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1.
J Value Inq ; : 1-2, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012846
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5261, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067417

RESUMO

Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) captures the free energy from oxidising NADH and reducing ubiquinone to drive protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane and power oxidative phosphorylation. Recent cryo-EM analyses have produced near-complete models of the mammalian complex, but leave the molecular principles of its long-range energy coupling mechanism open to debate. Here, we describe the 3.0-Å resolution cryo-EM structure of complex I from mouse heart mitochondria with a substrate-like inhibitor, piericidin A, bound in the ubiquinone-binding active site. We combine our structural analyses with both functional and computational studies to demonstrate competitive inhibitor binding poses and provide evidence that two inhibitor molecules bind end-to-end in the long substrate binding channel. Our findings reveal information about the mechanisms of inhibition and substrate reduction that are central for understanding the principles of energy transduction in mammalian complex I.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy to supply thyroid hormones critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Iodine insufficiency may result in poorer cognitive or child educational outcomes but current evidence is sparse and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the association between maternal iodine status and child educational outcomes. METHODS: Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and iodine/creatinine ratios (I:Cr) were measured in 6971 mothers at 26-28 weeks' gestation participating in the Born in Bradford cohort. Maternal iodine status was examined in relation to child school achievement (early years foundation stage (EYFS), phonics, and Key Stage 1 (KS1)), other learning outcomes, social and behavioural difficulties, and sensorimotor control in 5745 children aged 4-7 years. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) UIC was 76 µg/L (46, 120), and I:Cr was 83 µg/g (59, 121). Overall, there was no strong or consistent evidence to support associations between UIC or I:Cr and neurodevelopmental outcomes. For instance, predicted EYFS and phonics scores (primary outcomes) at the 25th vs 75th I:Cr percentiles (99% confidence intervals) were similar, with no evidence of associations: EYFS scores were 32 (99% CI 31, 33) and 33 (99% CI 32, 34), and phonics scores were 34 (99% CI 33, 35) and 35 (99% CI 34, 36), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest single study of its kind, there was little evidence of detrimental neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born to pregnant women with iodine insufficiency as defined by World Health Organization-outlined thresholds. Alternative functional biomarkers for iodine status in pregnancy and focused assessment of other health outcomes may provide additional insight.

