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1.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(3): 1597-1609, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A plasmid-mediated mechanism of bacterial resistance to polymyxin is a serious threat to public health worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes and to conduct the molecular characterization of mcr-positive Escherichia coli strains isolated from Polish poultry. METHODS: In this study, 318 E. coli strains were characterized by the prevalence of mcr1-mcr5 genes, antimicrobial susceptibility testing by minimal inhibitory concentration method, the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes was screened by PCR, and the biofilm formation ability was tested using the crystal violet staining method. Genetic relatedness of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing method. RESULTS: Among the 318 E. coli isolates, 17 (5.35%) harbored the mcr-1 gene. High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (88.24%), and chloramphenicol (82.35%). All mcr-1-positive E. coli strains were multidrug-resistant, and as many as 88.24% of the isolates contained the blaTEM gene, tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2, and sul3) resistance genes. Additionally, 41.18% of multidrug-resistant, mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were moderate biofilm producers, while the rest of the strains showed weak biofilm production. Nine different sequence types were identified, and the dominant ST was ST93 (29.41%), followed by ST117 (17.65%), ST156 (11.76%), ST 8979 (11.76%), ST744 (5.88%), and ST10 (5.88%). Moreover, the new ST was identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a low occurrence of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains isolated from Polish poultry; however, all the isolated strains were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and were able to form biofilms at low or medium level.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6639, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758319

RESUMO

Fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex (CNGSC) are pathogens causing severe infections in humans and animals, that for humans may result in a mortality rate ranging up to 70%. The CNGSC is divided into eight major molecular types, that may differ in their virulence and susceptibility. In order to fully understand the epidemiology of cryptococcosis, it is important to study the world distribution and population structure of these pathogens. The present study is the first presenting a population of strains isolated in Poland and one of the few using a multi-species animal group as a source of the specimen. The pathogen was present in 2.375% of the tested animals. The URA5-RFLP and MALDI-TOF MS analyses have revealed that the population consisted exclusively of C. neoformans strains, with a predominance of major molecular type VNIV (C. neoformans var. neoformans). The MALDI-TOF MS was used to perform the CNGSC strains identification on both the species and sub-species level. Despite the fact that the animals providing the specimens were not treated with 5-fluorocytosine, around 10% of the tested population presented MIC values exceeding 64 mg/L, indicating the existence of the 5-fluorocytosine-resistant strains in the environment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Criptococose/veterinária , Cryptococcus neoformans/classificação , Doenças dos Animais/história , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XXI , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Polônia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
3.
Pathogens ; 10(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450948

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica, widespread within domestic and wild-living animals, is a foodborne pathogen causing yersiniosis. The goal of this study was to assess a genetic similarity of Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like strains isolated from different hosts using Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) methods, and analyze the prevalence of virulence genes using multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Among 51 Yersinia sp. strains 20 virulotypes were determined. The most common virulence genes were ymoA, ureC, inv, myfA, and yst. Yersinia sp. strains had genes which may contribute to the bacterial invasion and colonization of the intestines as well as survival in serum. One wild boar Y. enterocolitica 1A strain possessed ail gene implying the possible pathogenicity of 1A biotype. Wild boar strains, represented mainly by 1A biotype, were not classified into the predominant Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR)/PFGE profile and virulotype. There was a clustering tendency among VNTR/PFGE profiles of pig origin, 4/O:3, and virulence profile. Pig and human strains formed the most related group, characterized by ~80% of genetic similarity what suggest the role of pigs as a potential source of infection for the pork consumers.

4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(4): 281-284, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841656

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in pet rabbits, as well the presence of T. gondii DNA in their blood. A total of 360 pet rabbits were investigated for the presence of antibodies and antigens of T. gondii in blood samples using a modified agglutination test (MAT) and nested PCR, respectively. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 44 (12.12%) of pet rabbits. In rabbits that received unwashed vegetables 13.13% were positive for T. gondii antibodies, whereas all rabbits that received washed vegetables were seronegative. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was statistically higher in samples collected from ill rabbits (45.45%) compared with healthy ones (8.87%), as well in the group of rabbits that had contact with cats (16.13%) compared with those without contact with cats (3.57%). The percentage of seropositive samples derived from all three sampling regions of Poland was as follows: Silesia (12.20%), Lower Silesia (6.09%), and Lesser Poland (18.03%). No statistical differences in seroprevalence were observed according to age or sex of rabbits. All tested blood samples were negative for the T. gondii B1 gene in nested PCR. This is the first study of seroprevalence and the presence of T. gondii in the blood of pet rabbits in Poland. Our study indicates that health status of rabbits, contact with cats, as well sampling region may have an important impact on the prevalence of T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Coelhos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 312, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is generally considered as a human pathogen causing typhoid fever and gastrointestinal infections called salmonellosis, with S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains as the main causative agents. Salmonella enterica strains have a wide host array including humans, birds, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, reptiles, amphibians and insects. Up to 90% of reptiles are the carriers of one or more serovars of Salmonella. Extraintestinal bacterial infections associated with reptiles pose serious health threat to humans. The import of exotic species of reptiles as pet animals to Europe correlates with the emergence of Salmonella serotypes, which not found previously in European countries. The presented study is a new report about Salmonella serotypes associated with exotic reptiles in Poland. The goal of this research was to examine the zoonotic potential of Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles by comparative analysis with S. Enteritidis strains occurring in human population and causing salmonellosis. RESULTS: The main findings of our work show that exotic reptiles are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella serovars other than correlated with salmonellosis in humans (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium). Among the isolated Salmonella strains we identified serovars that have not been reported earlier in Poland, for example belonging to subspecies diarizonae and salamae. Restriction analysis with Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), showed a great diversity among Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles. Almost all tested strains had distinct restriction patterns. While S. Enteritidis strains were quite homogeneous in term of phylogenetic relations. Most of the tested VGs were common for the two tested groups of Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles share most of virulence genes with the S. Enteritidis strains and exhibit a greater phylogenetic diversity than the tested S. Enteritidis population.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Répteis/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Portador Sadio , Cromatografia Gasosa , DNA Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virulência , Zoonoses
6.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 64(6): 857-860, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963417

