Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 18 de 18
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of studies assessing non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality within population-based settings in Uganda. We assessed mortality due to major NCDs among persons ≥ 30 years in Eastern Uganda from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Iganga-Mayuge health and demographic surveillance site in the Iganga and Mayuge districts of Eastern Uganda. Information on cause of death was obtained through verbal autopsies using a structured questionnaire to conduct face-face interviews with carers or close relatives of the deceased. Physicians assigned likely cause of death using ICD-10 codes. Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using direct method, with the average population across the seven years of the study (2010 to 2016) as the standard. Age categories of 30-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥ 71 years were used for standardization. RESULTS: A total of 1,210 deaths among persons ≥ 30 years old were reported from 2010 to 2016 (50.7% among women). Approximately 53% of all deaths were due to non-communicable diseases, 31.8% due to communicable diseases, 8.2% due to injuries, and 7% due to maternal-related deaths or undetermined causes. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for the largest proportion of NCD deaths in each year, and women had substantially higher cardiovascular disease mortality rates compared to men. Conversely, women had lower diabetes mortality rates than men for five of the seven years examined. CONCLUSIONS: Non-communicable diseases are major causes of death among adults in Iganga and Mayuge; and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are leading causes of NCD deaths. Efforts are needed to tackle NCD risk factors and provide NCD care to reduce associated burden and premature mortality.

2.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767392

RESUMO

Hypertension is diagnosed and treated based on blood pressure (BP) readings obtained in the clinic setting. Positive HIV status is associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal diurnal BP patterns, diagnosed with ambulatory BP monitoring rather than the conventional method of BP measurement. Little is known about ambulatory BP profiles in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-income countries, especially within sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we compared 24-h ambulatory BP profiles of 140 HIV-positive individuals vs. profiles in 166 HIV negative individuals living in rural Uganda. HIV was well-controlled, with all HIV seropositive participants reporting use of anti-retroviral therapy, and ~123 (88%) having undetectable viral load. Most participants reported ART use duration of less than 10 years. Compared to HIV negative participants, HIV positive participants had lower median 24-h systolic BP (110.4 mmHg (IQR: 105.7, 118.7) vs 117.7 mmHg (IQR: 110.8, 129.8), p < 0.001), and 24-h diastolic BP (69.2 mmHg (IQR: 65.0, 74.9) vs. 71.9 mmHg (IQR: 67.2, 78.1), p = 0.004). Adjusted results showed greater percentage systolic nocturnal dipping among PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals (difference = 2.70 (IQR: 0.94, 4.47), p < 0.05). Results of the adjusted Poisson regression suggested lower prevalence of 24-h and night hypertension among HIV positives compared to HIV negative, but were not statistically significant. Our data suggest that continuous 24-h BP measurements are lower in PLHIV on ART compared to HIV negative individuals.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 213, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death globally, with the majority of morbidity and mortality occurring in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. While tobacco-smoke exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income settings, household air pollution from biomass smoke combustion is a leading risk factor for COPD in LMICs. Despite the high burden of biomass smoke-related COPD, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in this context. Currently recommended inhaler-based therapy for COPD is neither available nor affordable in most resource-limited settings. Low-dose theophylline is an oral, once-a-day therapy, long used in high-income countries (HICs), which has been proposed for the management of COPD in LMICs in the absence of inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators. The Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD) trial investigates the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose theophylline for the management of biomass-related COPD in a low-income setting. METHODS: LODOT-BCOPD is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of low-dose theophylline in improving respiratory symptoms in 110 participants with moderate to severe COPD in Central Uganda. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) age 40 to 80 years, (2) full-time resident of the study area, (3) daily biomass exposure, (4) post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the 5th percentile of the Global Lung Initiative mixed ethnic reference population, and (5) GOLD Grade B-D COPD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive once daily low-dose theophylline (200 mg ER, Unicontin-E) or placebo for 52 weeks. All participants will receive education about self-management of COPD and rescue salbutamol inhalers. We will measure health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and every 6 months. In addition, we will assess household air pollution levels, serum inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, hs-CRP), and theophylline levels at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in SGRQ score at 12 months. Lastly, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the EQ-5D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT03984188 . Registered on June 12, 2019 TRIAL ACRONYM: Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD).