6.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 46(4): 314, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868335
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathologic features of 62 cases of central odontogenic fibroma (COdF). STUDY DESIGN: Clinical and radiographic data were collected from the records of 13 oral pathology laboratories. All cases were microscopically reviewed, considering the current World Health Organization classification of tumors and were classified according to histopathologic features. RESULTS: There were 43 females and 19 males (average age 33.9 years; range 8-63 years). Clinically, COdF lesions appeared as asymptomatic swellings, occurring similarly in the maxilla (n = 33) and the mandible (n = 29); 9 cases exhibited palatal depression. Imaging revealed well-defined, interradicular unilocular (n = 27), and multilocular (n = 12) radiolucencies, with displacement of contiguous teeth (55%) and root resorption (46.4%). Microscopically, classic features of epithelial-rich (n = 33), amyloid (n = 10), associated giant cell lesion (n = 7), ossifying (n = 6), epithelial-poor (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3) variants were seen. Langerhans cells were highlighted by CD1a staining in 17 cases. Most patients underwent conservative surgical treatments, with 1 patient experiencing recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest clinicopathologic study of COdF. Most cases appeared as locally aggressive lesions located in tooth-bearing areas in middle-aged women. Inactive-appearing odontogenic epithelium is usually observed within a fibrous/fibromyxoid stroma, occasionally exhibiting amyloid deposits, multinucleated giant cells, or granular cells.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001652, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the safety and efficacy of cabozantinib and nivolumab (CaboNivo) and CaboNivo plus ipilimumab (CaboNivoIpi) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) and other genitourinary (GU) malignances. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received escalating doses of CaboNivo or CaboNivoIpi. The primary objective was to establish a recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DoR), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were enrolled at eight dose levels with a median follow-up time of 44.6 months; data cutoff was January 20, 2020. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 75% and 87% of patients treated with CaboNivo and CaboNivoIpi, respectively, and included fatigue (17% and 10%, respectively), diarrhea (4% and 7%, respectively), and hypertension (21% and 10%, respectively); grade 3 or 4 immune-related AEs included hepatitis (0% and 13%, respectively) and colitis (0% and 7%, respectively). The RP2D was cabozantinib 40 mg/d plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg for CaboNivo and cabozantinib 40 mg/d, nivolumab 3 mg/kg, and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg for CaboNivoIpi. ORR was 30.6% (95% CI, 20.0% to 47.5%) for all patients and 38.5% (95% CI, 13.9% to 68.4%) for patients with mUC. Median DoR was 21.0 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 24.1 months) for all patients and not reached for patients with mUC. Median PFS was 5.1 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 6.9 months) for all patients and 12.8 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 24.1 months) for patients with mUC. Median OS was 12.6 months (95% CI, 6.9 to 18.8 months) for all patients and 25.4 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 41.6 months) for patients with mUC. CONCLUSION: CaboNivo and CaboNivoIpi demonstrated manageable toxicities with durable responses and encouraging survival in patients with mUC and other GU tumors. Multiple phase II and III trials are ongoing for these combinations.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 88-94, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether blocking multiple points of the angiogenesis pathway by addition of sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor against VEGFR2/3, Raf, c-Kit, and PDGFR, to bevacizumab would yield clinical activity in ovarian cancer (OvCa). METHODS: This phase II study tested bevacizumab plus sorafenib in two cohorts; bevacizumab-naïve and bevacizumab-exposed patients. Bevacizumab (5 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks) was given with sorafenib 200 mg bid 5 days-on/2 days-off. The primary objective was response rate using a Simon two-stage optimal design. Progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity were the secondary endpoints. Exploratory correlative studies included plasma cytokine concentrations, tissue proteomics and dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). RESULTS: Between March 2007 and August 2012, 54 women were enrolled, 41 bevacizumab-naive and 13 bevacizumab-prior, with median 5 (2-9) and 6 (5-9) prior systemic therapies, respectively. Nine of 35 (26%) evaluable bevacizumab-naive patients attained partial responses (PR), and 18 had stable disease (SD) ≥ 4 months. No responses were seen in the bevacizumab-prior group and 7 (54%) patients had SD ≥ 4 months, including one exceptional responder with SD of 27 months. The overall median PFS was 5.5 months (95%CI: 4.0-6.8 months). Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events (≥5%) included hypertension (17/54 [31%]; grade 3 in 16 patients and grade 4 in one patient) and venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (5/54 [9%]; grade 3 in 4 patients and grade 4 in one patient). Pretreatment low IL8 concentration was associated with PFS ≥ 4 months (p = .031). CONCLUSIONS: The bevacizumab and sorafenib combination did not meet the pre-specified primary endpoint although some clinical activity was seen in heavily-pretreated bevacizumab-naive OvCa patients with platinum-resistant disease. Anticipated class toxicities required close monitoring and dose modifications.

10.
Environ Int ; 144: 106038, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early onset and high prevalence of allergic diseases result in high individual and socio-economic burdens. Several studies provide evidence for possible effects of environmental factors on allergic diseases, but these are mainly single-exposure studies. The exposome provides a novel holistic approach by simultaneously studying a large set of exposures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and childhood environmental exposures and allergy-related outcomes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analyses of associations between 90 prenatal and 107 childhood exposures and allergy-related outcomes (last 12 months: rhinitis and itchy rash; ever: doctor-diagnosed eczema and food allergy) in 6-11 years old children (n = 1270) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort were performed. Initially, we used an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering the exposures independently, followed by a deletion-substitution-addition selection (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously. All the exposure variables selected in the DSA were included in a final multi-exposure model using binomial general linear model (GLM). RESULTS: In ExWAS, no exposures were associated with the outcomes after correction for multiple comparison. In multi-exposure models for prenatal exposures, lower distance of residence to nearest road and higher di-iso-nonyl phthalate level were associated with increased risk of rhinitis, and particulate matter absorbance (PMabs) was associated with a decreased risk. Furthermore, traffic density on nearest road was associated with increased risk of itchy rash and diethyl phthalate with a reduced risk. DSA selected no associations of childhood exposures, or between prenatal exposures and eczema or food allergy. DISCUSSION: This first comprehensive and systematic analysis of many environmental exposures suggests that prenatal exposure to traffic-related variables, PMabs and phthalates are associated with rhinitis and itchy rash.

