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2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928787

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe illness with COVID-19. Outcomes of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are poor. Awake proning in COVID-19 improves oxygenation, but on data clinical outcomes is limited. This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes. HDU care included awake proning by respiratory physiotherapists. Of 565 patients admitted with COVID-19, 71 (12.6%) were managed on the respiratory HDU, with 48 of these (67.6%) requiring respiratory support. Patients managed with CPAP alone 22/48 (45.8%) were significantly less likely to die than patients who required transfer onto HFNO 26/48 (54.2%): CPAP mortality 36.4%; HFNO mortality 69.2%, (p=0.023); however, multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age and the inability to awake prone were the only independent predictors of COVID-19 mortality. The mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support is considerable. Data from our cohort managed on HDU show that CPAP and awake proning are possible in a selected population of COVID-19, and may be useful. Further prospective studies are required.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Vigília
3.
Eur Respir J ; 55(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rising incidence of pleural disease is seeing an international growth of pleural services, with physicians performing an ever-increasing volume of pleural interventions. These are frequently conducted at sites without immediate access to thoracic surgery or interventional radiology and serious complications such as pleural bleeding are likely to be under-reported. AIM: To assess whether intercostal vessel screening can be performed by respiratory physicians at the time of pleural intervention, as an additional step that could potentially enhance safe practice. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of 596 ultrasound-guided pleural procedures conducted by respiratory physicians and trainees in a tertiary centre. Operators did not have additional formal radiology training. Intercostal vessel screening was performed using a low frequency probe and the colour Doppler feature. RESULTS: The intercostal vessels were screened in 95% of procedures and the intercostal artery (ICA) was successfully identified in 53% of cases. Screening resulted in an overall site alteration rate of 16% in all procedures, which increased to 30% when the ICA was successfully identified. This resulted in procedure abandonment in 2% of cases due to absence of a suitable entry site. Intercostal vessel screening was shown to be of particular value in the context of image-guided pleural biopsy. CONCLUSION: Intercostal vessel screening is a simple and potentially important additional step that can be performed by respiratory physicians at the time of pleural intervention without advanced ultrasound expertise. Whether the widespread use of this technique can improve safety requires further evaluation in a multi-centre setting with a robust prospective study.


Assuntos
Médicos , Doenças Pleurais , Humanos , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 6(1): e000440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673364

RESUMO

Background: Pleural infection (PI) is a major global disease with an increasing incidence, and pleural fluid (PF) drainage is essential for the successful treatment. The MIST2 study demonstrated that intrapleural administration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and DNase, or t-PA alone increased the volume of drained PF. Mouse model studies have suggested that the volume increase is due to the interaction of the pleura with the t-PA via the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) pathway. We designed a study to determine the time frame of drained PF volume induction on intrapleural delivery of t-PA±DNase in humans, and to test the hypothesis that the induction is mediated by the MCP-1 pathway. Methods: Data and samples from the MIST2 study were used (210 PI patients randomised to receive for 3 days either: t-PA and DNase, t-PA and placebo, DNase and placebo or double placebo). PF MCP-1 levels were measured by ELISA. One-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc tests were used to estimate statistical significance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess linear correlation. Results: Intrapleural administration of t-PA±DNase stimulated a statistically significant rise in the volume of drained PF during the treatment period (days 1-3). No significant difference was detected between any groups during the post-treatment period (days 5-7). Intrapleural administration of t-PA increased MCP-1 PF levels during treatment; however, no statistically significant difference was detected between patients who received t-PA and those who did not. PF MCP-1 expression was not correlated to the drug given nor the volume of drained PF. Conclusions: We conclude that the PF volume drainage increment seen with the administration of t-PA does not appear to act solely via activation of the MCP-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonucleases/administração & dosagem , Drenagem , Empiema Pleural/terapia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CCL2/análise , Humanos , Pleura
8.
Respiration ; 97(5): 451-456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion echogenicity on ultrasound has previously been suggested to allow identification of exudates. A case series suggested that homogenously echogenic effusions are always exudates. With modern imaging techniques and more advanced ultrasound technology, this may no longer be true. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to prospectively assess the predictive value of echogenicity in the identification of exudates. METHOD: Patients undergoing thoracic ultrasound before pleural fluid sampling were analysed prospectively (n = 140). Pleural fluid was classified as an exudate if both fluid total protein (TP) > 29 g/L and fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 2/3 upper limit of normal serum LDH (which is 255 IU/L in females and 235 IU/L in males) were present. If only one of these criteria was met, the effusion was considered to have discordant biochemistry. RESULTS: Fifty-five (39%) patients had non-echogenic and 85 (61%) had echogenic effusions. Six (7.1%) patients with echogenic effusions had transudates; the median fluid TP for this group was 18.5 g/L (IQR 9.75) and median LDH 63.0 IU/L (IQR 40.3). The specificity of echogenicity identifying exudates from transudates, excluding patients with discordant biochemistry, was 57.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) 90.3%, sensitivity 65.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 21.0%. The specificity of echogenicity identifying exudates (including discordant biochemistry) from transudates was 57.1%, PPV 92.9%, sensitivity 62.7%, and NPV 14.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Echogenicity of a pleural effusion has a low specificity for identifying an underlying exudate, and the echogenic qualities of the fluid should not influence clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(1)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723732

