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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emergency department (ED) visits among older adults are frequently instigated by a fall at home. Some of these patients develop intracranial bleeding. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of intracranial bleeding and the associated clinical features in older adults who present to the ED after falling. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three Canadian EDs. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2 176 patients age 65 years or older who presented to the ED with a fall were assessed, and 1753 were included. Inclusion criteria were a fall on level ground, off a bed, chair, or toilet, or from one or two steps within 48 hours. MEASUREMENTS: Emergency physicians recorded predefined clinical findings on initial assessment. The primary outcome was intracranial bleeding, diagnosed either by computed tomography at the index visit or within 42 days. Associations between baseline clinical findings and the presence of intracranial bleeding were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1753 patients (median age = 82 y) were enrolled, of whom 39% were male, 35% were on antiplatelet therapy, and 25% were on an anticoagulant. The incidence of intracranial bleeding was 5.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.1-6.1). Overall, 76 patients were diagnosed at the index ED visit, and 12 were diagnosed during follow-up. Multivariable regression identified four clinical variables that were independently associated with intracranial bleeding: new abnormalities on neurologic examination (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.4-8.1), bruise or laceration on the head (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.7-7.0), chronic kidney disease (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.6), and reduced Glasgow Coma Scale from normal (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.4). CONCLUSION: The incidence of intracranial bleeding in our study was 5.0%. We found significant associations between intracranial bleeding and four simple clinical variables. We did not find significant associations between intracranial bleeding and antiplatelet or anticoagulant use.

2.
Trials ; 21(1): 30, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the complex nature of opioid addiction treatment and the rising number of available opioid substitution and antagonist therapies (OSAT), there is no 'gold standard' measure of treatment effectiveness, and each successive trial measures a different set of outcomes which reflect success in arbitrary or opportune terms. We sought to describe the variation in current outcomes employed across clinical trials for opioid addiction, as well as determine whether a discrepancy exists between the treatment targets that patients consider important and how treatment effectiveness is measured in the literature. METHODS: We searched nine commonly used databases (e.g., EMBASE, MEDLINE) from inception to August 1, 2015. Outcomes used across trials were extracted and categorized according to previously established domains. To evaluate patient-reported goals of treatment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 adults undergoing methadone treatment. RESULTS: We identified 60 trials eligible for inclusion. Once outcomes were categorized into eight broad domains (e.g., abstinence/substance abuse), we identified 21 specific outcomes with furthermore 53 subdomains and 118 measurements. Continued opioid use and treatment retention were the most commonly reported measures (46%, n = 28). The majority of patients agreed that abstinence from opioids was a primary goal in their treatment, although they also stressed goals under-reported in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: There is inconsistency in the measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of OSATs. Individual and population level decision making is being guided by a standard of effect considered useful to researchers yet in direct conflict with what patients deem important. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42013006507.

3.
Emerg Med J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between the publication of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials extension for abstracts (CONSORT-EA) and other variables of interest on the quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in emergency medicine (EM) journals. METHODS: We performed a survey of the literature, comparing the quality of reporting before (2005-2007) with after (2014-2015) the publication of the dedicated CONSORT-EA in 2008. The quality of reporting was measured as the sum of items of the CONSORT-EA checklist reported in each abstract, ranging from 0 to 15. The main explanatory variable was the period of publication: pre-CONSORT-EA versus post-CONSORT-EA public. Other explanatory variables were journal's endorsement of the CONSORT statement, number of centres participating in the study, study's sample size, type of intervention, significance of results, source of funding and study setting. We analysed the data using generalised estimation equations, performing a univariate and a multivariable analysis. RESULTS: We retrieved 844 articles, and randomly selected 60 per period for review, after stratifying for journal. The mean (SD) number of items reported was 6.4 (1.9) in the period before and 6.9 (1.8) in the period after the publication of the CONSORT-EA, with an adjusted mean difference (aMD) of 0.47 (95% CI -0.13 to 1.06). Abstracts of trials of pharmacological interventions had a significantly larger mean number of reported items than those of trials of non-pharmacological interventions (aMD 1.59; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.24). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in EM journals is low and was not significantly impacted by the publication of a dedicated CONSORT-EA.