11.
Hepatology ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread and persistent pollutants that have been shown to have hepatotoxic effects in animal models. However, human evidence is scarce. We evaluated how prenatal exposure to PFAS associates with established serum biomarkers of liver injury and alterations in serum metabolome in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used data from 1,105 mothers and their children (median age, 8.2 years; interquartile range, 6.6-9.1) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort (consisting of six existing population-based birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and perfluoroundecanoate in maternal blood. We assessed concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase in child serum. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we found that higher exposure to PFAS during pregnancy was associated with higher liver enzyme levels in children. We also measured child serum metabolomics through a targeted assay and found significant perturbations in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism associated with prenatal PFAS. A latent variable analysis identified a profile of children at high risk of liver injury (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.92) that was characterized by high prenatal exposure to PFAS and increased serum levels of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine), and glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine [PC] aa C36:1 and Lyso-PC a C18:1). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental exposure to PFAS can contribute to pediatric liver injury.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6551-6559, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700916

RESUMO

Layered two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) halide perovskites are an intriguing class of semiconductors being explored for their linear and nonlinear optical and ferroelectric properties. Second harmonic generation (SHG) is commonly used to screen for noncentrosymmetric and ferroelectric materials. However, SHG measurements of perovskites can be obscured by their intense multiphoton photoluminescence (mPL). Here, we apply multidimensional harmonic generation as a method to eliminate the complications from mPL. By scanning and correlating both excitation and emission frequencies, we unambiguously assess whether a material supports SHG by examining if an emission feature scales as twice the excitation frequency. Measurements of a series of n = 2, 3 RP perovskites reveal that, contrary to previous belief, n-butylammonium (BA) RP perovskites are not SHG-active and thus centrosymmetric, but RP perovskites with phenylethylammonium (PEA) and 2-thiophenemethylammonium (TPMA) spacer cations display SHG. This work establishes multidimensional harmonic generation as a definitive method to measure SHG in halide perovskites.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): 1099-1109, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is a multikinase inhibitor of MET, VEGFR, AXL, and RET, which also has an effect on the tumour immune microenvironment by decreasing regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this study, we examined the activity of cabozantinib in patients with metastatic platinum-refractory urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: This study was an open-label, single-arm, three-cohort phase 2 trial done at the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA). Eligible patients were 18 years or older, had histologically confirmed urothelial carcinoma or rare genitourinary tract histologies, Karnofsky performance scale index of 60% or higher, and documented disease progression after at least one previous line of platinum-based chemotherapy (platinum-refractory). Cohort one included patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma with measurable disease as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. Two additional cohorts that enrolled in parallel (patients with bone-only urothelial carcinoma metastases and patients with rare histologies of the genitourinary tract) were exploratory. Patients received cabozantinib 60 mg orally once daily in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate by RECIST in cohort one. Response was assessed in all patients who met the eligibility criteria and who received at least 8 weeks of therapy. All patients who received at least one dose of cabozantinib were included in the safety analysis. This completed study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01688999. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2012, and Oct, 20, 2015, 68 patients were enrolled on the study (49 in cohort one, six in cohort two, and 13 in cohort three). All patients received at least one dose of cabozantinib. The median follow-up was 61·2 months (IQR 53·8-70·0) for the 57 patients evaluable for response. In the 42 evaluable patients in cohort one, there was one complete response and seven partial responses (objective response rate 19%, 95% CI 9-34). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were fatigue (six [9%] patients), hypertension (five [7%]), proteinuria (four [6%]), and hypophosphataemia (four [6%]). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Cabozantinib has single-agent clinical activity in patients with heavily pretreated, platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma with measurable disease and bone metastases and is generally well tolerated. Cabozantinib has innate and adaptive immunomodulatory properties providing a rationale for combining cabozantinib with immunotherapeutic strategies. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute Intramural Program and the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program.


Assuntos
Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 709-724, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705500

RESUMO

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30 years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new biological insights and important impact for health from early life onwards. The impact of these cohorts and their data could be further increased by combining data from different cohorts. Combining data will lead to the possibility of identifying smaller effect estimates, and the opportunity to better identify risk groups and risk factors leading to disease across the lifecycle across countries. Also, it enables research on better causal understanding and modelling of life course health trajectories. The EU Child Cohort Network, established by the Horizon2020-funded LifeCycle Project, brings together nineteen pregnancy and childhood cohorts, together including more than 250,000 children and their parents. A large set of variables has been harmonised and standardized across these cohorts. The harmonized data are kept within each institution and can be accessed by external researchers through a shared federated data analysis platform using the R-based platform DataSHIELD, which takes relevant national and international data regulations into account. The EU Child Cohort Network has an open character. All protocols for data harmonization and setting up the data analysis platform are available online. The EU Child Cohort Network creates great opportunities for researchers to use data from different cohorts, during and beyond the LifeCycle Project duration. It also provides a novel model for collaborative research in large research infrastructures with individual-level data. The LifeCycle Project will translate results from research using the EU Child Cohort Network into recommendations for targeted prevention strategies to improve health trajectories for current and future generations by optimizing their earliest phases of life.

