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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of pregestational BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum with four patterns of weight change during the first year after delivery: postpartum weight retention (PPWR), postpartum weight gain (PPWG), postpartum weight retention + gain (PPWR + WG) and return to pregestational weight. DESIGN: In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, we categorised postpartum weight change into four patterns using pregestational weight and weights at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. We evaluated their associations with pregestational BMI, GWG and breast-feeding using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95 % CI. SETTING: Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort. RESULTS: Five hundred women were included (53 % of the cohort). Most women returned to their pregestational weight by 1 year postpartum (57 %); 8 % experienced PPWR, 14 % PPWG and 21 % PPWR + WG. Compared with normal weight, pregestational overweight (RRR 2·5, 95 % CI 1·3, 4·8) and obesity (RRR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·7) were associated with a higher risk of PPWG. Exclusive breast-feeding, compared with no breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of PPWR (RRR 0·3, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·9). Excessive GWG, compared with adequate, was associated with a higher risk of PPWR (RRR 3·3, 95 % CI 1·6, 6·9) and PPWR + WG (RRR 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·2). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting women with pregestational overweight or obesity and excessive GWG, as well as promoting breast-feeding, may impact the pattern of weight change after delivery and long-term women's health.

2.
Environ Res ; 192: 110341, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposures may affect processes that underlie offspring cardiometabolic health, but findings from studies examining these associations are conflicting. We examined associations between biomarkers of phthalate exposures during pregnancy with child lipid and adipokine levels. METHODS: Data were from 463 mother-child pairs in the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico City. We quantified 15 phthalate metabolites in 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal urine samples and created an average pregnancy measure using the geometric mean. We evaluated the 15 metabolites as nine biomarkers, including four metabolite molar sums. We measured fasting serum triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin in children at the six-year follow-up visit (mean = 6.8 years). We estimated associations using linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and weighted quantile sum (WQS) and assessed effect modification by sex. RESULTS: In BKMR and WQS models, higher concentrations of the total mixture of phthalate biomarkers were associated with lower triglycerides (ß = -3.7% [-6.5, -0.78] per 1 unit increase in WQS biomarker index) and non-HDL cholesterol (ß = -2.0 [-3.7, -0.25] ng/ml per increase in WQS biomarker index). Associations between individual biomarkers and child outcomes were largely null. We observed some evidence of effect modification by child sex for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (ß = 19.4% [1.26, 40.7] per doubling of phthalate) and monobenzyl phthalate (ß = -7.6% [-14.4, -0.23]) in girls for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Individual prenatal phthalate biomarkers were not associated with child lipid or adipokine levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, the total phthalate mixture was associated with lower child triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 358, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087698

RESUMO

The predisposition, severity, and progression of many diseases differ between males and females. Sex-related differences in susceptibility to neurotoxicant exposures may provide insight into the cause of the observed discrepancy. Early adolescence, a period of substantial structural and functional brain changes, may present a critical window of vulnerability to environmental exposures. This study aimed to examine sex-specific associations between co-exposure to multiple metals and visuospatial memory in early adolescence. Manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) were measured in blood, urine, hair, nails, and saliva of 188 participants (88 girls; 10-14 years of age). Visuospatial memory skills were assessed using a computerized maze task, the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM). Using generalized weighted quantile sum regression, we investigated sex-specific associations between the combined effect of exposure to the metal mixture and visuospatial working memory and determined the contribution of each component to the outcome. The results suggest that sex moderates the association between the metal mixture and visuospatial learning for all outcomes measured. In girls, exposure was associated with slower visuospatial learning and driven by Mn and Cu. In boys, exposure was associated with faster visuospatial learning, and driven by Cr. These results suggest that (a) the effect of metal co-exposure on learning differs in magnitude, and in the direction between sexes, and (b) early adolescence may be a sensitive developmental period for metal exposure.

