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1.
Sleep Med ; 79: 134-144, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a risk period for the development of mental illness, as well as a time for pronounced change in sleep behaviour. While prior studies, including several meta-analyses show a relationship between sleep and depressive symptoms, there were many inconsistences found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between subjective sleep and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a literature search that yielded forty-nine recent studies (2014-2020) with adolescent samples aged 9 to 25-year-olds, and more than double the sample size of previous meta-analyses (N = 318,256). RESULTS: In a series of meta-analyses, we show that while several common categories of subjective sleep are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents, the strength of this relationship varies. Measures of sleep perception: poor sleep quality (r = 0.41), insomnia (r = 0.37), sleep disturbances (r = 0.36), wake after sleep onset (r = 0.31), and daytime sleepiness (r = 0.30) correlated more strongly with depressive symptoms, than measures of sleep behaviour: sleep latency (r = 0.22), and sleep duration (r = -0.19). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in studies of depressive symptoms it may be important to assess an adolescent's perception about their sleep, in addition to their sleep/wake behaviours.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484127

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Circulating concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) are partly heritable traits. Recent studies have advanced knowledge of their genetic architecture. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), may be important in pituitary-thyroid axis regulation and action, but data are limited. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel associations between fT3, fT4, and TSH and differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in the genome in subjects from 2 Australian cohorts. METHOD: We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of thyroid function parameters and DNAm using participants from: Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (median age 14.2 years, n = 563) and the Raine Study (median age 17.0 years, n = 863). Plasma fT3, fT4, and TSH were measured by immunoassay. DNAm levels in blood were assessed using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Analyses employed generalized linear mixed models to test association between DNAm and thyroid function parameters. Data from the 2 cohorts were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 2 DMPs with epigenome-wide significant (P < 2.4E-7) associations with TSH and 6 with fT3, including cg00049440 in KLF9 (P = 2.88E-10) and cg04173586 in DOT1L (P = 2.09E-16), both genes known to be induced by fT3. All DMPs had a positive association between DNAm and TSH and a negative association between DNAm and fT3. There were no DMPs significantly associated with fT4. We identified 23 differentially methylated regions associated with fT3, fT4, or TSH. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated associations between blood-based DNAm and both fT3 and TSH. This may provide insight into mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone action and/or pituitary-thyroid axis function.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6285, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293549

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.

4.
Collabra Psychol ; 6(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073161

RESUMO

Early investigations of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction with regards to health have been promising, but to date, there have been no systematic investigations of this interaction that account for the various personality measurement instruments, varying populations, or aspects of health. The current study - the second of three - uses a coordinated analysis approach to test the impact of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction on the prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions. Using 15 pre-existing longitudinal studies (N > 49,375), we found that conscientiousness did not moderate the relationship between neuroticism and having hypertension (OR = 1.00,95%CI[0.98,1.02]), diabetes (OR = 1.02[0.99,1.04]), or heart disease (OR = 0.99[0.97,1.01]). Similarly, we found that conscientiousness did not moderate the prospective relationship between neuroticism and onset of hypertension (OR = 0.98,[0.95,1.01]), diabetes (OR = 0.99[0.94,1.05]), or heart disease (OR = 0.98[0.94,1.03]). Heterogeneity of effect sizes was largely nonsignificant, with one exception, indicating that the effects are consistent between datasets. Overall, we conclude that there is no evidence that healthy neuroticism, operationalized as the conscientiousness by neuroticism interaction, buffers against chronic conditions.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4799, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968074

RESUMO

Genetic association studies have identified 44 common genome-wide significant risk loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). However, LOAD genetic architecture and prediction are unclear. Here we estimate the optimal P-threshold (Poptimal) of a genetic risk score (GRS) for prediction of LOAD in three independent datasets comprising 676 cases and 35,675 family history proxy cases. We show that the discriminative ability of GRS in LOAD prediction is maximised when selecting a small number of SNPs. Both simulation results and direct estimation indicate that the number of causal common SNPs for LOAD may be less than 100, suggesting LOAD is more oligogenic than polygenic. The best GRS explains approximately 75% of SNP-heritability, and individuals in the top decile of GRS have ten-fold increased odds when compared to those in the bottom decile. In addition, 14 variants are identified that contribute to both LOAD risk and age at onset of LOAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 510, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934300

RESUMO

Cortical folds help drive the parcellation of the human cortex into functionally specific regions. Variations in the length, depth, width, and surface area of these sulcal landmarks have been associated with disease, and may be genetically mediated. Before estimating the heritability of sulcal variation, the extent to which these metrics can be reliably extracted from in-vivo MRI must be established. Using four independent test-retest datasets, we found high reliability across the brain (intraclass correlation interquartile range: 0.65-0.85). Heritability estimates were derived for three family-based cohorts using variance components analysis and pooled (total N > 3000); the overall sulcal heritability pattern was correlated to that derived for a large population cohort (N > 9000) calculated using genomic complex trait analysis. Overall, sulcal width was the most heritable metric, and earlier forming sulci showed higher heritability. The inter-hemispheric genetic correlations were high, yet select sulci showed incomplete pleiotropy, suggesting hemisphere-specific genetic influences.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 4062-4076, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687259

