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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515954

RESUMO

To better understand the role of aromatic hydrocarbons in new-particle formation, we measured the particle-phase abundance and volatility of oxidation products following the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons with OH radicals. For this we used thermal desorption in an iodide-adduct Time-of-Flight Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer equipped with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS). The particle-phase volatility measurements confirm that oxidation products of toluene and naphthalene can contribute to the initial growth of newly formed particles. Toluene-derived (C7) oxidation products have a similar volatility distribution to that of α-pinene-derived (C10) oxidation products, while naphthalene-derived (C10) oxidation products are much less volatile than those from toluene or α-pinene; they are thus stronger contributors to growth. Rapid progression through multiple generations of oxidation is more pronounced in toluene and naphthalene than in α-pinene, resulting in more oxidation but also favoring functional groups with much lower volatility per added oxygen atom, such as hydroxyl and carboxylic groups instead of hydroperoxide groups. Under conditions typical of polluted urban settings, naphthalene may well contribute to nucleation and the growth of the smallest particles, whereas the more abundant alkyl benzenes may overtake naphthalene once the particles have grown beyond the point where the Kelvin effect strongly influences the condensation driving force.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139666, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526566

RESUMO

The Guanzhong basin is a part of the three top priority regions in China's blue sky action as of 2019. Understanding the chemical composition, sources, and atmospheric process of aerosol in this region is therefore imperative for improving air quality. In this study, we present, for the first time, the seasonal variations of organic aerosol (OA) in Xi'an, the largest city in the Guanzhong basin. Biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxidized OA (OOA) contributed >50% of OA in both autumn and winter. The average concentrations of BBOA in autumn (14.8 ± 5.1 µg m-3) and winter (11.6 ± 6.8 µg m-3) were similar. The fractional contribution of BBOA to total OA, however, decreased from 31.9% in autumn to 15.3% in winter, because of enhanced contributions from other sources in winter. The OOA fraction in OA increased largely from 20.9% in autumn to 34.9% in winter, likely due to enhanced emissions of precursors and stagnant meteorological conditions which facilitate the accumulation and secondary formation. A large increase in OOA concentration was observed during polluted days, by a factor of ~4 in autumn and ~6 in winter compared to clean days. In both seasons, OOA formation was most likely dominated by photochemical oxidation when aerosol liquid water content was <30 µg m-3 or by aqueous-phase processes when Ox was <35 ppb. A higher concentration of BBOA was observed for air masses circulated within the Guanzhong basin (16.5-18.1 µg m-3), compared to air masses from Northwest and West (10.9-14.5 µg m-3). Furthermore, compared with OA fraction in non-refractory PM1 in other regions of China, BBOA (17-19%) and coal combustion OA (10-20%) were major emission sources in the Guanzhong Basin and the BTH region, respectively, whereas OOA (10-34%) was an important source in all studied regions.

3.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402868

RESUMO

Water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) constitutes a large fraction of OA and plays an important role in formation of secondary OA (SOA). Here we characterized the sources and molecular composition of WSOA in summer in Beijing using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization. Our results showed that WSOA was the major fraction of OA on average accounting for 69% in summer, which is much higher than that (47%) in winter. However, the oxidation degree of WSOA was comparable between summer and winter (O/C = 0.62 vs. 0.63). Positive matrix factorization analysis showed that SOA contributed dominantly to WSOA (72%) indicating that WSOA was mainly from secondary formation. The two water-soluble SOA factors that are associated with regional processing (OOA-1) and photochemical production (OOA-2), respectively, showed very different behaviors throughout the study. OOA-2 showed much enhanced contribution during polluted periods with low relative humidity (RH), while OOA-1 played a more important role during high RH periods. Molecular composition analysis of WSOA revealed a high diversity of CHO (compounds only containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) and CHOS (sulfur-containing organics) in WSOA in summer. Particularly, the relative intensity fraction of CHOS- compounds was increased by 42% from clean to polluted days which was associated with large increases (20%) in organosulfates (OSs) with lower O∗/C (0.1-0.4), and OOA-1. These results suggest the formation of more unsaturated OSs in OOA-1 during polluted days in summer. Comparatively, the biogenic-derived OSs remained relatively stable (24-31%) for the entire study highlighting the ubiquitous importance of biogenic SOA in summer.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610508

