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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intrauterine exposure to maternal asthma or asthma exacerbations increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Using Danish register data, this cohort study comprised of 961,202 live singletons born in Denmark during 1997-2012. Children were followed to a maximum of 20.0 years from birth until the first of ADHD-diagnosis/prescription, emigration, death, or 31 December 2016. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between maternal or paternal asthma, asthma exacerbations and offspring ADHD. RESULTS: During 11.4 million person-years of follow-up, 27,780 (2.9%) children were identified as having ADHD. ADHD risk was increased among offspring born to asthmatic mothers (hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% CI: 1.36-1.46) or asthmatic fathers (HR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18). Antenatal antiasthma medication treatment did not increase offspring ADHD. However, higher risks were observed among offspring of mothers with asthma exacerbations compared with children of asthmatic mothers with no exacerbations: HR 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.25) for pre-pregnancy exacerbations; 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.47) for exacerbations during pregnancy; and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08-1.44) for exacerbations after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: These results support theories regarding shared genetic and environmental risk factors having a role in the development of ADHD.

2.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(4): 262-270, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection that often affects term, otherwise healthy infants. A small literature suggests maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with bronchiolitis. However, the association between maternal exposure to lifetime traumatic stress, including traumatic events occurring in childhood or throughout the life course, and bronchiolitis has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to total lifetime and childhood traumatic stress events and infant bronchiolitis. METHODS: We studied mother-infant dyads enrolled in a prospective prenatal cohort, recruited 2006-2011, and Tennessee Medicaid. During pregnancy, we assessed maternal lifetime exposure to types of traumatic events by questionnaire. We captured bronchiolitis diagnoses in term, non-low birthweight infants' first 12 months using linked Medicaid data. In separate models, we assessed the association of maternal lifetime traumatic events (0 to 20 types) and a subset of traumatic events that occurred during childhood (0 to 3: family violence, sexual, and physical abuse) and infant bronchiolitis using multivariable log-binomial models. RESULTS: Of 629 women, 85% were African American. The median count (interquartile range) of lifetime traumatic events was 3 (2, 5); 42% reported ≥1 childhood traumatic event. Among infants, 22% had a bronchiolitis diagnosis (0 to 2 lifetime traumatic events: 24%; 3 events: 20%; 4 to 5 events: 18%; 6 or more events: 24%). Total maternal lifetime traumatic events were not associated with bronchiolitis in multivariable analyses. For maternal childhood traumatic events, the risk of infant bronchiolitis increased with number of event types reported: adjusted Risk ratios were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80, 1.59), 1.31 (95% CI 0.83, 2.07), and 2.65 (95% CI 1.45, 4.85) for 1, 2, and 3 events, respectively, vs none. CONCLUSIONS: Infants born to women reporting multiple types of childhood trauma were at higher risk for bronchiolitis. Further research is needed to explore intergenerational effects of traumatic experiences.

3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 80: 871-878, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors for neuropsychological correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early childhood can inform prevention strategies. Prenatal inflammatory states, such as maternal asthma and other atopic disorders, have been increasingly linked to enhanced risk for neurobehavioral disorders in children, with some studies suggesting sex-specific effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between maternal active asthma and/or atopy in the antenatal period and child symptoms of ADHD during mid-childhood and, given the male-bias in ADHD prevalence, to examine modifying effects of child sex. STUDY DESIGN: The study sample includes 250 maternal-child pairs enrolled in the Boston-based Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment and Social Stress (ACCESS) pregnancy cohort. We defined antenatal active atopy based on maternal report of current asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis during and/or in the year before pregnancy. When children were approximately 6 years old, mothers completed a battery of standardized child behavior rating scales designed for evaluating symptoms of ADHD. We used multivariable quantile regression to assess the relations between maternal antenatal atopy and symptoms of ADHD among children. RESULTS: In adjusted models, maternal atopy was significantly associated with greater risk for ADHD behaviors, as indicated by scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised ADHD index (ß = 3.32, 95% CI: 0.33, 6.32). In sex-stratified models this association was stronger among girls (5.96, 95% CI = 0.95, 10.96) compared to boys (-2.14, 95% CI = -5.75, 1.45, p-interaction = 0.01). Among girls, we observed a similar finding for the Behavior Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition Parent Rating Scale Attention Problems subscale (ß = 7.77, 95% CI = 1.57, 13.97). Results from other outcome subscales were similar in magnitude and direction, however, associations did not reach statistical significance at the p = 0.05 level. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal antenatal active atopy may be a risk factor for the development of ADHD-like symptoms, especially among girls.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