4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data is lacking on outcomes among COPD patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients enrolled in the Uganda Registry for Asthma and COPD. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the Incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients in Uganda? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of COPD at six hospitals in Uganda were enrolled into the registry, and followed every six months. Mortality was ascertained through post-mortem reports and verbal autopsies. Mortality rates (MR), mortality rate ratios (MRR), and hazard ratios (HR) were computed to assess associations between socio-demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics at enrolment into the registry and mortality up to two years after. RESULTS: We enrolled 296 COPD patients. Median age was 60 years, and 51·3% were male. The overall mortality rate was 95·90 deaths/1000 person-years. COPD severity by post-bronchodilator FEV1 was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Compared to stage 1, adjusted hazard ratios were as follows for stage 4: 9·86 (95%CI: 1·70-57·14, p = 0·011), stage 3: 6·16 (95%CI: 1·25-30·32, p = 0·025), and stage 2: 1·76 (95%CI: 0·33-9·48, p = 0·51). Underweight patients had a higher incidence of mortality compared to normal weight patients (MRR: 3·47 (95%CI: 1·45-8·31, p = 0·0026). CONCLUSION: Among COPD patients in Uganda, two-year mortality is high, and disease severity at baseline was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Our findings suggest the need for early, accurate, diagnosis and management of COPD, to potentially improve survival.

5.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598392

RESUMO

Introduction: The association between HIV status and hypertension is not well described within sub-Saharan Africa. We examined prevalence and risk factors for hypertension among HIV positive and negative individuals living in a rural district of Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in two concurrent cohorts of 600 HIV negative and 721 HIV seropositive individuals aged ≥35 years. Results: Of the 721 HIV positive participants, 59.8% were women and the median age was 44.3 years, while for HIV negative individuals, 55% were women and the median age was 47.8 years. Over 90% of HIV positive individuals were on antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/≥90 mmHg) was 33.5% in HIV negative individuals and 23.9% in HIV positive individuals. Age (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) were associated with higher odds of hypertension. Having HIV was associated with lower odds of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), lower systolic blood pressure (-5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.4 to -2.4) and lower diastolic blood pressure (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.6 to -2.5). We did not observe differences in the odds of hypertension by CD4 count, viral load or ART among HIV positive individuals in this sample. Conclusions: Hypertension was prevalent in one third of HIV negative individuals and in one fourth of HIV positive patients. While access to health information among individuals attending HIV clinics may explain observed differences, more research is needed to understand plausible biological and social mechanisms that could explain lower blood pressure among people living with HIV in Uganda.

6.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2769-2777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173289

RESUMO

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for >90% of deaths and illness episodes related to COPD; however, this condition is commonly underdiagnosed in these settings. Case-finding instruments for COPD may improve diagnosis and identify individuals that need treatment, but few have been validated in resource-limited settings. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Uganda to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a respiratory symptom, exposure and functional questionnaire in combination with peak expiratory flow for COPD diagnosis using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score below the 5th percentile as the gold standard. We included locally relevant exposure questions and statistical learning techniques to identify the most important risk factors for COPD. We used 80% of the data to develop the case-finding instrument and validated it in the remaining 20%. We evaluated for calibration and discrimination using standard approaches. The final score, COLA (COPD in LMICs Assessment), included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Results: We analyzed data from 1,173 participants (average age 47 years, 46.9% male, 4.5% with COPD) with acceptable and reproducible spirometry. The seven questions yielded a cross-validated area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75) with higher scores conferring greater odds of COPD. The inclusion of peak expiratory flow and age improved prediction in a validation sample (AUC=0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88) with a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The final instrument (COLA) included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Conclusion: COLA predicted COPD in urban and rural settings in Uganda has high calibration and discrimination, and could serve as a simple, low-cost screening tool in resource-limited settings.