4.
Toxics ; 8(4)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036323

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal associated with adverse health effects, including kidney injury or disease. The aims of this study were to estimate dietary Cd exposure during childhood, and to evaluate the association of early-life dietary Cd with biomarkers of glomerular kidney function in 9-year-old Mexican children. Our study included 601 children from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) cohort with up to five follow-up food frequency questionnaires from 1 to 9 years of age; and 480 children with measures of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and blood nitrogen urea (BUN), as well as 9-year-old estimated glomerular filtration rate. Dietary Cd was estimated through food composition tables. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the association between 1 and 9 years, cumulative dietary Cd, and each kidney parameter. Dietary Cd exposure increased with age and exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI = 2.5 µg/kg body weight) by 16-64% at all ages. Early-life dietary Cd exposure was above the TWI and we observed inverse associations between dietary Cd exposure and kidney function parameters. Additional studies are needed to assess kidney function trajectories through adolescence. Identifying preventable risk factors including environmental exposures in early life can contribute to decreasing the incidence of adult kidney disease.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97002, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the health effects of chemical mixtures has focused mainly on early life rather than adolescence, a potentially important developmental life stage. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of a metal mixture with general cognition in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near ferromanganese industry, a source of airborne metals emissions. METHODS: We measured manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) in hair, blood, urine, nails, and saliva from 635 Italian adolescents 10-14 years of age. Full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient (FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ) scores were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to estimate associations of the metal mixture with IQ. In secondary analyses, we used BKMR's hierarchical variable selection option to inform biomarker selection for Mn, Cu, and Cr. RESULTS: Median metal concentrations were as follows: hair Mn, 0.08µg/g; hair Cu, 9.6µg/g; hair Cr, 0.05µg/g; and blood Pb, 1.3µg/dL. Adjusted models revealed an inverted U-shaped association between hair Cu and VIQ, consistent with Cu as an essential nutrient that is neurotoxic in excess. At low levels of hair Cu (10th percentile, 5.4µg/g), higher concentrations (90th percentiles) of the mixture of Mn, Pb, and Cr (0.3µg/g, 2.6µg/dL, and 0.1µg/g, respectively) were associated with a 2.9 (95% CI: -5.2, -0.5)-point decrease in VIQ score, compared with median concentrations of the mixture. There was suggestive evidence of interaction between Mn and Cu. In secondary analyses, saliva Mn, hair Cu, and saliva Cr were selected as the biomarkers most strongly associated with VIQ score. DISCUSSION: Higher adolescent levels of Mn, Pb, and Cr were associated with lower IQ scores, especially at low Cu levels. Findings also support further investigation into Cu as both beneficial and toxic for neurobehavioral outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6803.

6.
Neurotoxicology ; 81: 109-115, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to air pollution has been linked with maladaptive cognitive development; however, less is known about the association between prenatal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and childhood behavior. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and behavioral development in 4-6 year old children residing in Mexico City. METHODS: We used data from 539 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Mexico City. We estimated daily PM2.5 exposure using a 1 km2 satellite-based exposure model and averaged over each trimester of pregnancy. We assessed childhood behavior at 4-6 years of age using the parent-completed Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BASC-2) composite scores and subscales. We used linear regression models to estimate change in BASC-2 T-scores with trimester specific 5-µg/m3 increases in PM2.5. All models were mutually adjusted for PM2.5 exposures during the other trimesters, maternal factors including age, education, socioeconomic status, depression, and IQ, child's age at study visit, and season. We additionally assessed sex-specific effects by including an interaction term between PM2.5 and sex. RESULTS: Higher first trimester PM2.5 exposure was associated with reduced Adaptive Skills scores (ß: -1.45, 95% CI: -2.60, -0.30). Lower scores on the Adaptive Skills composite score and subscales indicate poorer functioning. For PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester, decrements were consistent across adaptive subscale scores including Adaptability (ß: -1.51, 95% CI: -2.72, -0.30), Social Skills (ß: -1.63, 95% CI: -2.90, -0.36), and Functional Communication (ß: -1.21, 95% CI: -2.21, -0.21). The association between 1st trimester PM2.5 and depression was stronger in males than females (ß for males: 1.52, 95% CI: -0.41, 3.45; ß for females: -0.13, 95% CI: -1.99, 1.72; p-int: 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 during early pregnancy may be associated with impaired behavioral development in children, particularly for measures of adaptive skills. These results suggest that air pollution impacts behavioral domains as well as cognition, and that the timing of exposure may be critical.