5.
Stress ; 22(6): 647-653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057018

RESUMO

Maternal psychosocial stress can negatively impact gestational length and development of the fetus. These effects may be sex-specific but have not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal maternal stress and birth outcomes and whether effects are modified by sex. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score ascertained in 527 urban mothers; a higher NLE score indicates greater stress. Birth outcomes included gestational age, preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks), and birthweight for gestational age z-scores. Modified Poisson regression and linear models were used to evaluate associations of prenatal NLE scores with birth outcomes. Sex differences were assessed by inclusion of an interaction term for sex by NLE score and in sex-stratified analyses. In analyses adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), increasing prenatal stress was associated with shortened gestational age (days) (ß = -0.63, [95% CI -1.20, -0.06]). This effect was sex specific, with increasing prenatal stress associated with shortened gestational age, as well as increased risk of PTB, in male infants (ß = -1.35 [95% CI -2.17, -0.54] and RR = 1.18 [95% CI 0.99, 1.42], respectively) but not female infants (ß = 0.15 [95%CI -0.63, 0.94] and RR = 0.85, [95%CI 0.65, 1.11], respectively). Prenatal stress was not associated with birthweight z-scores. Our results support the importance of psychosocial stress as a programming factor that may have sex-specific effects for adverse fetal outcomes. Understanding sex-specific effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes may inform prevention strategies. LAY SUMMARY Higher stress experienced by mothers in pregnancy was associated with shorter length of pregnancy and the effect was stronger in male infants when compared to female infants.

6.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(4): 339-356, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059292

RESUMO

We examined the roles of maternal and child lifetime stress exposures, infant temperament (orienting/regulation, surgency/extraversion), and maternal caregiving during infancy and preschool on preschoolers' working memory and inhibitory control in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort. Working memory was predicted by infant orienting/regulation, with differential effects by the level of maternal cognitive support in infancy; maternal lifetime stress exposures exerted independent negative effects on working memory. Inhibitory control was positively associated with maternal emotionally supportive behaviors in infancy, which mediated the effects of maternal lifetime stress exposures on inhibitory control. These findings have implications for interventions designed to optimize child executive functioning.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inibição (Psicologia) , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Orientação , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Temperamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Função Executiva , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Perinatol ; 39(7): 941-948, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prenatal sex hormones from maternal saliva are associated with birth-weight-for-gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: We measured salivary progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisone in 504 pregnant women in a Mexico City cohort. We performed linear and modified Poisson regression to examine associations of log-transformed hormones with birth-weight-for-gestational age z-scores and the risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) adjusting for maternal age, sex, BMI, parity, smoking, education, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In total, 15% of infants were SGA and 2% were LGA. Each interquartile range increment in testosterone/estradiol ratio was associated with a 0.12 decrement in birth-weight-for-gestational age z-score (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.02) and a 50% higher risk of SGA versus appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) (95% CI: 1.13-1.99). CONCLUSION: Higher salivary testosterone/estradiol ratios may affect fetal growth, and identifying the predictors of hormone levels may be important to optimizing fetal growth.