RESUMO

Prior talc pleurodesis does not result in worsened outcomes from subsequent indwelling pleural catheter use, and patients should not be dissuaded from choosing talc as a primary treatment for recurrent pleural effusion. http://ow.ly/qAAC30mYmr3.

10.
Respiration ; 97(1): 70-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling pleural catheters (IPC) offer an alternative to talc pleurodesis in recurrent effusion, especially in patients wishing to avoid hospitalization. Two randomized trials have demonstrated reduced time in hospital using IPCs versus talc pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). However, the impact of IPCs on hospital services and patients has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To analyze long-term outcomes of IPCs and understand the hospital burden in terms of requirement for hospital visits and contacts with healthcare, while the IPC was in situ. METHODS: IPC insertions in a tertiary pleural center were analyzed retrospectively. Reviews of patients with IPCs in situ considered "additional" to routine clinical follow-up were defined pre-hoc. RESULTS: A total of 202 cases were analyzed: 89.6% MPE group (n = 181) and 10.4% non-MPE group (n = 21). There were a median 3.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 3) and 2.0 (IQR 2) ipsilateral pleural procedures prior to each IPC insertion in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively (p = 0.26), and a mean 1.3 (SD 1.7) planned IPC-related outpatient follow-up visits per patient. There were 2 (9.5%) and 14 (7.7%) IPC-related infections in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively. Four (19.0%) and 44 (24.3%) patients required additional IPC-related reviews in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and these occurred within 250 days post IPC insertion. CONCLUSIONS: Although IPCs decrease initial length of hospital stay compared to talc pleurodesis via chest drain, IPCs are associated with significant hospital-visit burden, in addition to planned visits and regular home IPC drainages. IPC-using services need to be prepared for this additional work to run an IPC service effectively.


Assuntos
Cateteres de Demora , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talco/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(4): 502-508, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926296