7.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777999

RESUMO

Maternal stress is associated with adverse child health. Breast milk microRNAs encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in mother-infant biochemical communication during early-life programming. We leverage the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) pregnancy cohort to investigate associations between maternal stress and breast milk EV-microRNAs. Lifetime stress and negative life events (NLEs) during pregnancy were assessed using the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSCR) and the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised surveys, respectively. RNA was extracted from breast milk EVs (N = 80; collected 6.1 ± 5.9 weeks postnatally), and microRNAs were profiled using the TaqMan OpenArray Human miRNA panel. Associations between stress scores and detection (yes/no) of 173 microRNAs identified in 20-80% of samples were assessed using logistic regression; associations with expression levels of 205 EV-microRNAs identified in >50% of samples were assessed using linear regression. In adjusted models, detection of 60 and 44 EV-microRNAs was associated with higher LSCR and NLE scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Expression level of 8 and 17 EV-microRNAs was associated with LSCR and NLE scores, respectively, at our a priori criteria of p < 0.05 and |B regression|>0.2. Enriched KEGG pathways for microRNAs associated with stress scores included fatty acid metabolism and the Hippo signaling pathway. Maternal lifetime stress and NLEs during pregnancy were both associated with detection and expression level of breast milk EV-microRNAs, although associations with microRNA profiles differed between stress measures. Further research is needed to identify biological pathways impacted by associated microRNAs and investigate relationships with child health outcomes. ABBREVIATIONS: EV: extracellular vesicle; PRISM: PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms pregnancy cohort; LSCR: Life Stressor Checklist-Revised survey; NLE: negative life event; CRISYS-R: Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes; NYC: New York City; SD: standard deviation; IQR: interquartile range; Cq: relative cycle threshold values; PCA: principal component analysis.

8.
Environ Res ; 190: 110009, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) predicts the onset of cellular senescence and correlates with longevity and age-related disease risk. While telomeres erode throughout life, adults display fixed ranking and tracking of TL, supporting the importance of the early environment in determining inter-individual variability across the life course. Given their guanine-rich structure, telomeres are highly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). We examined maternal metal exposure, which can induce OS, in relation to newborn TL. We also considered the modifying role of maternal antioxidant intake. METHODS: Analyses included 100 mother-newborn pairs enrolled in the Boston and New York City-based PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) pregnancy cohort. We measured As, Ba, Cd, Ni, and Pb in maternal late-pregnancy urine by ICP-MS and quantified relative leukocyte TL (rLTL) in cord blood using qPCR. We used Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression to estimate the metal mixture - rLTL association and conducted repeated holdout validation to improve the stability of estimates across data partitions. We examined models stratified by high (>median) versus low (≤median) maternal antioxidant intake, estimated from Block98 Food Frequency Questionnaires. We considered urinary creatinine, week of urine collection, maternal age, and race/ethnicity as covariates. RESULTS: In adjusted models, urinary metals were inversely associated with newborn rLTL (ßWQS = -0.50, 95% CI: -0.78, -0.21). The top metals contributing to the negative association included Ba (weight: 35.4%), Cd (24.5%) and Pb (26.9%). In models stratified by antioxidant intake, the significant inverse association between metals and rLTL remained only among mothers with low antioxidant intake (low: ßWQS = -0.92, 95% CI: -1.53, -0.30; high: ßWQS = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.58, 0.52). Results were similar in unadjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Relative LTL was shorter among newborns of mothers with higher exposure to metals during pregnancy. Higher maternal antioxidant intake may mitigate the negative influence of metals on newborn rLTL.

