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1.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 213-228, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964584

RESUMO

There are approximately 7,000 rare diseases affecting 25-30 million Americans, with 80% estimated to have a genetic basis. This presents a challenge for genetics practitioners to determine appropriate testing, make accurate diagnoses, and conduct up-to-date patient management. Exome sequencing (ES) is a comprehensive diagnostic approach, but only 25%-41% of the patients receive a molecular diagnosis. The remaining three-fifths to three-quarters of patients undergoing ES remain undiagnosed. The Stanford Center for Undiagnosed Diseases (CUD), a clinical site of the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, evaluates patients with undiagnosed and rare diseases using a combination of methods including ES. Frequently these patients have non-diagnostic ES results, but strategic follow-up techniques identify diagnoses in a subset. We present techniques used at the CUD that can be adopted by genetics providers in clinical follow-up of cases where ES is non-diagnostic. Solved case examples illustrate different types of non-diagnostic results and the additional techniques that led to a diagnosis. Frequent approaches include segregation analysis, data reanalysis, genome sequencing, additional variant identification, careful phenotype-disease correlation, confirmatory testing, and case matching. We also discuss prioritization of cases for additional analyses.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2131-2139, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added. METHODS: We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care. RESULTS: A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund.).

3.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(8): 563-579, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727589

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing has undergone massive expansion in the past 10 yr, from a rarely used research tool into an approach that has broad applications in a clinical setting. From rare disease to cancer, genomics is transforming our knowledge of biology. The transition from targeted gene sequencing, to whole exome sequencing, to whole genome sequencing has only been made possible due to rapid advancements in technologies and informatics that have plummeted the cost per base of DNA sequencing and analysis. The tools of genomics have resolved the etiology of disease for previously undiagnosable conditions, identified cancer driver gene variants, and have impacted the understanding of pathophysiology for many diseases. However, this expansion of use has also highlighted research's current voids in knowledge. The lack of precise animal models for gene-to-function association, lack of tools for analysis of genomic structural changes, skew in populations used for genetic studies, publication biases, and the "Unknown Proteome" all contribute to voids needing filled for genomics to work in a fast-paced clinical setting. The future will hold the tools to fill in these voids, with new data sets and the continual development of new technologies allowing for expansion of genomic medicine, ushering in the days to come for precision medicine. In this review we highlight these and other points in hopes of advancing and guiding precision medicine into the future for optimal success.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(14): 2454-2465, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726930

RESUMO

The 17 genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants. The p.R20Q variant is shared by three affected family members in an autosomal dominant manner; the fourth unrelated individual has a de novo p.R305H mutation. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that these variants are rare and predict them to be damaging. In vitro transcriptional assays in cultured cells show that both variants result in reduced transcriptional repressor activity of TBX2. We also show that the variants result in reduced protein levels of TBX2. Heterologous over-expression studies in Drosophila demonstrate that both p.R20Q and p.R305H function as partial loss-of-function alleles. Hence, these and other data suggest that TBX2 is a novel candidate gene for a new multisystem malformation disorder.

5.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 95: 9.24.1-9.24.28, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044471

RESUMO

Over the last 10 years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research through substantial advances in technology and reduction in the cost of sequencing, and also in the systems required for analysis of these large volumes of data. This technology is now being used as a standard molecular diagnostic test in some clinical settings. The advances in sequencing have come so rapidly that the major bottleneck in identification of causal variants is no longer the sequencing or analysis (given access to appropriate tools), but rather clinical interpretation. Interpretation of genetic findings in a complex and ever changing clinical setting is scarcely a new challenge, but the task is increasingly complex in clinical genome-wide sequencing given the dramatic increase in dataset size and complexity. This increase requires application of appropriate interpretation tools, as well as development and application of appropriate methodologies and standard procedures. This unit provides an overview of these items. Specific challenges related to implementation of genome-wide sequencing in a clinical setting are discussed. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
6.
J Pediatr Genet ; 6(2): 61-76, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28496993