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with malignant pleural effusion experience breathlessness, which is treated by drainage and pleurodesis. Incomplete drainage results in residual dyspnea and pleurodesis failure. Intrapleural fibrinolytics lyse septations within pleural fluid, improving drainage. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of intrapleural urokinase on dyspnea and pleurodesis success in patients with nondraining malignant effusion. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Patients with nondraining effusion were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to intrapleural urokinase (100,000 IU, three doses, 12-hourly) or matched placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Co-primary outcome measures were dyspnea (average daily 100-mm visual analog scale scores over 28 d) and time to pleurodesis failure to 12 months. Secondary outcomes were survival, hospital length of stay, and radiographic change. A total of 71 subjects were randomized (36 received urokinase, 35 placebo) from 12 U.K. centers. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There was no difference in mean dyspnea between groups (mean difference, 3.8 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], -12 to 4.4 mm; P = 0.36). Pleurodesis failure rates were similar (urokinase, 13 of 35 [37%]; placebo, 11 of 34 [32%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.2; P = 0.65). Urokinase was associated with decreased effusion size visualized by chest radiography (adjusted relative improvement, -19%; 95% CI, -28 to -11%; P < 0.001), reduced hospital stay (1.6 d; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6; P = 0.049), and improved survival (69 vs. 48 d; P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Use of intrapleural urokinase does not reduce dyspnea or improve pleurodesis success compared with placebo and cannot be recommended as an adjunct to pleurodesis. Other palliative treatments should be used. Improvements in hospital stay, radiographic appearance, and survival associated with urokinase require further evaluation. Clinical trial registered with ISRCTN (12852177) and EudraCT (2008-000586-26).


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/enzimologia , Pleurodese/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Thorax ; 71(6): 535-42, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries but few recent large-scale studies have examined trends in its incidence. METHODS: Incidence of CAP leading to hospitalisation in one UK region (Oxfordshire) was calculated over calendar time using routinely collected diagnostic codes, and modelled using piecewise-linear Poisson regression. Further models considered other related diagnoses, typical administrative outcomes, and blood and microbiology test results at admission to determine whether CAP trends could be explained by changes in case-mix, coding practices or admission procedures. RESULTS: CAP increased by 4.2%/year (95% CI 3.6 to 4.8) from 1998 to 2008, and subsequently much faster at 8.8%/year (95% CI 7.8 to 9.7) from 2009 to 2014. Pneumonia-related conditions also increased significantly over this period. Length of stay and 30-day mortality decreased slightly in later years, but the proportions with abnormal neutrophils, urea and C reactive protein (CRP) did not change (p>0.2). The proportion with severely abnormal CRP (>100 mg/L) decreased slightly in later years. Trends were similar in all age groups. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common causative organism found; however other organisms, particularly Enterobacteriaceae, increased in incidence over the study period (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalisations for CAP have been increasing rapidly in Oxfordshire, particularly since 2008. There is little evidence that this is due only to changes in pneumonia coding, an ageing population or patients with substantially less severe disease being admitted more frequently. Healthcare planning to address potential further increases in admissions and consequent antibiotic prescribing should be a priority.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia
15.
Respirology ; 21(2): 392-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545413

RESUMO

Patients with an unexplained pleural effusion often require urgent investigation. Clinical practice varies due to uncertainty as to whether an effusion should be drained completely before diagnostic imaging. We performed a retrospective study of patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy for an unexplained effusion. In 110 patients with paired (pre- and post-drainage) chest X-rays and 32 patients with paired computed tomography scans, post-drainage imaging did not provide additional information that would have influenced the clinical decision-making process.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toracoscopia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
J Thorac Dis ; 7(6): 1058-67, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26150919

RESUMO

Pleural disease is common with a rising case frequency. Many of these patients will be symptomatic and require diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Patients with pleural disease present to a number of different medical specialties, and an equally broad range of clinicians are therefore required to have practical knowledge of these procedures. There is often underestimation of the morbidity and mortality associated with pleural interventions, even those regarded as being relatively straightforward, with potentially significant implications for processes relating to patient safety and informed consent. The advent of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has had a major influence on patient safety and the number of physicians with the necessary skill set to perform pleural procedures. As the variety and complexity of pleural interventions increases, there is increasing recognition that early specialist input can reduce the risk of complications and number of procedures a patient requires. This review looks at the means by which complications of pleural procedures arise, along with how they can be managed or ideally prevented.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 3(7): 563-77, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170076