RESUMO

Despite substantial mitigation of particulate matter (PM) pollution during the past decade in Beijing, the response of aerosol chemistry to clean air action and meteorology remains less understood. Here we characterized the changes in aerosol composition as responses to emission reductions by using two-year long-term measurements in 2011/2012 and 2017/2018, and WRF-Chem model. Our results showed substantial decreases for all aerosol species except nitrate from 2011/2012 to 2017/2018. Chloride exhibited the largest decrease by 65-89% followed by organics (37-70%), mainly due to reductions in coal combustion emissions in winter and agriculture burning in June. Primary and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed comparable decreases by 61-70% in fall and winter, and 34-63% in spring and summer, suggesting that reductions in primary emissions might also suppress SOA formation. The changes in nitrate were negligible and even showed increases due to less reductions in NOx emissions and increased formation potential from N2O5 heterogeneous reactions. As a result, nitrate exceeded sulfate and became the major secondary inorganic aerosol species in PM with the contribution increasing from 14-21% to 22-32%. Further analysis indicated that the reductions in aerosol species from 2011/2012 to 2017/2018 were mainly caused by the decreases of severely polluted events (PM1 > 100 µg m-3). WRF-Chem simulations suggested that the decreases in OA and sulfate in fall and winter were mainly resulted from emission reductions (27-36% and 25-43%) and favorable meteorology (4-10% and 19-30%), while they were dominantly contributed by emission changes in spring and summer. Comparatively, the changes in nitrate were mainly associated with meteorological variations while the contributions of emissions changes were relatively small. Our results highlight different chemical responses of aerosol species to emission changes and meteorology, suggesting that future mitigation of air pollution in China needs species-targeted control policy.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4370, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554809

RESUMO

Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by ~10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of -0.10 W/m2. In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities < 0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m2. Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12366-12378, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490675

RESUMO

Glass transitions of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from liquid/semisolid to solid phase states have important implications for aerosol reactivity, growth, and cloud formation properties. In the present study, glass transition temperatures (Tg) of isoprene SOA components, including isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxide (ISOPOOH), isoprene-derived epoxydiols (IEPOX), 2-methyltetrols, and 2-methyltetrol sulfates, were measured at atmospherically relevant cooling rates (2-10 K/min) by thin film broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The results indicate that 2-methyltetrol sulfates have the highest glass transition temperature, while ISOPOOH has the lowest glass transition temperature. By varying the cooling rate of the same compound from 2 to 10 K/min, the Tg of these compounds increased by 4-5 K. This temperature difference leads to a height difference of 400-800 m in the atmosphere for the corresponding updraft induced cooling rates, assuming a hygroscopicity value (κ) of 0.1 and relative humidity less than 95%. The Tg of the organic compounds was found to be strongly correlated with volatility, and a semiempirical formula between glass transition temperatures and volatility was derived. The Gordon-Taylor equation was applied to calculate the effect of relative humidity (RH) and water content at five mixing ratios on the Tg of organic aerosols. The model shows that Tg could drop by 15-40 K as the RH changes from <5 to 90%, whereas the mixing ratio of water in the particle increases from 0 to 0.5. These results underscore the importance of chemical composition, updraft rates, and water content (RH) in determining the phase states and hygroscopic properties of organic particles.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Aerossóis , Transição de Fase , Volatilização
7.
Chem Rev ; 119(6): 3472-3509, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799608

RESUMO

Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) are formed in the atmosphere via autoxidation involving peroxy radicals arising from volatile organic compounds (VOC). HOM condense on pre-existing particles and can be involved in new particle formation. HOM thus contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol known to affect the Earth's radiation balance. HOM were discovered only very recently, but the interest in these compounds has grown rapidly. In this Review, we define HOM and describe the currently available techniques for their identification/quantification, followed by a summary of the current knowledge on their formation mechanisms and physicochemical properties. A main aim is to provide a common frame for the currently quite fragmented literature on HOM studies. Finally, we highlight the existing gaps in our understanding and suggest directions for future HOM research.