RESUMO

A pilot program was initiated using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to diagnose suspected genetic disorders in the Genetics Clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Twenty-two patients underwent WGS between 2010 and 2013. Initially, we obtained a 14% (3/22) diagnosis rate over 2 years; with subsequent reanalysis, this increased to 36% (8/22). Disease causing variants were identified in SKIV2L, CECR1, DGKE, PYCR2, RYR1, PDGFRB, EFTUD2, and BCS1L. In 75% (6/8) of diagnosed cases, the diagnosis affected treatment and/or medical surveillance. Additionally, one case demonstrated a homozygous A18V variant in VLDLR that appears to be associated with a previously undescribed phenotype.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 19(3): 417-426, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315672

RESUMO

A national workgroup convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified principles and made recommendations for standardizing the description of sequence data contained within the variant file generated during the course of clinical next-generation sequence analysis for diagnosing human heritable conditions. The specifications for variant files were initially developed to be flexible with regard to content representation to support a variety of research applications. This flexibility permits variation with regard to how sequence findings are described and this depends, in part, on the conventions used. For clinical laboratory testing, this poses a problem because these differences can compromise the capability to compare sequence findings among laboratories to confirm results and to query databases to identify clinically relevant variants. To provide for a more consistent representation of sequence findings described within variant files, the workgroup made several recommendations that considered alignment to a common reference sequence, variant caller settings, use of genomic coordinates, and gene and variant naming conventions. These recommendations were considered with regard to the existing variant file specifications presently used in the clinical setting. Adoption of these recommendations is anticipated to reduce the potential for ambiguity in describing sequence findings and facilitate the sharing of genomic data among clinical laboratories and other entities.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Software
8.
J Mol Model ; 23(3): 75, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204942

RESUMO

Protein modeling and molecular dynamics hold a unique toolset to aide in the characterization of clinical variants that may result in disease. Not only do these techniques offer the ability to study under characterized proteins, but they do this with the speed that is needed for time-sensitive clinical cases. In this paper we retrospectively study a clinical variant in the XIAP protein, C203Y, while addressing additional variants seen in patients with similar gastrointestinal phenotypes as the C203Y mutation. In agreement with the clinical tests performed on the C203Y patient, protein modeling and molecular dynamics suggest that direct interactions with RIPK2 and Caspase3 are altered by the C203Y mutation and subsequent loss of Zn coordination in the second BIR domain of XIAP. Interestingly, the variant does not appear to alter interactions with SMAC, resulting in further damage to the caspase and NOD2 pathways. To expand the computational strategy designed when studying XIAP, we have applied the molecular modeling tools to a list of 140 variants seen in CFTR associated with cystic fibrosis, and a list of undiagnosed variants in 17 different genes. This paper shows the exciting applications of molecular modeling in the classification and characterization of genetic variants identified in next generation sequencing. Graphical abstract XIAP in Caspase 3 and NOD2 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/química , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/química , Envelhecimento/patologia , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/química , Caspase 3/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética
10.
Hum Genomics ; 8: 17, 2014 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25265995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological systems are exquisitely poised to respond and adjust to challenges, including damage. However, sustained damage can overcome the ability of the system to adjust and result in a disease phenotype, its underpinnings many times elusive. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of systems biology, of how and why it falters, is essential for delineating the details of the path(s) leading to the diseased state and for designing strategies to revert its progression. An important aspect of this process is not only to define the function of a gene but to identify the context within which gene functions act. It is within the network, or pathway context, that the function of a gene fulfills its ultimate biological role. Resolving the extent to which defective function(s) affect the proceedings of pathway(s) and how altered pathways merge into overpowering the system's defense machinery are key to understanding the molecular aspects of disease and envisioning ways to counteract it. A network-centric approach to diseases is increasingly being considered in current research. It also underlies the deployment of disease pathways at the Rat Genome Database Pathway Portal. The portal is presented with an emphasis on disease and altered pathways, associated drug pathways, pathway suites, and suite networks. RESULTS: The Pathway Portal at the Rat Genome Database (RGD) provides an ever-increasing collection of interactive pathway diagrams and associated annotations for metabolic, signaling, regulatory, and drug pathways, including disease and altered pathways. A disease pathway is viewed from the perspective of networks whose alterations are manifested in the affected phenotype. The Pathway Ontology (PW), built and maintained at RGD, facilitates the annotations of genes, the deployment of pathway diagrams, and provides an overall navigational tool. Pathways that revolve around a common concept and are globally connected are presented within pathway suites; a suite network combines two or more pathway suites. CONCLUSIONS: The Pathway Portal is a rich resource that offers a range of pathway data and visualization, including disease pathways and related pathway suites. Viewing a disease pathway from the perspective of underlying altered pathways is an aid for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of disease.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genoma , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Interface Usuário-Computador
11.
J Biomed Semantics ; 5(1): 7, 2014 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24499703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pathway Ontology (PW) developed at the Rat Genome Database (RGD), covers all types of biological pathways, including altered and disease pathways and captures the relationships between them within the hierarchical structure of a directed acyclic graph. The ontology allows for the standardized annotation of rat, and of human and mouse genes to pathway terms. It also constitutes a vehicle for easy navigation between gene and ontology report pages, between reports and interactive pathway diagrams, between pathways directly connected within a diagram and between those that are globally related in pathway suites and suite networks. Surveys of the literature and the development of the Pathway and Disease Portals are important sources for the ongoing development of the ontology. User requests and mapping of pathways in other databases to terms in the ontology further contribute to increasing its content. Recently built automated pipelines use the mapped terms to make available the annotations generated by other groups. RESULTS: The two released pipelines - the Pathway Interaction Database (PID) Annotation Import Pipeline and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Annotation Import Pipeline, make available over 7,400 and 31,000 pathway gene annotations, respectively. Building the PID pipeline lead to the addition of new terms within the signaling node, also augmented by the release of the RGD "Immune and Inflammatory Disease Portal" at that time. Building the KEGG pipeline lead to a substantial increase in the number of disease pathway terms, such as those within the 'infectious disease pathway' parent term category. The 'drug pathway' node has also seen increases in the number of terms as well as a restructuring of the node. Literature surveys, disease portal deployments and user requests have contributed and continue to contribute additional new terms across the ontology. Since first presented, the content of PW has increased by over 75%. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing development of the Pathway Ontology and the implementation of pipelines promote an enriched provision of pathway data. The ontology is freely available for download and use from the RGD ftp site at ftp://rgd.mcw.edu/pub/ontology/pathway/ or from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) BioPortal website at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/PW.