9.
Environ Res ; 172: 495-501, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In utero particulate matter exposure produces oxidative stress that impacts cellular processes that include telomere biology. Newborn telomere length is likely critical to an individual's telomere biology; reduction in this initial telomere setting may signal increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes later in life. We examined associations between prenatal particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured in cord blood using a data-driven approach to characterize sensitive windows of prenatal PM2.5 effects and explore sex differences. METHODS: Women who were residents of Mexico City and affiliated with the Mexican Social Security System were recruited during pregnancy (n = 423 for analyses). Mothers' prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was estimated based on residence during pregnancy using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Leukocyte DNA was extracted from cord blood obtained at delivery. Duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the relative amplification of the telomere repeat copy number to single gene (albumin) copy number. A distributed lag model incorporating weekly averages for PM2.5 over gestation was used in order to explore sensitive windows. Sex-specific associations were examined using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models. RESULTS: In models that included child's sex, mother's age at delivery, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age, birth season and assay batch, we found significant associations between higher PM2.5 exposure during early pregnancy (4-9 weeks) and shorter LTL in cord blood. We also identified two more windows at 14-19 and 34-36 weeks in which increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with longer LTL. In stratified analyses, the mean and cumulative associations between PM2.5 and shortened LTL were stronger in girls when compared to boys. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PM2.5 during specific prenatal windows was associated with shorter LTL and longer LTL. PM2.5 was more strongly associated with shortened LTL in girls when compared to boys. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to air pollution may provide unique insight into mechanisms.

10.
Environ Int ; 125: 437-444, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753999

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lead (Pb) crosses the placenta and can cause oxidative stress, reduced fetal growth and neurological problems. The principal source of oxidative stress in human cells is mitochondria. Therefore, disruption of normal mitochondrial function during pregnancy may represent a primary mechanism behind the adverse effects of lead. We sought to assess the association of Pb exposure during pregnancy with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, a sensitive marker of mitochondrial function, in cord blood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised mother-infant pairs from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study, a prospective birth-cohort that enrolled 1050 pregnant women from Mexico City who were receiving prenatal care between December 2007 and July 2011. Quantitative PCR was used to calculate relative MtDNA content (mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA/nDNA)) in cord blood. Lead concentrations in both maternal blood (2nd and 3rd trimester and at delivery day) and in cord blood were measured by ICP-MS. Multivariable regression models adjusting for multiple confounders were fitted with 410 mother-infant pairs for whom complete data for mtDNA content, lead levels, and covariates were available. RESULTS: Maternal blood Pb measured in the second (mean 3.79 µg/dL, SD 2.63; ß = 0.059, 95% CI 0.008, 0.111) and third trimester (mean 3.90 µg/dL; SD 2.84; ß = 0.054, 95% CI 0.002, 0.107) during pregnancy and PB in cord blood (mean 3.50 µg/dL, SD 2.59; ß = 0.050, 95% CI 0.004; 0.096) were associated with increased cord blood mtDNA content (mean 1.46, SD 0.44). In two-way interaction analyses, cord blood Pb marginally interacted with gestational age leading to an increase in mtDNA content for pre-term births (Benjamini-Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction; BH-FDR = 0.08). CONCLUSION: This study shows that lead exposure in pregnancy alters mtDNA content in cord blood; therefore, alteration of mtDNA content might be a mechanism underlying the toxicity of lead.

11.
Stress ; 22(2): 228-235, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767640

RESUMO

Women's experience of trauma may cause lifelong alterations in physiological stress regulation, which can be transmitted to offspring in utero. We investigated, in a prospective pregnancy cohort, associations among maternal lifetime interpersonal trauma (IPT) history, prenatal cortisol dysregulation, and children's memory domains. Sex-specific effects were also explored. Pregnant women were enrolled from Brigham & Women's Hospital and affiliated clinics near Boston, MA, in 2002-2007. IPT was assessed with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, short form. Salivary cortisol was measured at five time points on each of three days in one week at 29.0 ± 5.1 weeks gestation, and morning rise and diurnal slope were calculated. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory & Learning, 2nd Edition was administered at 6.5 ± 1.0 years and scores were generated for general memory and three sub-domains: verbal, visual, and attention/concentration. In total, 258 maternal-child dyads provided memory and IPT and/or cortisol data. IPT was positively associated with verbal memory in boys (ß ± SE: 4.6 ± 2.6) and inversely associated with visual memory score in girls (-6.5 ± 3.2). IPT did not predict prenatal cortisol, but prenatal cortisol modified the association between IPT history and child memory in varying coefficient models allowing for non-linear effect modification. The strongest evidence of interaction was for visual memory in boys: IPT history was associated with poorer visual memory only in those with flatter prenatal diurnal slope (interaction p = .005). Maternal lifetime IPT that leads to prenatal HPA dysregulation may have consequences for child memory, more so than either trauma or elevated cortisol alone. Boys may be more vulnerable to effects. Sex- and timing-specific effects require further investigation.