RESUMO

Pleural space infections are increasing in incidence and continue to have high associated morbidity, mortality, and need for invasive treatments such as thoracic surgery. The mechanisms of progression from a non-infected, pneumonia-related effusion to a confirmed pleural infection have been well described in the scientific literature, but the route by which pathogenic organisms access the pleural space is poorly understood. Data suggests that not all pleural infections can be related to lung parenchymal infection. Studies examining the microbiological profile of pleural infection inform antibiotic choice and can help to delineate the source and pathogenesis of infection. The development of radiological methods and use of clinical indices to predict which patients with pleural infection will have a poor outcome, as well as inform patient selection for more invasive treatments, is particularly important. Randomised clinical trial and case series data have shown that the combination of an intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease therapy can potentially improve outcomes, but the use of this treatment as compared with surgical options has not been precisely defined, particularly in terms of when and in which patients it should be used.


Assuntos
Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Previsões , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/terapia , Prognóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Estreptoquinase/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/tendências , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico
19.
JAMA ; 314(24): 2641-53, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26720026

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: For treatment of malignant pleural effusion, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are avoided because they may reduce pleurodesis efficacy. Smaller chest tubes may be less painful than larger tubes, but efficacy in pleurodesis has not been proven. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of chest tube size and analgesia (NSAIDs vs opiates) on pain and clinical efficacy related to pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural effusion. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2×2 factorial phase 3 randomized clinical trial among 320 patients requiring pleurodesis in 16 UK hospitals from 2007 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients undergoing thoracoscopy (n = 206; clinical decision if biopsy was required) received a 24F chest tube and were randomized to receive opiates (n = 103) vs NSAIDs (n = 103), and those not undergoing thoracoscopy (n = 114) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups (24F chest tube and opioids [n = 28]; 24F chest tube and NSAIDs [n = 29]; 12F chest tube and opioids [n = 29]; or 12F chest tube and NSAIDs [n = 28]). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Pain while chest tube was in place (0- to 100-mm visual analog scale [VAS] 4 times/d; superiority comparison) and pleurodesis efficacy at 3 months (failure defined as need for further pleural intervention; noninferiority comparison; margin, 15%). RESULTS: Pain scores in the opiate group (n = 150) vs the NSAID group (n = 144) were not significantly different (mean VAS score, 23.8 mm vs 22.1 mm; adjusted difference, -1.5 mm; 95% CI, -5.0 to 2.0 mm; P = .40), but the NSAID group required more rescue analgesia (26.3% vs 38.1%; rate ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4; P = .003). Pleurodesis failure occurred in 30 patients (20%) in the opiate group and 33 (23%) in the NSAID group, meeting criteria for noninferiority (difference, -3%; 1-sided 95% CI, -10% to ∞; P = .004 for noninferiority). Pain scores were lower among patients in the 12F chest tube group (n = 54) vs the 24F group (n = 56) (mean VAS score, 22.0 mm vs 26.8 mm; adjusted difference, -6.0 mm; 95% CI, -11.7 to -0.2 mm; P = .04) and 12F chest tubes vs 24F chest tubes were associated with higher pleurodesis failure (30% vs 24%), failing to meet noninferiority criteria (difference, -6%; 1-sided 95% CI, -20% to ∞; P = .14 for noninferiority). Complications during chest tube insertion occurred more commonly with 12F tubes (14% vs 24%; odds ratio, 1.91; P = .20). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Use of NSAIDs vs opiates resulted in no significant difference in pain scores but was associated with more rescue medication. NSAID use resulted in noninferior rates of pleurodesis efficacy at 3 months. Placement of 12F chest tubes vs 24F chest tubes was associated with a statistically significant but clinically modest reduction in pain but failed to meet noninferiority criteria for pleurodesis efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN33288337.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Tubos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/métodos , Idoso , Algoritmos , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Intervalos de Confiança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/complicações , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Toracoscopia/instrumentação , Falha de Tratamento
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