12.
J Biomed Semantics ; 4(1): 36, 2013 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. RESULTS: The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). CONCLUSIONS: As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This controlled vocabulary also allows better retrieval and filtering for QTLs and in genomic tools such as the GViewer.The Rat Strain Ontology has been incorporated into the RGD Ontology Browser ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/view.html?acc_id=RS:0000457#s) and is available through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology ( http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1150) or the RGD ftp site ( ftp://rgd.mcw.edu/pub/ontology/rat_strain/).

13.
J Neurodev Disord ; 5(1): 29, 2013 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24083349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a rare, severe, persistent pediatric motor speech disorder with associated deficits in sensorimotor, cognitive, language, learning and affective processes. Among other neurogenetic origins, CAS is the disorder segregating with a mutation in FOXP2 in a widely studied, multigenerational London family. We report the first whole-exome sequencing (WES) findings from a cohort of 10 unrelated participants, ages 3 to 19 years, with well-characterized CAS. METHODS: As part of a larger study of children and youth with motor speech sound disorders, 32 participants were classified as positive for CAS on the basis of a behavioral classification marker using auditory-perceptual and acoustic methods that quantify the competence, precision and stability of a speaker's speech, prosody and voice. WES of 10 randomly selected participants was completed using the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx Sequencing System. Image analysis, base calling, demultiplexing, read mapping, and variant calling were performed using Illumina software. Software developed in-house was used for variant annotation, prioritization and interpretation to identify those variants likely to be deleterious to neurodevelopmental substrates of speech-language development. RESULTS: Among potentially deleterious variants, clinically reportable findings of interest occurred on a total of five chromosomes (Chr3, Chr6, Chr7, Chr9 and Chr17), which included six genes either strongly associated with CAS (FOXP1 and CNTNAP2) or associated with disorders with phenotypes overlapping CAS (ATP13A4, CNTNAP1, KIAA0319 and SETX). A total of 8 (80%) of the 10 participants had clinically reportable variants in one or two of the six genes, with variants in ATP13A4, KIAA0319 and CNTNAP2 being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to the results reported in emerging WES studies of other complex neurodevelopmental disorders, our findings from this first WES study of CAS are interpreted as support for heterogeneous genetic origins of this pediatric motor speech disorder with multiple genes, pathways and complex interactions. We also submit that our findings illustrate the potential use of WES for both gene identification and case-by-case clinical diagnostics in pediatric motor speech disorders.