RESUMO

The recent availability of large-scale neuroimaging cohorts facilitates deeper characterisation of the relationship between phenotypic and brain architecture variation in humans. Here, we investigate the association (previously coined morphometricity) of a phenotype with all 652,283 vertex-wise measures of cortical and subcortical morphology in a large data set from the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 9,497 for discovery, N = 4,323 for replication) and the Human Connectome Project (N = 1,110). We used a linear mixed model with the brain measures of individuals fitted as random effects with covariance relationships estimated from the imaging data. We tested 167 behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric or lifestyle phenotypes and found significant morphometricity for 58 phenotypes (spanning substance use, blood assay results, education or income level, diet, depression, and cognition domains), 23 of which replicated in the UKB replication set or the HCP. We then extended the model for a bivariate analysis to estimate grey-matter correlation between phenotypes, which revealed that body size (i.e., height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage) could account for a substantial proportion of the morphometricity (confirmed using a conditional analysis), providing possible insight into previous MRI case-control results for psychiatric disorders where case status is associated with body mass index. Our LMM framework also allowed to predict some of the associated phenotypes from the vertex-wise measures, in two independent samples. Finally, we demonstrated additional new applications of our approach (a) region of interest (ROI) analysis that retain the vertex-wise complexity; (b) comparison of the information retained by different MRI processings.

9.
Elife ; 92020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697195

RESUMO

The critical role of blood lipids in a broad range of health and disease states is well recognised but less explored is the interplay of genetics and environment within the broader blood lipidome. We examined heritability of the plasma lipidome among healthy older-aged twins (75 monozygotic/55 dizygotic pairs) enrolled in the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) and explored corresponding gene expression and DNA methylation associations. 27/209 lipids (13.3%) detected by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were significantly heritable under the classical ACE twin model (h2 = 0.28-0.59), which included ceramides (Cer) and triglycerides (TG). Relative to non-significantly heritable TGs, heritable TGs had a greater number of associations with gene transcripts, not directly associated with lipid metabolism, but with immune function, signalling and transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide average DNA methylation (GWAM) levels accounted for variability in some non-heritable lipids. We reveal a complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences on the ageing plasma lipidome.

10.
Neuroimage ; 215: 116781, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278894

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a brain region critical for learning and memory, and is also implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders that show sex differences in prevalence, symptom expression, and mean age of onset. On average, males have larger hippocampal volumes than females, but findings are inconclusive after adjusting for overall brain size. Although the hippocampus is a heterogenous structure, few studies have focused on sex differences in the hippocampal subfields - with little consensus on whether there are regionally specific sex differences in the hippocampus after adjusting for brain size, or whether it is important to adjust for total hippocampal volume (HPV). Here, using two young adult cohorts from the Queensland Twin IMaging study (QTIM; N â€‹= â€‹727) and the Human Connectome Project (HCP; N â€‹= â€‹960), we examined differences between males and females in the volumes of 12 hippocampal subfields, extracted using FreeSurfer 6.0. After adjusting the subfield volumes for either HPV or brain size (brain segmentation volume (BSV)) using four controlling methods (allometric, covariate, residual and matching), we estimated the percentage difference of the sex effect (males versus females) and Cohen's d using hierarchical general linear models. Males had larger volumes compared to females in the parasubiculum (up to 6.04%; Cohen's d â€‹= â€‹0.46) and fimbria (up to 8.75%; d â€‹= â€‹0.54) after adjusting for HPV. These sex differences were robust across the two cohorts and multiple controlling methods, though within cohort effect sizes were larger for the matched approach, due to the smaller sub-sample. Additional sex effects were identified in the HCP cohort and combined (QTIM and HCP) sample (hippocampal fissure (up to 6.79%), presubiculum (up to 3.08%), and hippocampal tail (up to -0.23%)). In contrast, no sex differences were detected for the volume of the cornu ammonis (CA)2/3, CA4, Hippocampus-Amygdala Transition Area (HATA), or the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (GCDG). These findings show that, independent of differences in HPV, there are regionally specific sex differences in the hippocampus, which may be most prominent in the fimbria and parasubiculum. Further, given sex differences were less consistent across cohorts after controlling for BSV, adjusting for HPV rather than BSV may benefit future studies. This work may help in disentangling sex effects, and provide a better understanding of the implications of sex differences for behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders.