16.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 46(3): 236, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665232
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645067

RESUMO

The present study aims to: a) systematically map the of birth cohort studies from the South Asian region b) examine the major research foci and landmark contributions from these cohorts using reproducible scientometric techniques and c) offer recommendations on establishing new birth cohorts in Pakistan, building upon the strengths, weaknesses and gaps of previous cohorts. Bibliographic records for a total of 260 articles, published during through December 2018, were retrieved from the Web of Science (core database). All data were analysed using Microsoft Excel (2013), Web of Science platform and CiteSpace. A series of network analysis were then run for each time-period using the link reduction method and pathfinder network scaling. The co-cited articles were clustered into their homogeneous research clusters. The clusters were named using the Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) method that utilized author keywords as source of names for these clusters. The scientometric analyses of original research output from these birth cohorts also paint a pessimistic landscape in Pakistan- where Pakistani sites for birth cohorts contributed only 31 publications; a majority of these utilized the MAL-ED birth cohort data. A majority of original studies were published from birth cohorts in India (156), Bangladesh (63), and Nepal (15). Out of these contributions, 31 studies reported data from multiple countries. The three major birth cohorts include prospective and multi-country MAL-ED birth cohort and The Pakistan Early Childhood Development Scale Up Trial, and a retrospective Maternal and infant nutrition intervention cohort. In addition to these, a few small-scale birth cohorts reported findings pertaining to neonatal sepsis, intrauterine growth retardation and its effects on linear growth of children and environmental enteropathy.


Assuntos
Parto , Ciência , Bibliometria , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Cooperativo , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Paquistão , Publicações , Pesquisa
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67009, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical and nonchemical environmental exposures are increasingly suspected to influence the development of obesity, especially during early life, but studies mostly consider single exposure groups. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to systematically assess the association between a wide array of early-life environmental exposures and childhood obesity, using an exposome-wide approach. METHODS: The HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) study measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and body fat mass in 1,301 children from six European birth cohorts age 6-11 y. We estimated 77 prenatal exposures and 96 childhood exposures (cross-sectionally), including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green spaces, tobacco smoking, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants (persistent organic pollutants, metals, phthalates, phenols, and pesticides). We used an exposure-wide association study (ExWAS) to screen all exposure-outcome associations independently and used the deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) variable selection algorithm to build a final multiexposure model. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was 28.8%. Maternal smoking was the only prenatal exposure variable associated with higher child BMI (z-score increase of 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.48, for active vs. no smoking). For childhood exposures, the multiexposure model identified particulate and nitrogen dioxide air pollution inside the home, urine cotinine levels indicative of secondhand smoke exposure, and residence in more densely populated areas and in areas with fewer facilities to be associated with increased child BMI. Child blood levels of copper and cesium were associated with higher BMI, and levels of organochlorine pollutants, cobalt, and molybdenum were associated with lower BMI. Similar results were found for the other adiposity outcomes. DISCUSSION: This first comprehensive and systematic analysis of many suspected environmental obesogens strengthens evidence for an association of smoking, air pollution exposure, and characteristics of the built environment with childhood obesity risk. Cross-sectional biomarker results may suffer from reverse causality bias, whereby obesity status influenced the biomarker concentration. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5975.

20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 132, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe iodine insufficiency in pregnancy has significant consequences, but there is inadequate evidence to indicate what constitutes mild or moderate insufficiency, in terms of observed detrimental effects on pregnancy or birth outcomes. A limited number of studies have examined iodine status and birth outcomes, finding inconsistent evidence for specific outcomes. METHODS: Maternal iodine status was estimated from spot urine samples collected at 26-28 weeks' gestation from 6971 mothers in the Born in Bradford birth cohort. Associations with outcomes were examined for both urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodine-to-creatinine ratio (I:Cr). Outcomes assessed included customised birthweight (primary outcome), birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birthweight, head circumference and APGAR score. RESULTS: There was a small positive association between I:Cr and birthweight in adjusted analyses. For a typical participant, the predicted birthweight centile at the 25th percentile of I:Cr (59 µg/g) was 2.7 percentage points lower than that at the 75th percentile of I:Cr (121 µg/g) (99% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 4.6), birthweight was predicted to be 41 g lower (99% CI 13 to 69) and the predicted probability of SGA was 1.9 percentage points higher (99% CI 0.0 to 3.7). There was no evidence of associations using UIC or other birth outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, ultrasound growth measures or congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION: Lower maternal iodine status was associated with lower birthweight and greater probability of SGA. Whilst small, the effect size for lower iodine on birthweight is comparable to environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Iodine insufficiency is avoidable, and strategies to avoid deficiency in women of reproductive age should be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03552341. Registered on June 11, 2018.

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