9.
Environ Res ; 187: 109707, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence links gestational exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) with changes in leukocyte telomere length in cord blood with some studies showing sex-specific effects. PM2.5 exposure in utero increases oxidative stress, which can impact telomere biology. Thus, maternal antioxidant intakes may also modify the particulate air pollution effects. METHODS: We examined associations among prenatal PM2.5 exposure and newborn relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL), and the modifying effects of maternal antioxidant intake and infant sex. We estimated daily PM2.5 exposures over gestation using a validated spatiotemporally resolved satellite-based model. Maternal dietary and supplemental antioxidant intakes over the prior three months were ascertained during the second trimester using the modified Block98 food frequency questionnaire; high and low antioxidant intakes were categorized based on a median split. We employed Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs) to identify both sensitive windows of exposure and cumulative effect estimates for prenatal PM2.5 exposure on newborn rLTL, and to examine effect modification by maternal antioxidant intakes. A 3-way interaction between PM2.5, maternal antioxidant intake and infant sex was also explored. RESULTS: For the main effect of PM2.5, BDLIMs identified a sensitive window at 12-20 weeks gestation for the association between increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure and shorter newborn rLTL and a cumulative effect of PM2.5 over gestation on newborn telomere length [cumulative effect estimate (CEE) = -0.29 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10) per 1µg/m3 increase in PM2.5]. In models examining maternal antioxidant intake effects, BDLIMs found that children born to mothers reporting low antioxidant intakes were most vulnerable [CEE of low maternal antioxidant intake = -0.31 (95% CI -0.55 to -0.06) vs high maternal antioxidant intake = -0.07 (95% CI -0.34 to 0.17) per 1µg/m3 increase in PM2.5]. In exploratory models examining effect modification by both maternal antioxidant intakes and infant sex, the cumulative effect remained significant only in boys whose mothers reported low antioxidant intakes [CEE = -0.38 (95% CI -0.80 to -0.004)]; no sensitive windows were identified in any group. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure in mid-gestation was associated with reduced infant telomere length. Higher maternal antioxidant intakes mitigated these effects.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stunting is an indicator of poor linear growth in children and is an important public health problem in many countries. Both nutritional deficits and toxic exposures can contribute to lower height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ < -2). OBJECTIVES: In a community-based cross-sectional sample of 97 healthy children ages 6-59 months in Kampala, Uganda, we examined whether exposure to Pb, As, Cd, Se, or Zn were associated with HAZ individually or as a mixture. METHODS: Blood samples were analyzed for a mixture of metals, which represent both toxins and essential nutrients. The association between HAZ and metal exposure was tested using multivariable linear regression and Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression, which uses mixtures of correlated exposures as a predictor. RESULTS: There were 22 stunted children in the sample, mean HAZ was -0.74 (SD = 1.84). Linear regression showed that Pb (ß = -0.80, p = 0.021) and Se (ß = 1.92, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with HAZ. The WQS models separated toxic elements with a presumed negative effect on HAZ (Pb, As, Cd) from essential nutrients with presumed positive effect on HAZ (Se and Zn). The toxic mixture was significantly associated with lower HAZ (ß = -0.47, p = 0.03), with 62% of the effect from Pb. The nutrient WQS index did not reach statistical significance (ß = -0.47, p = 0.16). DISCUSSION: Higher blood lead and lower blood selenium level were both associated with lower HAZ. The significant associations by linear regression were reinforced by the WQS models, although not all associations reached statistical significance. These findings suggest that healthy children in this neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, who have a high burden of toxic exposures, may experience detrimental health effects associated with these exposures in an environment where exposure sources are not well characterized.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Selênio/sangue , Uganda , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/toxicidade
11.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 20, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140430

RESUMO

Background: Lead is a neurotoxic metal potentially affecting the developing brain. Children are particularly susceptible since they can absorb between 50% and 100% of ingested lead. There is no safe level for lead, therefore preventing exposure is crucial. We previously reported a positive association between lead concentrations found in candy and concurrent blood lead levels in Mexican children. This first report garnered media and the general public's attention. Objective: To conduct a follow-up study to assess lead concentrations in candy brands that we previously reported with concentrations ≥0.1ppm the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's recommended maximum lead level in candy likely to be consumed frequently by small children. Methods: In 2018 we analyzed 50 additional candy samples. Lead concentrations were analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and lead content per candy unit was calculated. Findings: We found concentrations were typically low, with a marked decrease from prior levels (2008). Nevertheless two candy units had concentrations of 0.1 ppm of lead. Conclusions: Candy may have lead concentrations up to 0.1 ppm and 1.2 µg per unit. This is a concern because candies are exported and consumed in many countries worldwide potentially resulting in human exposure. Continued public health surveillance is needed to protect populations especially vulnerable to lead exposure, especially children.