11.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(7): 4121-4139, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198502

RESUMO

We have carried out meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (n = 23 784) of the first two principal components (PCs) that group together cortical regions with shared variance in their surface area. PC1 (global) captured variations of most regions, whereas PC2 (visual) was specific to the primary and secondary visual cortices. We identified a total of 18 (PC1) and 17 (PC2) independent loci, which were replicated in another 25 746 individuals. The loci of the global PC1 included those associated previously with intracranial volume and/or general cognitive function, such as MAPT and IGF2BP1. The loci of the visual PC2 included DAAM1, a key player in the planar-cell-polarity pathway. We then tested associations with occupational aptitudes and, as predicted, found that the global PC1 was associated with General Learning Ability, and the visual PC2 was associated with the Form Perception aptitude. These results suggest that interindividual variations in global and regional development of the human cerebral cortex (and its molecular architecture) cascade-albeit in a very limited manner-to behaviors as complex as the choice of one's occupation.

13.
Neuroimage ; 212: 116691, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126298

RESUMO

It is well established that higher cognitive ability is associated with larger brain size. However, individual variation in intelligence exists despite brain size and recent studies have shown that a simple unifactorial view of the neurobiology underpinning cognitive ability is probably unrealistic. Educational attainment (EA) is often used as a proxy for cognitive ability since it is easily measured, resulting in large sample sizes and, consequently, sufficient statistical power to detect small associations. This study investigates the association between three global (total surface area (TSA), intra-cranial volume (ICV) and average cortical thickness) and 34 regional cortical measures with educational attainment using a polygenic scoring (PGS) approach. Analyses were conducted on two independent target samples of young twin adults with neuroimaging data, from Australia (N â€‹= â€‹1097) and the USA (N â€‹= â€‹723), and found that higher EA-PGS were significantly associated with larger global brain size measures, ICV and TSA (R2 â€‹= â€‹0.006 and 0.016 respectively, p â€‹< â€‹0.001) but not average thickness. At the regional level, we identified seven cortical regions-in the frontal and temporal lobes-that showed variation in surface area and average cortical thickness over-and-above the global effect. These regions have been robustly implicated in language, memory, visual recognition and cognitive processing. Additionally, we demonstrate that these identified brain regions partly mediate the association between EA-PGS and cognitive test performance. Altogether, these findings advance our understanding of the neurobiology that underpins educational attainment and cognitive ability, providing focus points for future research.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no large, longitudinal studies of thyroid function across adolescence. The aims of this study were to examine longitudinal trends in thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) and determine age-specific reference ranges. METHODS: Thyroid function was assessed in 3415 participants in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 12, 14, and 16, using the Abbott ARCHITECT immunoassay. Longitudinal analyses were adjusted for body mass index and puberty. RESULTS: In girls, mean fT4 (± SE) increased between age 12 and 14 (by 0.30 ±â€…0.08 pmol/L; P < 0.001), while remaining unchanged in boys; from age 14 to 16, fT4 increased in both girls (by 0.42 ±â€…0.07 pmol/L; P < 0.001) and boys (0.64 ±â€…0.07 pmol/L, P < 0.001). There was a slight increase in fT3 from age 12 to 14 years in girls (by 0.07 ±â€…0.03 pmol/L; P = 0.042), with a more marked increase in boys (0.29 ±â€…0.03 pmol/L; P < 0.001), followed by a decrease from age 14 to 16 in both sexes (girls, by 0.53 ±â€…0.02 pmol/L; P < 0.001; boys, by 0.62 ±â€…0.03 pmol/L; P < 0.001). From age 12 to 14, TSH showed no significant change in girls or boys, then levels increased from age 14 to 16 in both sexes (in girls, by 4.9%, 95% CI: 2.4%-10.3%, P = 0.020; in boys, by 7.2%, 95% CI: 3.0%-11.6%, P = 0.001). Reference ranges differed substantially from adults, particularly for fT4 and fT3. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid function tests in adolescents display complex, sexually dimorphic patterns. Implementation of adolescence-specific reference ranges may be appropriate.

15.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(6): 345-357, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509317

RESUMO

The '16Up' study conducted at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute from January 2014 to December 2018 aimed to examine the physical and mental health of young Australian twins aged 16-18 years (N = 876; 371 twin pairs and 18 triplet sets). Measurements included online questionnaires covering physical and mental health as well as information and communication technology (ICT) use, actigraphy, sleep diaries and hair samples to determine cortisol concentrations. Study participants generally rated themselves as being in good physical (79%) and mental (73%) health and reported lower rates of psychological distress and exposure to alcohol, tobacco products or other substances than previously reported for this age group in the Australian population. Daily or near-daily online activity was almost universal among study participants, with no differences noted between males and females in terms of frequency or duration of internet access. Patterns of ICT use in this sample indicated that the respondents were more likely to use online information sources for researching physical health issues than for mental health or substance use issues, and that they generally reported partial levels of satisfaction with the mental health information they found online. This suggests that internet-based mental health resources can be readily accessed by adolescent Australians, and their computer literacy augurs well for future access to online health resources. In combination with other data collected as part of the ongoing Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study, the 16Up project provides a valuable resource for the longitudinal investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation in a variety of human traits.