8.
Science ; 361(6399): 278-281, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026225

RESUMO

Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)-water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to ~3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result from the added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.

9.
Nat Chem ; 10(4): 462-468, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483638

RESUMO

The evolution of atmospheric organic carbon as it undergoes oxidation has a controlling influence on concentrations of key atmospheric species, including particulate matter, ozone and oxidants. However, full characterization of organic carbon over hours to days of atmospheric processing has been stymied by its extreme chemical complexity. Here we study the multigenerational oxidation of α-pinene in the laboratory, characterizing products with several state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Although quantification of some early generation products remains elusive, full carbon closure is achieved (within measurement uncertainty) by the end of the experiments. These results provide new insights into the effects of oxidation on organic carbon properties (volatility, oxidation state and reactivity) and the atmospheric lifecycle of organic carbon. Following an initial period characterized by functionalization reactions and particle growth, fragmentation reactions dominate, forming smaller species. After approximately one day of atmospheric aging, most carbon is sequestered in two long-lived reservoirs-volatile oxidized gases and low-volatility particulate matter.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(3): 1191-1199, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244949

RESUMO

Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration time scale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or α-pinene SOA) mode particles. Aerosol composition measurements and evaporation kinetics indicate that isoprene SOA is composed of several semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), with some reversibly reacting to form oligomers. Model analysis shows that liquid-like bulk diffusivities can be used to fit the observed evaporation kinetics of accumulation mode particles but fail to explain the growth kinetics of bimodal aerosol by significantly under-predicting the evolution of the Aitken mode. In contrast, the semisolid scenario successfully reproduces both evaporation and growth kinetics, with the interpretation that hindered partitioning of SVOCs into large viscous particles effectively promotes the growth of smaller particles that have shorter diffusion time scales. This effect has important implications for the growth of atmospheric ultrafine particles to climatically active sizes.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Difusão , Cinética , Viscosidade
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15760, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150676

RESUMO

In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL). A positive feedback cycle is triggered resulting in the formation of heavy haze: (1) the dispersal of water vapour is constrained by the shallow PBL, leading to an increase in relative humidity (RH); (2) the high RH induces an increase of aerosol particle size by enhanced hygroscopic growth and multiphase reactions to increase particle size and mass, which results in (3) further dimming and decrease of PBL height, and thus further depressing of aerosol and water vapour in a very shallow PBL. This positive feedback constitutes a self-amplification mechanism in which water vapour leads to a trapping and massive increase of particulate matter in the near-surface air to which people are exposed with severe health hazards.

12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1529: 81-92, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126588

RESUMO

Chromatography provides important detail on the composition of environmental samples and their chemical processing. However, the complexity of these samples and their tendency to contain many structurally and chemically similar compounds frequently results in convoluted or poorly resolved data. Data reduction from raw chromatograms of complex environmental data into integrated peak areas consequently often requires substantial operator interaction. This difficulty has led to a bottleneck in analysis that increases analysis time, decreases data quality, and will worsen as advances in field-based instrumentation multiply the quantity and informational density of data produced. In this work, we develop and validate an automated approach to fitting chromatographic data within a target retention time window with a combination of multiple idealized peaks (Gaussian peaks either with or without an exponential decay component). We compare this single-ion peak fitting approach to drawn baseline integration methods of more than 70,000 peaks collected by field-based chromatographs spanning across a wide range of volatilities and functionalities. Accuracy of peak fitting under real-world conditions is found to be within 10%. The quantitative parameters describing the fit (e.g. coefficients, fit residuals, etc.) are found to provide valuable information to increase the efficiency of quality control and provide constraints to accurately integrate peaks that are significantly convoluted with neighboring peaks. Implementation of the peak fitting method is shown to yield accurate integration of peaks otherwise too poorly resolved to separate into individual compounds and improved quantitative metrics to determine the fidelity of the data reduction process, while substantially decreasing the time spent by operators on data reduction.