12.
Environ Int ; 124: 329-335, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The programming of sleep architecture begins in pregnancy and depends upon optimal in utero formation and maturation of the neural connectivity of the brain. Particulate air pollution exposure can disrupt fetal brain development but associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure during pregnancy and child sleep outcomes have not been previously explored. METHODS: Analyses included 397 mother-child pairs enrolled in a pregnancy cohort in Mexico City. Daily ambient prenatal PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Child sleep periods were estimated objectively using wrist-worn, continuous actigraphy over a 1-week period at age 4-5 years. Data-driven advanced statistical methods (distributed lag models (DLMs)) were employed to identify sensitive windows whereby PM2.5 exposure during gestation was significantly associated with changes in sleep duration or efficiency. Models were adjusted for maternal education, season, child's age, sex, and BMI z-score. RESULTS: Mother's average age was 27.7 years, with 59% having at least a high school education. Children slept an average of 7.7 h at night, with mean 80.1% efficiency. The adjusted DLM identified windows of PM2.5 exposure between 31 and 35 weeks gestation that were significantly associated with decreased sleep duration in children. In addition, increased PM2.5 during weeks 1-8 was associated with decreased sleep efficiency. In other exposure windows (weeks 39-40), PM2.5 was associated with increased sleep duration. CONCLUSION: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure is associated with altered sleep in preschool-aged children in Mexico City. Pollutant exposure during sensitive windows of pregnancy may have critical influence upon sleep programming.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Masculino , México , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 99: 216-224, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265918

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the maternal-fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) has been hypothesized to negatively influence various offspring physical and mental health outcomes. Limited data suggest that low maternal socioeconomic status (SES) in pregnancy may disrupt maternal HPAA functioning. Research is needed that examines how maternal SES in childhood may influence maternal HPAA functioning in pregnancy, given evidence that early life adversity can have persistent effects on physiological stress reactivity. In a sample of 343 sociodemographically diverse women, we tested whether indices of life course SES were associated with HPAA functioning across pregnancy reflected in hair cortisol collected within one week after delivery. Mothers were asked whether their parent(s) owned their home across three developmental periods, from birth through adolescence, as an indicator of their childhood SES. Measures of maternal SES in pregnancy included maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and current homeownership. Analyses revealed that indicators of lower maternal SES in childhood and in pregnancy were associated with higher cortisol levels during each trimester. In analyses adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, use of inhaled and topical corticosteroids, and mode of delivery, each indicator of maternal SES in pregnancy fully mediated maternal childhood SES effects on maternal hair cortisol levels in pregnancy. This is the first study to show an association between maternal life course SES and hair cortisol in pregnancy. The results suggest that maternal SES, starting in childhood, may have intergenerational consequences via disruption to the maternal-fetal HPAA in pregnancy. These findings have implications for elucidating mechanisms contributing to health disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/química , Renda , Mães/psicologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/química , Gravidez
14.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 102: 225-235, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590340