14.
J Biomed Semantics ; 4(1): 26, 2013 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24103152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Measurement Ontology (CMO), Measurement Method Ontology (MMO), and Experimental Condition Ontology (XCO) were originally developed at the Rat Genome Database (RGD) to standardize quantitative rat phenotype data in order to integrate results from multiple studies into the PhenoMiner database and data mining tool. These ontologies provide the framework for presenting what was measured, how it was measured, and under what conditions it was measured. RESULTS: There has been a continuing expansion of subdomains in each ontology with a parallel 2-3 fold increase in the total number of terms, substantially increasing the size and improving the scope of the ontologies. The proportion of terms with textual definitions has increased from ~60% to over 80% with greater synchronization of format and content throughout the three ontologies. Representation of definition source Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) has been standardized, including the removal of all non-URI characters, and systematic versioning of all ontology files has been implemented. The continued expansion and success of these ontologies has facilitated the integration of more than 60,000 records into the RGD PhenoMiner database. In addition, new applications of these ontologies, such as annotation of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), have been added at the sites actively using them, including RGD and the Animal QTL Database. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements to these three ontologies have been substantial, and development is ongoing. New terms and expansions to the ontologies continue to be added as a result of active curation efforts at RGD and the Animal QTL database. Use of these vocabularies to standardize data representation for quantitative phenotypes and quantitative trait loci across databases for multiple species has demonstrated their utility for integrating diverse data types from multiple sources. These ontologies are freely available for download and use from the NCBO BioPortal website at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1583 (CMO), http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1584 (MMO), and http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1585 (XCO), or from the RGD ftp site at ftp://rgd.mcw.edu/pub/ontology/.

15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 57(12): 6179-86, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24080657

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacterium that is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, in part due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. The mechanism that confers intrinsic cephalosporin resistance in enterococci remains incompletely defined. Previously, we have shown that the Ser/Thr protein kinase and phosphatase pair IreK and IreP act antagonistically to regulate cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis. We hypothesize that IreK senses antibiotic-induced cell wall damage and activates a signaling pathway leading to antibiotic resistance. However, the factors downstream of IreK have not yet been identified. To discover such factors, suppressor mutations that restored resistance to a ΔireK kinase mutant were identified. Mutations were found in IreB, a highly conserved gene of unknown function that is widespread among low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. We show that IreB plays a negative regulatory role in cephalosporin resistance and is an endogenous substrate of both IreK and IreP. IreB is phosphorylated on conserved threonine residues, and mutations at these sites impair cephalosporin resistance. Our results are consistent with a model in which the activity of IreB is modulated by IreK-dependent phosphorylation in a signaling pathway required for cephalosporin resistance and begin to shed light on the function of this previously uncharacterized protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência às Cefalosporinas/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 5(194): 194cm5, 2013 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23863829

RESUMO

The price of whole-genome and -exome sequencing has fallen to the point where these methods can be applied to clinical medicine. Here, we outline the lessons we have learned in converting a sequencing laboratory designed for research into a fully functional clinical program.


Assuntos
Genômica , Padrões de Prática Médica , Tomada de Decisões , Genômica/economia , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia
17.
Physiol Genomics ; 45(18): 809-16, 2013 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881287