7.
COPD ; 17(3): 297-305, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462945

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa, COPD remains prevalent but its association with HIV is not well characterized especially in rural settings. We assessed for COPD prevalence, associated factors and lung function profile among HIV-infected individuals attending ART clinics in rural Nakaseke district of Uganda. We enrolled HIV-positive participants from four HIV treatment centers in rural Uganda. Participants underwent spirometry testing following standard guidelines. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio less than the fifth percentile of the NHANES III African-American reference. We assessed for factors associated with COPD and lung function profiles using multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses. We analyzed data from 722 HIV-positive participants (mean age 48.0 years, 59.7% women). Over 90% of participants were on ART for a median duration of 4 years (IQR 2-7 years), with a median viral load of 0 copies/mL (IQR 0-0 copies/mL), current and baseline CD4 + T cell count of 478 cells/mm3 (IQR 346-663 cells/mm3) and 335 cells/mm3 (IQR 187-523 cells/mm3) respectively. The prevalence of COPD was 6.22%. COPD was associated with worse respiratory symptoms and health status. History of pulmonary tuberculosis was strongly associated with COPD (adjusted OR = 4.92, 95% CI 1.71 to 14.15, p = 0.003) and reduced lung function. Use of ART, CD4+T cell count and viral load were not associated with COPD or reduced lung function. In conclusion, we report a COPD prevalence of 6.22% in HIV-infected individuals in rural Uganda. Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the strongest predictor of COPD risk and reduced lung function in well-controlled HIV.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001604, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565406

RESUMO

Background: The global proliferation of mobile phones offers opportunity for improved non-communicable disease (NCD) data collection by interviewing participants using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. We assessed whether airtime incentives can improve cooperation and response rates for an NCD IVR survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. Methods: Participants were randomised to three arms: a) no incentive, b) 1X incentive or c) 2X incentive, where X was set to airtime of 50 Bangladesh Taka (US$0.60) and 5000 Ugandan Shillings (UGX; US$1.35). Adults aged 18 years and older who had a working mobile phone were sampled using random digit dialling. The primary outcomes, cooperation and response rates as defined by the American Association of Public Opinion Research, were analysed using log-binomial regression model. Results: Between 14 June and 14 July 2017, 440 262 phone calls were made in Bangladesh. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 28.8% (353/1227) and 19.2% (580/3016) in control, 39.2% (370/945) and 23.9% (507/2120) in 50 Taka and 40.0% (362/906) and 24.8% (532/2148) in 100 Taka incentive groups. Cooperation and response rates, respectively, were significantly higher in both the 50 Taka (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.53) and (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38), and 100 Taka groups (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.56) and (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.43), as compared with the controls. In Uganda, 174 157 phone calls were made from 26 March to 22 April 2017. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 44.7% (377/844) and 35.2% (552/1570) in control, 57.6% (404/701) and 39.3% (508/1293) in 5000 UGX and 58.8% (421/716) and 40.3% (535/1328) in 10 000 UGX groups. Cooperation and response rates were significantly higher, respectively in the 5000 UGX (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42) and (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23), and 10 000 UGX groups (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.45) and (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.26), as compared with the control group. Conclusion: In two diverse settings, the provision of an airtime incentive significantly improved both the cooperation and response rates of an IVR survey, with no significant difference between the two incentive amounts. Trial registration number: NCT03768323.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(5): e115, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476720