16.
Neuroimage ; 203: 116206, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539591

RESUMO

Participant movement can deleteriously affect MR image quality. Further, for the visualization and segmentation of small anatomical structures, there is a need to improve image quality, specifically signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), by acquiring multiple anatomical scans consecutively. We aimed to ameliorate movement artefacts and increase SNR in a high-resolution turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence acquired thrice using non-linear realignment in order to improve segmentation consistency of the hippocampus subfields. We assessed the method in 29 young healthy participants, 11 Motor Neuron Disease patients, and 11 age matched controls at 7T, and 24 healthy adolescents at 3T. Results show improved image segmentation of the hippocampus subfields when comparing template-based segmentations with individual segmentations with Dice overlaps N = 75; ps < 0.001 (Friedman's test) and higher sharpness ps < 0.001 in non-linearly realigned scans as compared to linearly, and arithmetically averaged scans.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Artefatos , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído
17.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(8): 2805-2821, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428865

RESUMO

Comparing estimates of the amount of genetic and environmental variance for different brain structures may elucidate differences in the genetic architecture or developmental constraints of individual brain structures. However, most studies compare estimates of relative genetic (heritability) and environmental variance in brain structure, which do not reflect differences in absolute variance between brain regions. Here we used a population sample of young adult twins and singleton siblings of twins (n = 791; M = 23 years, Queensland Twin IMaging study) to estimate the absolute genetic and environmental variance, standardised by the phenotypic mean, in the size of cortical, subcortical, and ventricular brain structures. Mean-standardised genetic variance differed widely across structures [23.5-fold range 0.52% (hippocampus) to 12.28% (lateral ventricles)], but the range of estimates within cortical, subcortical, or ventricular structures was more moderate (two to fivefold range). There was no association between mean-standardised and relative measures of genetic variance (i.e., heritability) in brain structure volumes. We found similar results in an independent sample (n = 1075, M = 29 years, Human Connectome Project). These findings open important new lines of enquiry: namely, understanding the bases of these variance patterns, and their implications regarding the genetic architecture, evolution, and development of the human brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Adulto , Conectoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encurtamento do Telômero
19.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333444

RESUMO

Adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) is necessary to maintain brain metabolism and function. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging MRI technique offering a non-invasive and reliable quantification of CBF. The genetic basis of CBF has not been well documented, and one approach to investigate this is to examine its heritability. The current study aimed to examine the heritability of CBF using ASL data from a cohort of community-dwelling older twins (41 monozygotic (MZ) and 25 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs; age range, 65-93 years; 56.4% female). The results showed that the cortex had higher CBF than subcortical gray matter (GM) regions, and CBF in the GM regions of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory was lower than that of the middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. After accounting for the effects of age, sex and scanner, moderate heritability was identified for global CBF (h 2 = 0.611; 95% CI = 0.380-0.761), as well as for cortical and subcortical GM and the GM in the major arterial territories (h 2 = 0.500-0.612). Strong genetic correlations (GCs) were found between CBF in subcortical and cortical GM regions, as well as among the three arterial territories (ACA, MCA, PCA), suggesting a largely convergent genetic control for the CBF in brain GM. The moderate heritability of CBF warrants future investigations to uncover the genetic variants and genes that regulate CBF.

20.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 16(5): 1508-1514, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135366

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) link full genome data to a handful of traits. However, in neuroimaging studies, there is an almost unlimited number of traits that can be extracted for full image-wide big data analyses. Large populations are needed to achieve the necessary power to detect statistically significant effects, emphasizing the need to pool data across multiple studies. Neuroimaging consortia, e.g., ENIGMA and CHARGE, are now analyzing MRI data from over 30,000 individuals. Distributed processing protocols extract harmonized features at each site, and pool together only the cohort statistics using meta analysis to avoid data sharing. To date, such MRI projects have focused on single measures such as hippocampal volume, yet voxelwise analyses (e.g., tensor-based morphometry; TBM) may help better localize statistical effects. This can lead to $10^{13}$1013 tests for GWAS and become underpowered. We developed an analytical framework for multi-site TBM by performing multi-channel registration to cohort-specific templates. Our results highlight the reliability of the method and the added power over alternative options while preserving single site specificity and opening the doors for well-powered image-wide genome-wide discoveries.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
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