Assuntos
Cromatografia , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatística como Assunto/normas
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(15): 8491-8500, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644613

RESUMO

We present results from a high-resolution chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS), operated with two different thermal desorption inlets, designed to characterize the gas and aerosol composition. Data from two field campaigns at forested sites are shown. Particle volatility distributions are estimated using three different methods: thermograms, elemental formulas, and measured partitioning. Thermogram-based results are consistent with those from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a thermal denuder, implying that thermal desorption is reproducible across very different experimental setups. Estimated volatilities from the detected elemental formulas are much higher than from thermograms since many of the detected species are thermal decomposition products rather than actual SOA molecules. We show that up to 65% of citric acid decomposes substantially in the FIGAERO-CIMS, with ∼20% of its mass detected as gas-phase CO2, CO, and H2O. Once thermal decomposition effects on the detected formulas are taken into account, formula-derived volatilities can be reconciled with the thermogram method. The volatility distribution estimated from partitioning measurements is very narrow, likely due to signal-to-noise limits in the measurements. Our findings indicate that many commonly used thermal desorption methods might lead to inaccurate results when estimating volatilities from observed ion formulas found in SOA. The volatility distributions from the thermogram method are likely the closest to the real distributions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Compostos Orgânicos , Espectrometria de Massas , Termografia , Volatilização
14.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(11): 5932-5940, 2017 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28445044

RESUMO

Highly oxygenated multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) originating from biogenic emissions constitute a widespread source of organic aerosols in the pristine atmosphere. However, the molecular forms in which HOMs are present in the condensed phase upon gas-particle partitioning remain unclear. In this study, we show that highly oxygenated molecules that contain multiple peroxide functionalities are readily cationized by the attachment of Na+ during electrospray ionization operated in the positive ion mode. With this method, we present the first identification of HOMs characterized as C8-10H12-18O4-9 monomers and C16-20H24-36O8-14 dimers in α-pinene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Simultaneous detection of these molecules in the gas phase provides direct evidence for their gas-to-particle conversion. Molecular properties of particulate HOMs generated from ozonolysis and OH oxidation of unsubstituted (C10H16) and deuterated (C10H13D3) α-pinene are investigated using coupled ion mobility spectrometry with mass spectrometry. The systematic shift in the mass of monomers in the deuterated system is consistent with the decomposition of isomeric vinylhydroperoxides to release vinoxy radical isotopologues, the precursors to a sequence of autoxidation reactions that ultimately yield HOMs in the gas phase. The remarkable difference observed in the dimer abundance under O3- versus OH-dominant environments underlines the competition between intramolecular hydrogen migration of peroxy radicals and their bimolecular termination reactions. Our results provide new and direct molecular-level information for a key component needed for achieving carbon mass closure of α-pinene SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monoterpenos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Ozônio
16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45707, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374761

RESUMO

Solar eclipses provide unique possibilities to investigate atmospheric processes, such as new particle formation (NPF), important to the global aerosol load and radiative balance. The temporary absence of solar radiation gives particular insight into different oxidation and clustering processes leading to NPF. This is crucial because our mechanistic understanding on how NPF is related to photochemistry is still rather limited. During a partial solar eclipse over Finland in 2015, we found that this phenomenon had prominent effects on atmospheric on-going NPF. During the eclipse, the sources of aerosol precursor gases, such as sulphuric acid and nitrogen- containing highly oxidised organic compounds, decreased considerably, which was followed by a reduced formation of small clusters and nanoparticles and thus termination of NPF. After the eclipse, aerosol precursor molecule concentrations recovered and re-initiated NPF. Our results provide direct evidence on the key role of the photochemical production of sulphuric acid and highly oxidized organic compounds in maintaining atmospheric NPF. Our results also explain the rare occurrence of this phenomenon under dark conditions, as well as its seemingly weak connection with atmospheric ions.