RESUMO

The growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), for example, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) presents special challenges for policy makers, due to resource constraints and lack of timely data for decision-making. Concurrently, the increasing ubiquity of mobile phones in LMICs presents possibilities for rapid collection of population-based data to inform the policy process. The objective of this paper is to highlight potential benefits of mobile phone surveys (MPS) for developing, implementing, and evaluating NCD prevention and control policies. To achieve this aim, we first provide a brief overview of major global commitments to NCD prevention and control, and subsequently explore how countries can translate these commitments into policy action at the national level. Using the policy cycle as our frame of reference, we highlight potential benefits of MPS which include (1) potential cost-effectiveness of using MPS to inform NCD policy actions compared with using traditional household surveys; (2) timeliness of assessments to feed into policy and planning cycles; (3) tracking progress of interventions, hence assessment of reach, coverage, and distribution; (4) better targeting of interventions, for example, to high-risk groups; (5) timely course correction for suboptimal or non-effective interventions; (6) assessing fairness in financial contribution and financial risk protection for those affected by NCDs in the spirit of universal health coverage (UHC); and (7) monitoring progress in reducing catastrophic medical expenditure due to chronic health conditions in general, and NCDs in particular. We conclude that MPS have potential to become a powerful data collection tool to inform policies that address public health challenges such as NCDs. Additional forthcoming assessments of MPS in LMICs will inform opportunities to maximize this technology.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/ética , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(5): e133, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476722

RESUMO

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for two-thirds of all deaths globally, with 75% of these occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many LMICs seek cost-effective methods to obtain timely and quality NCD risk factor data that could inform resource allocation, policy development, and assist evaluation of NCD trends over time. Over the last decade, there has been a proliferation of mobile phone ownership and access in LMICs, which, if properly harnessed, has great potential to support risk factor data collection. As a supplement to traditional face-to-face surveys, the ubiquity of phone ownership has made large proportions of most populations reachable through cellular networks. However, critical gaps remain in understanding the ways by which mobile phone surveys (MPS) could aid in collection of NCD data in LMICs. Specifically, limited information exists on the optimization of these surveys with regard to incentives and structure, comparative effectiveness of different MPS modalities, and key ethical, legal, and societal issues (ELSI) in the development, conduct, and analysis of these surveys in LMIC settings. We propose a research agenda that could address important knowledge gaps in optimizing MPS for the collection of NCD risk factor data in LMICs and provide an example of a multicountry project where elements of that agenda aim to be integrated over the next two years.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 6(5): e81, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone ownership and access have increased rapidly across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) within the last decade. Concomitantly, LMICs are experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transitions, where non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Mobile phone surveys could aid data collection for prevention and control of these NCDs but limited evidence of their feasibility exists. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe a series of sub-studies aimed at optimizing the delivery of interactive voice response (IVR) and computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for NCD risk factor data collection in LMICs. These sub-studies are designed to assess the effect of factors such as airtime incentive timing, amount, and structure, survey introduction characteristics, different sampling frames, and survey modality on key survey metrics, such as survey response, completion, and attrition rates. METHODS: In a series of sub-studies, participants will be randomly assigned to receive different airtime incentive amounts (eg, 10 minutes of airtime versus 20 minutes of airtime), different incentive delivery timings (airtime delivered before survey begins versus delivery upon completion of survey), different survey introductions (informational versus motivational), different narrative voices (male versus female), and different sampling frames (random digit dialing versus mobile network operator-provided numbers) to examine which study arms will yield the highest response and completion rates. Furthermore, response and completion rates and the inter-modal reliability of the IVR and CATI delivery methods will be compared. RESULTS: Research activities are expected to be completed in Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Uganda in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to examine the feasibility of using IVR and CATI for systematic collection of NCD risk factor information in LMICs. Our findings will inform the future design and implementation of mobile phone surveys in LMICs.

