purpose: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) describes a complex group of inherited retinal dystrophies with almost 300 reported genes and loci. We investigated the genetic etiology of autosomal recessive RP (arRP) in a large kindred with 5 affected family members, who reside on the island of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods: Genetic linkage analysis was performed on 12 family members (Infinium HumanOmni2.5-8 BeadChip). Whole exome sequencing analysis (Illumina HiSeq) was performed on one affected individual. A custom pipeline was applied to call, annotate, and filter variants. FishingCNV was used to scan the exome for rare copy number variants (CNVs). Candidate CNVs subsequently were visualized from microarray data (CNVPartition v.3.1.6.). MERTK breakpoints were mapped and familial cosegregation was tested using Sanger Sequencing. Results: We found strong evidence of linkage to a locus on chromosome 2 (logarithm of the odds [LOD] 4.89 [θ = 0]), at an interval encompassing the MERTK gene. Whole exome sequencing did not uncover candidate point mutations in MERTK, or other known RP genes. Subsequently, CNV analysis of the exome data and breakpoint mapping revealed a 25,218 bp deletion of MERTK, encompassing exons 6 to 8, with breakpoints in introns 5 (chr2:112,725,292) and 8 (chr2:112,750,421). A 48 bp insertion sequence was buried within the breakpoint; 18 bps shared homology to MIR4435-2HG and LINC00152, and 30 bp mapped to MERTK. The deletion cosegregated with arRP in the family. Conclusions: This study describes the molecular and clinical characterization of an arRP family segregating a novel 25 kb deletion of MERTK. These findings may assist clinicians in providing a diagnosis for other unsolved RP cases.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Progressão da Doença , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 1063-70, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669659

RESUMO

The population of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has been a resource for genetic studies because of its historical isolation and increased prevalence of several monogenic disorders. Controversy remains regarding the genetic substructure and the extent of genetic homogeneity, which have implications for disease gene mapping. Population substructure has been reported from other isolated populations such as Iceland, Finland and Sardinia. We undertook this study to further our understanding of the genetic architecture of the NL population. We enrolled 494 individuals randomly selected from NL. Genome-wide SNP data were analyzed together with that from 14 other populations including HapMap3, Ireland, Britain and Native American samples from the Human Genome Diversity Project. Using multidimensional scaling and admixture analysis, we observed that the genetic structure of the NL population resembles that of the British population but can be divided into three clusters that correspond to religious/ethnic origins: Protestant English, Roman Catholic Irish and North American aboriginals. We observed reduced heterozygosity and an increased inbreeding coefficient (mean=0.005), which corresponds to that expected in the offspring of third-cousin marriages. We also found that the NL population has a significantly higher number of runs of homozygosity (ROH) and longer lengths of ROH segments. These results are consistent with our understanding of the population history and indicate that the NL population may be ideal for identifying recessive variants for complex diseases that affect populations of European origin.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , População/genética , Consanguinidade , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Humanos , Terra Nova e Labrador
19.
Hum Genet ; 134(11-12): 1249-1262, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404086

RESUMO

Over 50 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying additional loci has the potential to help elucidate aspects of the underlying biological processes leading to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. We re-evaluated a GWAS by excluding controls that have family history of CRC or personal history of colorectal polyps, as we hypothesized that their inclusion reduces power to detect associations. This is supported empirically and through simulations. Two-phase GWAS analysis was performed in a total of 16,517 cases and 14,487 controls. We identified rs17094983, a SNP associated with risk of CRC [p = 2.5 × 10(-10); odds ratio estimated by re-including all controls (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.91; minor allele frequency (MAF) = 13%]. Results were replicated in samples of African descent (1894 cases and 4703 controls; p = 0.01; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.97; MAF = 16 %). Gene expression data in 195 colon adenocarcinomas and 59 normal colon tissues from two different studies revealed that this locus has genotypes that are associated with RTN1 (Reticulon 1) expression (p = 0.001), a protein-coding gene involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells which is highly expressed in normal colon tissues but has significantly reduced expression in tumor cells (p = 1.3 × 10(-8)).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(18): 5356-66, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26138067

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between telomere length (TL) and risk for various cancers. These inconsistencies are likely attributable, in part, to biases that arise due to post-diagnostic and post-treatment TL measurement. To avoid such biases, we used a Mendelian randomization approach and estimated associations between nine TL-associated SNPs and risk for five common cancer types (breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancer, including subtypes) using data on 51 725 cases and 62 035 controls. We then used an inverse-variance weighted average of the SNP-specific associations to estimate the association between a genetic score representing long TL and cancer risk. The long TL genetic score was significantly associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (P = 6.3 × 10(-15)), even after exclusion of a SNP residing in a known lung cancer susceptibility region (TERT-CLPTM1L) P = 6.6 × 10(-6)). Under Mendelian randomization assumptions, the association estimate [odds ratio (OR) = 2.78] is interpreted as the OR for lung adenocarcinoma corresponding to a 1000 bp increase in TL. The weighted TL SNP score was not associated with other cancer types or subtypes. Our finding that genetic determinants of long TL increase lung adenocarcinoma risk avoids issues with reverse causality and residual confounding that arise in observational studies of TL and disease risk. Under Mendelian randomization assumptions, our finding suggests that longer TL increases lung adenocarcinoma risk. However, caution regarding this causal interpretation is warranted in light of the potential issue of pleiotropy, and a more general interpretation is that SNPs influencing telomere biology are also implicated in lung adenocarcinoma risk.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
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