17.
Bull Am Meteorol Soc ; 98(No 10): 2215-2228, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290633

RESUMO

A modest operational program of systematic aircraft measurements can resolve key satellite-aerosol-data-record limitations. Satellite observations provide frequent, global aerosol-amount maps, but offer only loose aerosol property constraints needed for climate and air quality applications. We define and illustrate the feasibility of flying an aircraft payload to measure key aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties in situ. The flight program could characterize major aerosol air-mass types statistically, at a level-of-detail unobtainable from space. It would: (1) enhance satellite aerosol retrieval products with better climatology assumptions, and (2) improve translation between satellite-retrieved optical properties and species-specific aerosol mass and size simulated in climate models to assess aerosol forcing, its anthropogenic components, and other environmental impacts. As such, Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses (SAM-CAAM) could add value to data records representing several decades of aerosol observations from space, improve aerosol constraints on climate modeling, help interrelate remote-sensing, in situ, and modeling aerosol-type definitions, and contribute to future satellite aerosol missions. Fifteen Required Variables are identified, and four Payload Options of increasing ambition are defined, to constrain these quantities. "Option C" could meet all the SAM-CAAM objectives with about 20 instruments, most of which have flown before, but never routinely several times per week, and never as a group. Aircraft integration, and approaches to data handling, payload support, and logistical considerations for a long-term, operational mission are discussed. SAM-CAAM is feasible because, for most aerosol sources and specified seasons, particle properties tend to be repeatable, even if aerosol loading varies.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(2): 762-770, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035819

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a large fraction of OA, yet remains a source of significant uncertainties in climate models due to incomplete understanding of its formation mechanisms and evolutionary processes. Here we evaluated the effects of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degrees in three seasons in Beijing, China, using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements along with positive matrix factorization. Our results show that aqueous-phase processing has a dominant impact on the formation of more oxidized SOA (MO-OOA), and the contribution of MO-OOA to OA increases substantially as a function of relative humidity or liquid water content. In contrast, photochemical processing plays a major role in the formation of less oxidized SOA (LO-OOA), as indicated by the strong correlations between LO-OOA and odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) during periods of photochemical production (R2 = 0.59-0.80). Higher oxygen-to-carbon ratios of SOA during periods with higher RH were also found indicating a major role of aqueous-phase processing in changing the oxidation degree of SOA in Beijing. Episodes analyses further highlight that LO-OOA plays a more important role during the early stage of the formation of autumn/winter haze episodes while MO-OOA is more significant during the later evolution period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Aerossóis , Pequim , China
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(3): 1423-1432, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28009165

RESUMO

Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NOx), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NOx concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NOx conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NOx conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NOx conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Oxirredução , Emissões de Veículos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(19): 10494-10503, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626106

RESUMO

Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) mass spectra are widely used to quantify organic aerosol (OA) elemental composition, oxidation state, and major environmental sources. The OA CO2+ fragment is among the most important measurements for such analyses. Here, we show that a non-OA CO2+ signal can arise from reactions on the particle vaporizer, ion chamber, or both, induced by thermal decomposition products of inorganic salts. In our tests (eight instruments, n = 29), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) causes a median CO2+ interference signal of +3.4% relative to nitrate. This interference is highly variable between instruments and with measurement history (percentiles P10-90 = +0.4 to +10.2%). Other semi-refractory nitrate salts showed 2-10 times enhanced interference compared to that of NH4NO3, while the ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) induced interference was 3-10 times lower. Propagation of the CO2+ interference to other ions during standard AMS and ACSM data analysis affects the calculated OA mass, mass spectra, molecular oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C), and f44. The resulting bias may be trivial for most ambient data sets but can be significant for aerosol with higher inorganic fractions (>50%), e.g., for low ambient temperatures, or laboratory experiments. The large variation between instruments makes it imperative to regularly quantify this effect on individual AMS and ACSM systems.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Espectrometria de Massas , Carbono , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
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