12.
Environ Res ; 183: 109148, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004829

RESUMO

Exposure assessment traditionally relies on biomarkers that measure chemical concentrations in individual biological media (i.e., blood, urine, etc.). However, chemicals distribute unevenly among different biological media; thus, each medium provides incomplete information about body burden. We propose that machine learning and statistical approaches can create integrated exposure estimates from multiple biomarker matrices that better represent the overall body burden, which we term multi-media biomarkers (MMBs). We measured lead (Pb) in blood, urine, hair and nails from 251 Italian adolescents aged 11-14 years from the Public Health Impact of Metals Exposure (PHIME) cohort. We derived aggregated MMBs from the four biomarkers and then tested their association with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) IQ scores. We used three approaches to derive the Pb MMB: one supervised learning technique, weighted quantile sum regression (WQS), and two unsupervised learning techniques, independent component analysis (ICA) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Overall, the Pb MMB derived using WQS was most consistently associated with IQ scores and was the only method to be statistically significant for Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Total IQ. A one standard deviation increase in the WQS MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (ß [95% CI] = -2.2 points [-3.7, -0.6]), Performance IQ (-1.9 points [-3.5, -0.4]) and Total IQ (-2.1 points [-3.8, -0.5]). Blood Pb was negatively associated with only Verbal IQ, with a one standard deviation increase in blood Pb being associated with a -1.7 point (95% CI: [-3.3, -0.1]) decrease in Verbal IQ. Increases of one standard deviation in the ICA MMB were associated with lower Verbal IQ (-1.7 points [-3.3, -0.1]) and lower Total IQ (-1.7 points [-3.3, -0.1]). Similarly, an increase of one standard deviation in the NMF MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (-1.8 points [-3.4, -0.2]) and lower Total IQ (-1.8 points [-3.4, -0.2]). Weights highlighting the contributions of each medium to the MMB revealed that blood Pb was the largest contributor to most MMBs, although the weights varied from more than 80% for the ICA and NMF MMBs to between 30% and 54% for the WQS-derived MMBs. Our results suggest that MMBs better reflect the total body burden of a chemical that may be acting on target organs than individual biomarkers. Estimating MMBs improved our ability to estimate the full impact of Pb on IQ. Compared with individual Pb biomarkers, including blood, a Pb MMB derived using WQS was more strongly associated with IQ scores. MMBs may increase statistical power when the choice of exposure medium is unclear or when the sample size is small. Future work will need to validate these methods in other cohorts and for other chemicals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Chumbo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Itália , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Escalas de Wechsler
13.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936138

RESUMO

Pregnancy is a contributor to the obesity epidemic in women, probably through postpartum weight retention (PPWR), weight gain (PPWG), or a combination of both (PPWR + WG). The contribution of these patterns of postpartum weight change to long-term maternal health remains understudied. In a secondary analysis of 361 women from the prospective cohort PROGRESS, we evaluated the associations between patterns of weight change one year after delivery and cardiometabolic risk factors at six years postpartum. Using principal component analysis, we grouped cardiometabolic risk factors into: (1) body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), and glucose; (2) systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); and (3) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Using path analysis, we studied direct (patterns of weight change-outcomes) and indirect associations through BMI at six years postpartum. Around 60% of women returned to their pregestational weight (reference) by one year postpartum, 6.6% experienced PPWR, 13.9% PPWG, and 19.9% PPWR + WG. Women with PPWR + WG, vs. the reference, had higher BMI and WC at six years (2.30 kg/m2, 95% CI [1.67, 2.93]; 3.38 cm [1.14, 5.62]). This was also observed in women with PPWR (1.80 kg/m2 [0.80, 2.79]; 3.15 cm [-0.35, 6.65]) and PPWG (1.22 kg/m2 [0.53, 1.92]; 3.32 cm [0.85, 5.78]). PPWR + WG had a direct association with HOMA-IR (0.21 units [0.04, 0.39]). The three patterns of weight change, vs. the reference, had significant indirect associations with HOMA-IR, glucose, TG, HDL-c, SBP, and DBP through BMI at six years. In conclusion, women with PPWR + WG are at high-risk for obesity and insulin resistance. Interventions targeting women during pregnancy and the first year postpartum may have implications for their long-term risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Metabólicas , Período Pós-Parto , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , México , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Res ; 88(2): 325-333, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated: (1) associations of prenatal manganese (Mn) levels with child neurodevelopment at 4-6 years; (2) effect modification by maternal anemia and iron deficiency; and (3) sex-specific effects. METHODS: We measured blood Mn, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin in mothers at the second trimester, third trimester, and at birth, and in cord blood from a prospective birth cohort in Mexico City (n = 571). McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities were measured at 4-6 years. Using linear regression, we estimated associations between prenatal Mn and neurodevelopment, examined anemia and iron deficiency as effect modifiers, and analyzed associations by child sex. RESULTS: No direct associations were observed between Mn, anemia, or iron deficiency and McCarthy Scales. Second trimester iron deficiency and third trimester anemia modified the effect of Mn on child neurodevelopment. For instance, second trimester Mn was positively associated child memory scores in mother's with normal ferritin (1.85 (0.02, 3.45)), but negatively associated in mother's with low ferritin (-2.41 (-5.28, 0.47), interaction P value = 0.01), a pattern observed across scales. No effect modification at birth or in cord blood was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia/iron deficiency during pregnancy may modify Mn impacts on child neurodevelopment, particularly in boys.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1740-1749, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944681