RESUMO

Newborn telomere length is a potential biomarker of the effects of maternal-fetal processes on offspring long-term health. A number of maternal psychosocial and environmental factors in pregnancy (e.g., stress, health, socioeconomic status) have been associated with shortened telomere length at birth. The physiological mechanisms responsible for potential effects of maternal factors on newborn telomere length have yet to be identified. Indirect evidence suggests that disruptions in maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in pregnancy may be involved. Studies are needed that test whether maternal HPA axis functioning in pregnancy is associated with newborn telomere length. This study examined whether maternal HPA axis functioning across pregnancy, reflected in hair cortisol collected within one week after delivery, predicted newborn telomere length assessed from leukocyte cord blood collected at birth among 93 sociodemographically diverse mother-infant dyads. We further tested whether associations between maternal hair cortisol and newborn telomere length differed by infant sex, given documented sex differences in prenatal environmental exposure effects on offspring health, patterns of cortisol exposure during gestation, and telomere biology across the lifespan. In a multi-group structural equation modeling analysis that accounted for cortisol exposures across trimesters, maternal cortisol levels in pregnancy were not associated with newborn telomere length in the sample as a whole. However, significant sex differences emerged, with a significant positive association among females and a lack of a significant association among males. In addition, analyses revealed that cortisol levels were higher across trimesters among mothers of male infants than mothers of female infants. The results suggest that functioning of the maternal HPA axis in pregnancy may differ by fetal sex and have sex-specific effects on newborn telomere biology. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms by which maternal psychosocial and environmental exposures influence newborn telomere length and for elucidating mechanisms contributing to sex disparities in health.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1211, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal perceived stress has been discussed to contribute to the development of childhood overweight. Our aim was to investigate the longitudinal relationship of early maternal perceived stress and BMI z-scores in preschool children (≤ five years). METHODS: A longitudinal analysis was conducted in 498 mother-child pairs of the German prospective birth cohort LINA with information on maternal perceived stress during pregnancy, one and two years after birth. BMI z-scores were based on annual measurements of children's weight/height and calculated based on WHO reference data. General estimation equations were applied to evaluate the impact of maternal stress on children's longitudinal BMI z-scores. Potential stressors contributing to the perceived stress of the mother were assessed by linear regression models. Using mediation analyses we evaluated the relationship between stressors, maternal perceived stress, and children's BMI z-score development. RESULTS: Postnatal maternal stress during the first year after birth had a positive longitudinal relationship with children's BMI z-scores up to the age of five years. Gender-stratified analyses revealed that only girls showed this positive association while boy's BMI z-scores were unaffected by maternal stress. We identified three neighborhood strains and two socio-demographic factors, which contributed to the maternal perceived stress level. Stressors themselves did not directly affect girl's BMI z-scores but rather mediated their effect through the perceived stress level. CONCLUSIONS: While different stressors contribute to maternal stress, the perceived stress level - rather than the stressors themselves - is strongly positively associated with BMI z-score development in girls.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
16.
Environ Res ; 167: 591-597, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure may alter lung growth and development in utero in a time-sensitive and sex-specific manner, resulting in reduced lung function in childhood. Such relationships have not been examined for nitrate (NO3-). METHODS: We implemented Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs) to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of NO3- on lung function at age 7 years, assessing effect modification by fetal sex. Analyses included 191 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO3- exposure over pregnancy was estimated using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model. Spirometry was performed at mean (SD) age of 6.99 (0.89) years, with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) z-scores accounting for child age, sex, height and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Most mothers were Hispanic (65%) or Black (22%), had ≤ high school education (67%), and never smoked (71%); 17% children had asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age and education and child's asthma identified an early sensitive window of 6-12 weeks gestation, during which increased NO3- was significantly associated with reduced FEV1 z-scores specifically among boys. BDLIM analyses demonstrated similar sex-specific patterns for FVC. CONCLUSION: Early gestational NO3- exposure is associated with reduced child lung function, especially in boys.

17.
J Pediatr ; 203: 301-308, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between maternal lifetime traumatic stress and offspring birthweight and examine modifying effects of third trimester cortisol and fetal sex. STUDY DESIGN: Analyses included 314 mother-infant dyads from an ethnically mixed pregnancy cohort. Maternal lifetime trauma was reported via the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised. Fenton birthweight for gestational age z-scores (BWGA-z) were calculated. A 3-cm scalp-nearest maternal hair segment collected at birth was assayed to reflect cumulative third trimester cortisol secretion. Multivariable regression was used to investigate associations between maternal lifetime trauma and BWGA-z and examine 2- and 3-way interactions with cortisol and fetal sex. Because subjects with low or high cortisol levels could represent susceptible populations, varying coefficient models that relax the linearity assumption on cortisol level were used to assess the modification of maternal lifetime trauma associations with BWGA-z as a function of cortisol. RESULTS: Women were primarily minorities (41% Hispanic, 26% black) with ≤12 years education (63%); 63% reported ≥1 traumatic event. Prenatal cortisol modified the association between maternal lifetime trauma and birthweight. Women with higher lifetime trauma and increased cortisol had significantly lower birthweight infants in males; among males exposed to the 90th percentile of cortisol, a 1-unit increase in trauma score was associated with a 0.19-unit decrease in BWGA-z (95% CI, -0.34 to -0.04). Associations among females were nonsignificant, regardless of cortisol level. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need to consider complex interactions among maternal trauma, disrupted in utero cortisol production, and fetal sex to fully elucidate intergenerational effects of maternal lifetime trauma.