4.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(2): 170-179, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have illustrated how a low or undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentration at emergency department (ED) presentation can rule out myocardial infarction (MI). A problem with using an undetectable hs-cTn cutoff is that this value may be defined differently among hospitals and is also difficult to monitor. In the present study, we assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical chemistry score (CCS) vs hs-cTn alone in the presentation blood sample in the ED for patient hospital admission in a multicenter setting. METHODS: From January 1 to June 30, 2018, consecutive patients with random glucose, creatinine (for an estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation), and hs-cTnI (Abbott, 2 hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario, n = 10496) or hs-cTnT (Roche, 4 hospitals, Calgary, Alberta, n = 25177) were assessed for hospital admission with the CCS (range of scores, 0-5) or hs-cTn alone. Sensitivity, specificity, predicative values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for a CCS of 0 and 5 and for hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI cutoffs, 5 and 26 ng/L; hs-cTnT cutoffs, 6 and 14 ng/L). RESULTS: The CCS of 0 (CCS <1) identified approximately 10% of all patients as low risk and had a sensitivity for hospital admission of nearly 98% as compared to <93% when hs-cTnT (<6 ng/L) or hs-cTnI (<5 ng/L) cutoffs alone were used. A CCS ≥5 had a specificity for hospital admission >95%, with approximately 14% of patients at high risk. CONCLUSIONS: An ED disposition (admit or send home) using the presentation blood sample could occur in nearly 25% of all patients by use of the CCS.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
7.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(5): 745-751, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838842

RESUMO

Background Manufacturers of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have restricted use of what sample types or matrices are acceptable to use for measurement. Our goal was to evaluate the comparability of the Siemens ADVIA Centaur hs-cTnI assay across different matrices and under different storage conditions. Methods Three different QC-plasma matrices were evaluated for imprecision <10 ng/L. Passing-Bablok regression and difference plots were determined for cTnI concentrations spanning the reference interval (limit of quantification to male 99th-percentile: 2.5 ng/L to <60 ng/L) between serum and lithium heparin plasma, lithium heparin and EDTA plasma and between the Siemens and Abbott hs-cTnI assays. Stability at room temperature (RT) and 2-8 °C was also assessed across the three matrices. Results Over 16-weeks the SDs were ≤1.0 ng/L for QCs ranging from 5.0 to 8.3 ng/L. Across the reference interval there was excellent agreement between lithium heparin plasma and serum for the Siemens hs-cTnI assay (slope=0.98/intercept=-0.1), however, cTnI concentrations were proportionally lower in EDTA as compared to lithium heparin plasma (slope=0.90, 95% CI: 0.88-0.92). In lithium heparin plasma the Siemens hs-cTnI concentrations were higher than the Abbott hs-cTnI concentrations (slope=1.26/intercept=-0.2). Stability of cTnI in lithium heparin plasma as compared in serum and EDTA plasma appeared more labile, with decreases ≥20% in concentrations evident as early as 1-day in storage at RT. Conclusions There is excellent agreement in concentrations between lithium heparin plasma and serum with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur hs-cTnI assay; however, cTnI concentrations in EDTA plasma are lower. Reference intervals and clinical studies in EDTA plasma for the Centaur hs-cTnI assay are required before clinical use.