RESUMO

Phthalates are associated with several adverse health outcomes, but few studies have evaluated phthalate exposures in Mexican populations, particularly pregnant women. Between 2007 and 2011, 948 pregnant women from Mexico City were recruited as part of the PROGRESS cohort. We quantified 17 metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters and examined temporal trends of metabolite concentrations, within-person reproducibility, and relations of individual metabolites with sociodemographic, lifestyle, and occupational factors. Concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate, a metabolite of the alternative phthalate di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate, increased monotonically from 2007 to 2010 (31% per year; 95% confidence interval = 23 and 39%). We observed moderate to high correlations among metabolites collected at the same visit, but there was high variability between second and third trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.17-0.35). In general, higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher phthalate concentrations. Some metabolites were associated with maternal age and education, but no consistent patterns were observed. Women working in the home and those who worked in administration had higher concentrations of several phthalate metabolites relative to students, professionals, and those in customer service. Biomonitoring efforts are warranted to investigate present and future exposure trends and patterns.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , México , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Clin Obes ; 10(1): e12346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696670

RESUMO

We examined the independent associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) with cardiometabolic indicators in Mexican children (4-6 years of age). We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 400) using the measures of MVPA and ST (7-day accelerometry) and the following indicators: % body fat, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, glycated haemoglobin, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and resting blood pressure. We examined the independent associations of MVPA and ST with cardiometabolic indicators through confounder-adjusted and mutually adjusted (including both MVPA and ST) linear regression models. Confounder-adjusted models showed that MVPA was associated with higher BMI z-scores and lower adiponectin levels in girls and lower body fat among boys. ST was associated with higher body fat, in the full sample, and lower LDL cholesterol among boys. After mutually adjusting for MVPA and ST, MVPA (10-minute increase) remained significantly associated with BMI z-score in girls (ß = 0.187, 95% CI: 0.019, 0.356) and ST (60-minute increase) remained significantly associated with higher body fat (ß = 1.11%, 95% CI: 0.019, 2.203) among boys and higher glycated haemoglobin (ß = 0.047% points, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.094) in the full sample. In preschool-aged children, the objective measures of ST and MVPA were associated with small differences in cardiometabolic health indicators. ST was unfavourably associated with some cardiometabolic indicators even after adjusting for MVPA, and thus appeared to have a more significant role than MVPA, especially in boys. Future longitudinal studies should confirm these results.

17.
Neurotoxicology ; 76: 183-190, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational studies have shown an association between elevated Mn exposure and depressive symptoms. Blood Mn (BMn) naturally rises during pregnancy due to mobilization from tissues, suggesting it could contribute to pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between BMn levels during pregnancy and postpartum depression (PPD), creating opportunities for possible future interventions. METHODS: We studied 561 women from the reproductive longitudinal Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment, and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) cohort in Mexico City. BMn was measured at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, as well as delivery. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess PPD symptoms at 12-months postpartum. We used a generalized linear model assuming a Poisson distribution to assess the association between BMn levels and PPD, with adjustments for age, stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy, education, socioeconomic status, and contemporaneous blood lead levels. RESULTS: The mean ±â€¯standard deviation (SD) EPDS score at 12-months postpartum was 6.51 ±â€¯5.65, and 17.11% of women met the criteria for possible PPD (score ≥ 13). In adjusted models, BMn during the 3rd trimester (ß: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.21) and BMn levels averaged at the 2nd and 3rd trimester (ß: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.02-0.26) had a positive association with EPDS scores at 12 months postpartum. BMn at the 2nd trimester (ß: 0.07, 95% CI: -0.09-0.22) and delivery (ß: 0.03, 95% CI: -0.04-0.10) had a non-significant positive association with EPDS scores at 12-months postpartum. Stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with higher EPDS scores at 12-months postpartum in all of the adjusted models but were only significant when either BMn during 3rd trimester or BMn averaged across 2nd and 3rd trimester was assessed as the exposure. DISCUSSION: Our results demonstrate that elevated BMn levels during pregnancy predict PPD symptoms and could be a potential pathway for intervention and prevention of PPD.