18.
J Psychosom Res ; 112: 53-58, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, identify relevant risk factors, and assess comorbid mental health problems, among pregnant women enrolled in a population based study. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected from 1916 pregnant women who participated in the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children's Environmental Risk (TRACER) study in Kuwait, and had answered the Baseline Questionnaire and completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Logistic regression models were used to examine the association of depressive symptoms with baseline socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms, using a cut-off of EDS score ≥ 10, was 20.1%. Depressive symptoms were reported more by women of lower family income and had self-reported history of depression prior to pregnancy, with women in the third trimester having higher odds of antenatal depressive symptoms compared to those in the second trimester. Pregnancy-related anxiety, higher perceived stress levels, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were comorbid with the presence of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The findings showed that one in five pregnant women in Kuwait experiences antenatal depressive symptoms and that these symptoms are comorbid with other mental health problems. Screening for antenatal depression and providing support to pregnant women should be considered.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971553

RESUMO

Evidence exists that the risk factors for depression in the antenatal and postnatal period may differ, but only a handful of studies looked at depression longitudinally. The aims of this study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms in Kuwait where data about postnatal depression are scarce and identify its determinants and (2) to compare these risk factors between women who had experienced antenatal depressive symptoms and those that did not. Data collected in the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children's Environmental Risk (TRACER) Study in Kuwait were used in this analysis. The sample was restricted to the 1348 women who answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) both antenatally and postnatally. The prevalence of postnatal depressive symptoms, defined by an EPDS score ≥ 10, was 11.7%. Overall, antenatal depressive symptoms were the strongest determinant of postnatal depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that in women with depressive symptoms in pregnancy, having a lower household income was the most significant risk factor for postnatal depressive symptoms. Among women without antenatal depressive symptoms, those who had lower income, were Kuwaitis, experienced other problems in pregnancy such as perceived stress, PTSD symptoms and social isolation, and those who delivered a boy had higher odds of postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal depressive symptoms and other psychosocial characteristics can predict postnatal depressive symptoms. Therefore, maternal mental health issues should be detected during the antenatal period and support should be provided in order to lower the risk of postnatal depression and its sequelae.

20.
Epigenetics ; 13(6): 665-681, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001177

RESUMO

Evolving evidence links maternal stress exposure to changes in placental DNA methylation of specific genes regulating placental function that may have implications for the programming of a host of chronic disorders. Few studies have implemented an epigenome-wide approach. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K), we investigated epigenome-wide placental DNA methylation in relation to maternal experiences of traumatic and non-traumatic stressors over her lifetime assessed using the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) survey (n = 207). We found differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide statistical significance (FDR = 0.05) for 112 CpGs. Additionally, we observed three clusters that exhibited differential methylation in response to high maternal lifetime stress. Enrichment analyses, conducted at an FDR = 0.20, revealed lysine degradation to be the most significant pathway associated with maternal lifetimes stress exposure. Targeted enrichment analyses of the three largest clusters of probes, identified using the gap statistic, were enriched for genes associated with endocytosis (i.e., SMAP1, ANKFY1), tight junctions (i.e., EPB41L4B), and metabolic pathways (i.e., INPP5E, EEF1B2). These pathways, also identified in the top 10 KEGG pathways associated with maternal lifetime stress exposure, play important roles in multiple physiological functions necessary for proper fetal development. Further, two genes were identified to exhibit multiple probes associated with maternal lifetime stress (i.e., ANKFY1, TM6SF1). The methylation status of the probes belonging to each cluster and/or genes exhibiting multiple hits, may play a role in the pathogenesis of adverse health outcomes in children born to mothers with increased lifetime stress exposure.

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