Assuntos
Troponina I/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Ácido Edético/química , Heparina/química , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Valores de Referência
8.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(2): 261-262, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375128
10.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e025059, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Illicit opioid use has become a national crisis in Canada, with over 65 000 people seeking treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Ontario and British Columbia alone. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is a common treatment for OUD. There is substantial variability in treatment outcomes used to evaluate effectiveness of MAT, making it difficult to establish clinically and scientifically relevant treatment effect. Furthermore, patients are often excluded from the process of determining these outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to examine outcomes currently used to measure MAT effectiveness and to identify patient-relevant outcomes to enhance effectiveness of treatment options. This review refers to patient-important outcomes as those outcomes patients consider important to or markers of treatment success. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases will be searched. We will search databases from inception to the date the search is ran. Studies of interest include those evaluating the effectiveness of MAT for patients with OUD, with or without consultation with patients regarding what they consider to be important as an indicator of treatment success. Results will be analysed using thematic analysis and qualitative analysis where possible. This will result in comprehensive synthesis of all outcomes and measures found related to OUD treatment effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We are collaborating with Canadian Addiction Treatment Centres which provide MAT to patients with OUD who will participate in disseminating study results. Dissemination strategies will involve sharing study results through workshops, presentations, peer-reviewed publications, study reports, community presentations and resources in primary care settings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018095553.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fatores Sexuais , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 487: 216-221, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International recommendations on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) testing recommend that laboratories select only one sample type for testing. We evaluated the Siemens ADVIA Centaur hs-cTnI assay in serum and thereby provide information on imprecision, long-term storage stability, freeze-thaw stability, method comparison to other hs-cTnI assays, and clinical performance. METHODS: Patients with chest pain onset <6 h who already had Roche hs-cTnT, Beckman hs-cTnI and Abbott hs-cTnI results recorded and had non-thawed and frozen serum aliquots formed the study population (n = 134 patients with 305 serum aliquots obtained at either 0, 3 or 6 h stored below -70 °C since 2003) for measurement with the Siemens hs-cTnI assay in 2018. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses for myocardial infarction (MI) using the highest obtained hs-cTn concentration was performed. Additional comparison testing on serum samples stored frozen (at -70 °C for <1 month in 2018) for the Siemens and Abbott hs-cTnI assays were performed, as well as precision testing in serum pools and freeze-thaw stability testing. RESULTS: The Siemens hs-cTnI assay had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.978 (95%CI: 0.937-0.996) for MI in the study cohort (Roche hs-cTnT AUC = 0.965 and Abbott AUC = 0.973). The Siemens hs-cTnI assay yielded higher cTnI concentrations than the other hs-cTn assays, with the same proportional bias (slope = 1.4) between the Siemens and Abbott hs-cTnI assays obtained from serum samples collected in 2003 and 2018. Over 3 months, a low serum pool of 3.5 ng/l achieved a CV of 20% (SD = 0.7, n = 42) and a high serum pool of 820 ng/l achieved a CV of 2.3% (SD = 20, n = 42). Three different serum pools recovered within 10% from baseline concentration after 5 freeze-thaw cycles for the Siemens hs-cTnI assay. CONCLUSIONS: In serum, the Siemens ADVIA Centaur hs-cTnI assay had excellent clinical performance for MI in an early chest pain onset population, acceptable precision at normal and highly elevated cTnI concentrations, long-term storage stability (15 y storage below -70 °C) and acceptable freeze-thaw stability, all of which supports serum as an acceptable sample type to use in clinical studies and in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
12.
Ann Hematol ; 97(12): 2531, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267155

RESUMO

The article Lessons from a systematic literature review of the effectiveness of recombinant factor VIIa in acquired haemophilia, written by Andreas Tiede and Andrew Worster, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 26 May 2018 without open access.

13.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Miocárdio/química , Troponina I/análise , Troponina T/análise , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 18(6): 481-489, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Elecsys Troponin T Gen 5 STAT test (distributed in the United States (US) by Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) is the first high-sensitivity cardiac troponin test approved for use by the FDA in the US (2017). Areas covered: The test offers clinicians the opportunity for more rapid decision-making for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) in the emergency department (ED). The Troponin T Gen 5 STAT test (labeled as TNT-G5ST on the reagent pack) is similar to the Troponin T hs STAT (TNT-HSST) and Troponin T hs (TNT-HS) tests that have been available outside the US since 2009. Collectively, these tests can all be considered as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assays. Expert commentary: Studies performed in the US and throughout the world using 0 and 3 h blood draws for hs-cTnT testing in patients with possible MI have reliably achieved a sensitivity of >94% and negative predictive value of ≥99% for MI in the ED setting.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Ann Hematol ; 97(10): 1889-1901, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804265