RESUMO

The rat has been widely used as a disease model in a laboratory setting, resulting in an abundance of genetic and phenotype data from a wide variety of studies. These data can be found at the Rat Genome Database (RGD, http://rgd.mcw.edu/), which provides a platform for researchers interested in linking genomic variations to phenotypes. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) form one of the earliest and core datasets, allowing researchers to identify loci harboring genes associated with disease. These QTLs are not only important for those using the rat to identify genes and regions associated with disease, but also for cross-organism analyses of syntenic regions on the mouse and the human genomes to identify potential regions for study in these organisms. Currently, RGD has data on >1,900 rat QTLs that include details about the methods and animals used to determine the respective QTL along with the genomic positions and markers that define the region. RGD also curates human QTLs (>1,900) and houses>4,000 mouse QTLs (imported from Mouse Genome Informatics). Multiple ontologies are used to standardize traits, phenotypes, diseases, and experimental methods to facilitate queries, analyses, and cross-organism comparisons. QTLs are visualized in tools such as GBrowse and GViewer, with additional tools for analysis of gene sets within QTL regions. The QTL data at RGD provide valuable information for the study of mapped phenotypes and identification of candidate genes for disease associations.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Acesso à Informação , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Internet , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Ratos
18.
Database (Oxford) ; 2013: bat046, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23794737

RESUMO

The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier resource for genetic, genomic and phenotype data for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus. In addition to organizing biological data from rats, the RGD team focuses on manual curation of gene-disease associations for rat, human and mouse. In this work, we have analyzed disease-associated strains, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes from rats. These disease objects form the basis for seven disease portals. Among disease portals, the cardiovascular disease and obesity/metabolic syndrome portals have the highest number of rat strains and QTL. These two portals share 398 rat QTL, and these shared QTL are highly concentrated on rat chromosomes 1 and 2. For disease-associated genes, we performed gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis across portals using RatMine enrichment widgets. Fifteen GO terms, five from each GO aspect, were selected to profile enrichment patterns of each portal. Of the selected biological process (BP) terms, 'regulation of programmed cell death' was the top enriched term across all disease portals except in the obesity/metabolic syndrome portal where 'lipid metabolic process' was the most enriched term. 'Cytosol' and 'nucleus' were common cellular component (CC) annotations for disease genes, but only the cancer portal genes were highly enriched with 'nucleus' annotations. Similar enrichment patterns were observed in a parallel analysis using the DAVID functional annotation tool. The relationship between the preselected 15 GO terms and disease terms was examined reciprocally by retrieving rat genes annotated with these preselected terms. The individual GO term-annotated gene list showed enrichment in physiologically related diseases. For example, the 'regulation of blood pressure' genes were enriched with cardiovascular disease annotations, and the 'lipid metabolic process' genes with obesity annotations. Furthermore, we were able to enhance enrichment of neurological diseases by combining 'G-protein coupled receptor binding' annotated genes with 'protein kinase binding' annotated genes. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doença/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma/genética , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Obesidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Ratos , Software
19.
Brief Bioinform ; 14(4): 520-6, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23434633

RESUMO

The Rat Genome Database (RGD) was started >10 years ago to provide a core genomic resource for rat researchers. Currently, RGD combines genetic, genomic, pathway, phenotype and strain information with a focus on disease. RGD users are provided with access to structured and curated data from the molecular level through the organismal level. Those users access RGD from all over the world. End users are not only rat researchers but also researchers working with mouse and human data. Translational research is supported by RGD's comparative genetics/genomics data in disease portals, in GBrowse, in VCMap and on gene report pages. The impact of RGD also goes beyond the traditional biomedical researcher, as the influence of RGD reaches bioinformaticians, tool developers and curators. Import of RGD data into other publicly available databases expands the influence of RGD to a larger set of end users than those who avail themselves of the RGD website. The value of RGD continues to grow as more types of data and more tools are added, while reaching more types of end users.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Ratos
20.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 79: Unit 9.24., 2013 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24510652

RESUMO

Over the last several years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research through substantial advances in technology and reduction in the cost of sequencing, and also in the systems required for analysis of these large volumes of data. This technology is now being used as a standard molecular diagnostic test under particular circumstances in some clinical settings. The advances in sequencing have come so rapidly that the major bottleneck in identification of causal variants is no longer the sequencing but rather the analysis and interpretation. Interpretation of genetic findings in a clinical setting is scarcely a new challenge, but the task is increasingly complex in clinical genome-wide sequencing given the dramatic increase in dataset size and complexity. This increase requires the development of novel or repositioned analysis tools, methodologies, and processes. This unit provides an overview of these items. Specific challenges related to implementation in a clinical setting are discussed.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos
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