12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(1): 152, 2017 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An effective continuum of maternal care ensures that mothers receive essential health packages from pre-pregnancy to delivery, and postnatally, reducing the risk of maternal death. However, across Africa, coverage of skilled birth attendance is lower than coverage for antenatal care, indicating mothers are not retained in the continuum between antenatal care and delivery. This paper explores predictors of retention of antenatal care clients in skilled birth attendance across Africa, including sociodemographic factors and quality of antenatal care received. METHODS: We pooled nationally representative data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 28 African countries between 2006 and 2015. For the 115,374 births in our sample, we estimated logistic multilevel models of retention in skilled birth attendance (SBA) among clients that received skilled antenatal care (ANC). RESULTS: Among ANC clients in the study sample, 66% received SBA. Adjusting for all demographic covariates and country indicators, the odds of retention in SBA were higher among ANC clients that had their blood pressure checked, received information about pregnancy complications, had blood tests conducted, received at least one tetanus injection, and had urine tests conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Higher quality of ANC predicts retention in SBA in Africa. Improving quality of skilled care received prenatally may increase client retention during delivery, reducing maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , África , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 174, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26276498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: History of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent with as many as one in four American women being victims. Exposure to CSA or other early life traumatic experiences has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. However, the effects of CSA on preterm delivery (PTB), a leading cause of neonatal mortality, remain poorly understood. The objectives of this review are (i) to synthesize the available research investigating the relationship between maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and preterm delivery (PTB); (ii) to provide suggestions for improving future research on this topic; and (iii) to highlight implications for clinical practice and public health. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified through searches of four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection and BIOSIS Online) for studies published before March 2014, as well as through reviewing references of published articles. RESULTS: A total of six studies published from 1992 to 2010 were included in this review. Overall, findings were inconsistent. Three studies reported statistically significant associations of CSA with PTB (<37 weeks gestation) or shorter mean gestational age at birth. Women with a history of CSA had 2.6 to 4.8-fold increased odds of PTB as compared with women without a history of CSA. Three other studies did not observe statistically significant differences in rates of PTB or mean gestational age at birth in relation to a history of CSA. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence on this topic is sparse and inconsistent, and limited by a number of methodological challenges. Given the ubiquity of CSA, as well as the clinical and public health significance of PTB, more rigorously designed epidemiologic studies on the association between CSA and PTB are warranted.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
14.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 18(5): 659-71, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956589

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Epidemiol ; 25(2): 90-5, 95.e1-2, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25534254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of obtaining hair samples from men and women at community-based barbershops and hair salons for analysis of cortisol and assessed sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs). A total of 102 participants completed the study. METHODS: Research staff interviewed participants using a structured questionnaire, and samples of hair were collected. HCCs were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of HCC with covariates. RESULTS: Analyses by race/ethnicity showed highest median HCC in blacks (12.5 [6.9-29.3]) pg/mg) followed by Hispanics (10.7 [5.8-14.9] pg/mg), whites (5.0 [3.8-10.8] pg/mg), and other participants (4.2 [3.3-15.7] pg/mg), P < .01. Current smokers had significantly higher median HCC (11.7 [8.8-18.9] pg/mg) compared with former smokers (4.6 [3.5-14.6] pg/mg) and those who had never smoked (6.9 [4.7-12.8] pg/mg), P = .04. After adjustment for age and sex, geometric mean HCC was 0.72 pg/mg lower in dyed hair compared with hair that was not dyed (ß = -0.72, standard error = 0.30, 95% confidence interval, -1.29 to -0.15, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: HCC can be assessed in community-based studies. Future HCC studies should consider cosmetic hair treatment, cigarette smoking, and the potential role of psychosocial stressors in the association between race/ethnicity and HCC.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 18(1): 61-72, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25380784

RESUMO

The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean ± SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p < 0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p < 0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p < 0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p < 0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
ISRN Obes ; 2014: 871681, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24944841

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42-22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43-5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity.

18.
Ann Epidemiol ; 23(12): 797-811.e2, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184029

RESUMO

Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Nível de Saúde , Hidrocortisona/análise , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Crônica , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/química , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/química , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...