RESUMO

To conduct a systematic review of the literature reporting efficacy and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for the treatment of bleeding in acquired haemophilia and, if data permitted, undertake a meta-analysis of the current evidence. MEDLINE®, Embase®, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for all studies on rFVIIa treatment in acquired haemophilia. Heterogeneity of included studies was measured using the inconsistency index (I2). Of the 2353 publications screened, 290 potentially relevant references were identified: 12 studies published in 32 publications met inclusion criteria. In total, 1244 patients and 1714 bleeds were included (671 patients received rFVIIa treatment for 1063 bleeds). In seven of 12 studies, the initial dose of Recombinant FVIIa was 90 ± 10 µg/kg. Recombinant FVIIa was used as first-line therapy in the majority of cases. Median number of doses administered ranged from 10 to 28. Between 68 and 74% of bleeds were spontaneous, whereas 4-50% were traumatic. Thirty-nine to 90% of bleeds were severe. Haemostatic effectiveness was > 90% in 5/6 studies for both patient and bleed level. Recombinant FVIIa had a favourable safety profile with low risk of general adverse events and thromboembolic-associated events. The heterogeneity of the studies and data precluded a meta-analysis. Recombinant FVIIa demonstrated effectiveness for the treatment of bleeds and had a good safety profile. It is apparent from these data that there is a need for more standardised measures of clinical effectiveness in acquired haemophilia to enable comparison and pooling of results in the future.


Assuntos
Fator VIIa/uso terapêutico , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fator VIIa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemofilia A/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Biochem ; 58: 53-59, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated and non-changing high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations may suggest a process other than acute injury, possibly due to chronic condition(s) causing the elevation, an analytical error/interference or the formation of macrocomplexes. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) might be useful in this setting to identify the etiology of abnormally high and non-changing cTn concentrations which could aid clinical decision making in the hospital setting. METHODS: We analytically validated the H-FABP assay (Randox) on the Abbott ARICHTECTc8000 platform, testing imprecision, linearity, stability, and matrix comparison. Over the 2-month analytical validation; EDTA plasma samples from patients with a hospital visit with persistently elevated and stable cTnI concentrations (Abbott hs-cTnI≥52 ng/L or 2x99th percentile upper limit of normal (ULN = 26 ng/L) with change between results <20%) were collected and frozen (-20 °C). These samples were tested with the H-FABP assay, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, with the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) during the hospital visit also obtained from these patients. RESULTS: The H-FABP assay was linear, with concentrations stable after 4 freeze/thaw cycles, up to 150 h at room temperature, and comparable between lithium heparin and EDTA plasma. During the validation there were 6 patients with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 identified (total population screened n = 917) with high and non-changing hs-cTnI concentrations. All 6 patients had H-FABP<2xULN; with 3 patients having a macrocomplex and a final diagnosis of not ACS. CONCLUSION: Testing of H-FABP in patients with an eGFR≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 with persistently high and stable cTn elevations may help to confirm prior cardiac injury or the presence of macrocomplexes as the source of these elevations.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/análise , Troponina I/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/instrumentação , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/métodos
17.
Clin Chim Acta ; 479: 166-170, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians regularly observe increased high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The challenge is to differentiate acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from increased hs-cTn results across a range of eGFR. The objective of this study was to determined the optimal hs-cTn concentrations for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and a composite cardiovascular outcome across different eGFR ranges and to assess the utility of a low hs-cTn cutoff to rule-out events. METHODS: We undertook an observational study in the emergency department of patients (n = 1212) with symptoms suggestive of ACS who had an eGFR and at least one Roche hs-cTnT and one Abbott hs-cTnI result. The 7-day outcomes were MI or a composite of MI, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, serious ventricular cardiac arrhythmia, or death. The maximum hs-cTn concentration was assessed across different eGFR ranges (<30,30-59,60-89,≥90 ml/min/1.73m2) by spearman correlation, ROC-curve analyses, and sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for the proposed rule-out hs-cTn cutoffs (hs-cTnI<5 ng/l and hs-cTnT<6 ng/l) for the outcomes. RESULTS: Both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations were negatively correlated with eGFR. The lower the eGFR, the lower the AUC and the higher the optimal hs-cTn cutoffs for both MI and the composite outcome. The highest combined sensitivity (100%), NPV (100%) and proportion of low-risk for MI (45% of group) was observed for patients with hs-cTnT<6 ng/l with an eGFR≥90. CONCLUSION: The test performance for hs-cTn for diagnosing or ruling-out an acute cardiac event varies per the eGFR. Accurate risk stratification requires knowledge of the eGFR.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia
18.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 55(5): 604-607, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169258