RESUMO

URA5-RFLP is one of the most widely used genotyping methods relating to Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii consensus genotype nomenclature. In order to identify a molecular type, this method uses a visual comparison of digested PCR products of tested and reference strains, therefore any anomaly in RFLP patterns of studied isolates makes recognition difficult or impossible. This report describes a strain of VNIV type showing an atypical URA5-RFLP pattern as well as a group of AD hybrids displaying the same anomaly. The atypical RFLP pattern is the result of a point mutation and emergence of a new restriction site. Emergence of the allele presenting a new banding pattern may lead to misidentification using the URA5-RFLP technique; the results of this study as well as the literature data may suggest the spread of the allele in the environment.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cryptococcus neoformans/classificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genótipo , Mutação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Orotato Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
7.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(2): 277-286, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698495

RESUMO

Enterococci are a natural component of the intestinal flora of many organisms, including humans and birds. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause fatal infections of the urinary tract and endocarditis in humans, whereas in poultry symptoms are joint disease, sepsis, and falls in the first week of life. The study covered 107 Enterococcus strains-56 isolated from humans and 51 from turkeys. Among the isolates investigated Enterococcus faecalis was detected in 80.36% of human and 80.39% of turkey samples. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 8.93% of human and 17.65% of turkey strains. The highest percentage of the strains was resistant to tetracycline as follows: 48 (85.71%) and 48 (94.12%) of human and turkey strains, respectively. Resistance to erythromycin occurred in 37.50% of the human and in 76.47% of turkey strains, otherwise 27.10% of all strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. Our study revealed that 25% of human and 15.69% of turkey strains were resistant to vancomycin. Multidrug resistance showed in 32.14% and 43.14% of human and turkey strains, respectively. The tetracycline resistance gene, tetM, was detected in 82.24% of all strains analyzed, whereas the tetO gene was found in 53.57% of human but only in 7.84% of turkey strains. The vancomycin resistance gene (vanA) was detected in seven Enterococcus strains (six isolated from turkeys and one from humans). The ermB gene (resistance to macrolide) was detected in 55.14% of all isolates (42.86% of human and 68.63% of turkey strains), whereas the ermA gene was detected in 17.65% of turkey but only in 3.57% of human isolates. All the strains had the ability to form biofilms. A stronger biofilm was formed after 24-hour incubation by strains isolated from turkeys, whereas after 48 hours of incubation all examined strains produced strong biofilm.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia
8.
Microb Drug Resist ; 24(3): 314-322, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628752

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains. MALDI-TOF and PCR methods were used to show differences, if any, in the specificity of that test. In this study, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry gave the same results as multiplex PCR, in all cases. The highest rate of resistance (i.e., 100% of turkey and broiler strains) was detected against ciprofloxacin, whereas 58.1% of turkey and 78.6% of broiler strains were resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant isolates were not found in the study. All ciprofloxacin-resistant strains had a mutation in the gyrA gene, at the Thr-86 position. The presence of the tetO gene was found in 71% of turkey and in 100% of broiler strains. All resistant to tetracycline strains included tetO gene. Additionally, in five turkey and three broiler strains, susceptible to tetracycline, tetO gene was present. These results indicate the high prevalence of Campylobacter strains, which are phenotypically and genetically resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/classificação , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , DNA Girase/genética , DNA Girase/metabolismo , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Polônia/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Perus/microbiologia
9.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(11): 755-763, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968179

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 100(20): 8855-64, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383607

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of a food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world, with poultry being the main source of infection. Campylobacter jejuni, like other Gram-negative bacteria, constitutively releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs are highly immunogenic, can be taken up by mammalian cells, and are easily modifiable by recombinant engineering. We have tested their usefulness for an oral (in ovo) vaccination of chickens. Four groups of 18-day-old chicken embryos (164 animals) underwent injection of wt C. jejuni OMVs or modified OMVs or PBS into the amniotic fluid. The OMVs modifications relied on overexpression of either a complete wt cjaA gene or the C20A mutant that relocates to the periplasm. Fourteen days post-hatch chicks were orally challenged with live C. jejuni strain. Cecum colonization parameters were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. The wtOMVs and OMVs with wtCjaA overexpression were found to confer significant protection of chicken against C. jejuni (p = 0.03 and p = 0.013, respectively) in comparison to PBS controls and are promising candidates for further in ovo vaccine development.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 11: 145, 2015 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland, lymph nodes, or oral cavity in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are common in captive animals. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols have not yet been established for the African pygmy hedgehog. Thus, surgical resection is the current treatment of choice in this species. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old male African pygmy hedgehog showed multiple erythematous, round small tumors located in the oral cavity, on both sides of maxilla. The treatment of choice was surgical resection of tumors using a surgical knife under general anesthesia. Excised neoplastic lesions were diagnosed as peripheral odontogenic fibroma by histopathology. Six months after surgery relapse of tumors in the oral cavity was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment adopted in this case report is safe for the patient and provides the best solution for mild proliferative lesions of the oral cavity. To our knowledge this is the first report of surgical resection of oral tumors (peripheral odontogenic fibroma) in the African pygmy hedgehog.


Assuntos
Fibroma/veterinária , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Tumores Odontogênicos/veterinária , Animais , Fibroma/patologia , Fibroma/cirurgia , Masculino , Tumores Odontogênicos/patologia , Tumores Odontogênicos/cirurgia
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