18.
Epigenetics ; 15(1-2): 174-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538540

RESUMO

DNA methylation microarrays have been the platform of choice for epigenome-wide association studies in epidemiology, but declining costs have rendered targeted bisulphite sequencing a feasible alternative. Nonetheless, the literature for researchers seeking guidance on which platform to choose is sparse. To fill this gap, we conducted a comparison study in which we processed cord blood samples from four newborns in duplicates using both the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip and the Illumina TruSeq Methyl Capture EPIC Kit, and evaluated both platforms in regard to coverage, reproducibility, and identification of differential methylation. We conclude that with current analytic goals microarrays still outperform bisulphite sequencing for precise quantification of DNA methylation.

19.
Stress ; 23(3): 349-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664889

RESUMO

Changes to the maternal inflammatory milieu may be a mechanism through which maternal psychosocial stress is transmitted to the fetus. Research investigating a limited number of immune markers may miss important signals. We take a proteomics approach to investigate maternal lifetime stress and 92 biomarkers of immune system status. Participants were enrolled in an urban, dual-site (Boston, n = 301 and New York City, n = 110) pregnancy cohort. We measured maternal lifetime history of stress and trauma using the validated Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R). We measured a panel of 92 immune-related proteins in mid-pregnancy serum using proximity extension assay technology. We leveraged the dual-site study design to perform variable selection and inference within the cohort. First, we used LASSO to select immune markers related to maternal stress among Boston mothers. Then, we performed OLS regression to examine associations between maternal stress and LASSO-selected proteins among New York City mothers. LASSO regression selected 19 immune proteins with non-null coefficients (CCL11, CCL23, CD244, CST5, CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL10, CX3CL1, FGF-23, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17C, MCP-2, MMP-1, SLAMF1, ST1A1, TNF-ß, and TWEAK). Of these, only the chemotactic cytokine CX3CL1 (i.e. fractalkine) was significantly associated with maternal stress among the validation sample (percent change in LSC-R score per 1% increase in relative fractalkine expression: 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 1.28). Expanding research suggests fractalkine plays an important role in many aspects of pregnancy and fetal development and is stress-sensitive. We found that maternal lifetime history of stress and trauma was significantly associated with elevated serum fractalkine levels during pregnancy.

20.
Environ Res ; 182: 109073, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased blood pressure (BP) in adults and children. Some evidence suggests that air pollution exposure during the prenatal period may contribute to adverse cardiorenal health later in life. Here we apply a distributed lag model (DLM) approach to identify critical windows that may underlie the association between prenatal particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure and children's BP at ages 4-6 years. METHODS: Participants included 537 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, GRowth Environment, and Social Stress (PROGRESS) longitudinal birth cohort study based in Mexico City. Prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model and BP was measured using the automated Spacelabs system with a sized cuff. We used distributed lag models (DLMs) to examine associations between daily PM2.5 exposure and systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), adjusting for child's age, sex and BMI, as well as maternal education, preeclampsia and indoor smoking report during the second and third trimester, seasonality and average postnatal year 1 PM2.5 exposure. RESULTS: We found that PM2.5 exposure between weeks 11-32 of gestation (days 80-226) was significantly associated with children's increased SBP. Similarly, PM2.5 exposure between weeks 9-25 of gestation (days 63-176) was significantly associated with increased DBP. To place this into context, a constant 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 sustained throughout this critical window would predict a cumulative increase of 2.6 mmHg (CI: 0.5, 4.6) in SBP and 0.88 mmHg (CI: 0.1, 1.6) in DBP at ages 4-6 years. In a stratified analysis by sex, this association persisted in boys but not in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Second and third trimester PM2.5 exposure may increase children's BP in early life. Further work investigating PM2.5 exposure with BP trajectories later in childhood will be important to understanding cardiorenal trajectories that may predict adult disease. Our results underscore the importance of reducing air pollution exposure among susceptible populations, including pregnant women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
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