RESUMO

Background There is interest in utilizing different cut-offs per sex for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) but less so for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for patient management in the acute setting. Our objective was to assess if differences in hs-cTn concentrations exist between males and females for an acute cardiac outcome following the presentation measurement in the emergency department. Methods An observational emergency department population with hs-cTn measurements (Roche Diagnostics and Abbott Diagnostics) at presentation with seven-day outcomes for a composite acute cardiac outcome (i.e. myocardial infarction, unstable angina, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure or cardiovascular death) (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01994577). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed for each sex with both hs-cTn assays. Results In those patients who had a composite acute cardiac outcome ( n = 128 females; n = 145 males), there was no difference in hs-cTn concentrations between the sexes (median [IQR] female hs-cTnT = 35 ng/L [21-69] vs. male hs-cTnT = 38 ng/L [19-77], P = 0.95; and median [IQR] female hs-cTnI = 27 ng/L [12-75] vs. male hs-cTnI = 26 ng/L [12-85], P = 0.97]. There was also no difference in the area under the curve between the hs-cTn assays and between the sexes ( P > 0.10). Comparing hs-cTn concentrations in those patients with the composite outcome between the sexes <60 years and ≥60 years of age also did not yield significant differences ( P > 0.70). Conclusions The concentrations and area under the curves of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI at patient presentation in the emergency department for an acute composite cardiac outcome were similar between the sexes in this exploratory study.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores Sexuais
20.
JAMA ; 318(19): 1913-1924, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127948

RESUMO

Importance: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I testing is widely used to evaluate patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. A cardiac troponin concentration of less than 5 ng/L identifies patients at presentation as low risk, but the optimal threshold is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a cardiac troponin I threshold of 5 ng/L at presentation as a risk stratification tool in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Data Sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases from January 1, 2006, to March 18, 2017. Study Selection: Prospective studies measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome in which the diagnosis was adjudicated according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The systematic review identified 19 cohorts. Individual patient-level data were obtained from the corresponding authors of 17 cohorts, with aggregate data from 2 cohorts. Meta-estimates for primary and secondary outcomes were derived using a binomial-normal random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. Performance was evaluated in subgroups and across a range of troponin concentrations (2-16 ng/L) using individual patient data. Results: Of 11 845 articles identified, 104 underwent full-text review, and 19 cohorts from 9 countries were included. Among 22 457 patients included in the meta-analysis (mean age, 62 [SD, 15.5] years; n = 9329 women [41.5%]), the primary outcome occurred in 2786 (12.4%). Cardiac troponin I concentrations were less than 5 ng/L at presentation in 11 012 patients (49%), in whom there were 60 missed index or 30-day events (59 index myocardial infarctions, 1 myocardial infarction at 30 days, and no cardiac deaths at 30 days). This resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% (95% CI, 99.3%-99.6%) for the primary outcome. There were no cardiac deaths at 30 days and 7 (0.1%) at 1 year, with a negative predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-99.9%) for cardiac death. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration of less than 5 ng/L identified those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. Further research is needed to understand the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this approach to risk stratification.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
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