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1.
Int J Oncol ; 55(2): 371-390, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268155

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell cancer, characterized by the highest mortality rate among other RCC subtypes due to the occurrence of metastasis and drug resistance following surgery. The Von Hippel­Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL)­hypoxia­inducible factor 1 subunit α (HIF1A)/hypoxia­inducible factor 2α (HIF2A)­vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) protein axis is involved in the development and progression of ccRCC, whereas sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocks the binding of VEGFA to its receptor. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible association of the gene expression of VHL, HIF1A, HIF2A, VEGFA and tumor protein P53 (P53) in cancer tissue with the outcome of ccRCC patients who were treated with sunitinib as first­line therapy following nephrectomy. A total of 36 ccRCC patients were enrolled, 11 of whom were administered sunitinib post­operatively. Tumor and control samples were collected, and mRNA and protein levels were assessed by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. High mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF2A and VEGFA were found to be associated with shorter overall survival (OS) and progression­free survival (PFS) rates, as well as with unfavorable risk factors of cancer recurrence and mortality. Resistance to sunitinib was also observed; the OS and PFS rates were shorter (median OS and PFS: 12 and 6 months, respectively, vs. undetermined). Sunitinib resistance was associated with high HIF2A and VEGFA protein levels (b=0.57 and b=0.69 for OS and PFS, respectively; P<0.001). Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that the protein levels of HIF2A and VEGFA in tumor tissue may serve as independent prognostic factors in ccRCC. ccRCC patients with increased intratumoral HIF2A and VEGFA protein levels, and unaltered VHL protein levels, are not likely to benefit from sunitinib treatment following nephrectomy; however, this hypothesis requires verification by large­scale replication studies.

2.
Int J Oncol ; 55(1): 223-242, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180528

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 5­fluorouracil (5­FU), anti­epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody and aspirin (ASA) on the characteristics of two CRC cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, maintained in a spherical culture system. We observed that the morphology of both the HCT116 and HT29 cell­derived spheres was significantly impaired and the size of the colonospheres was markedly reduced following treatment with the aforementioned three drugs. In contrast to adherent cultures, the spherical cultures were more resistant to the tested drugs, as was reflected by their capacity to re­create the colonospheres when sustained in serum­free medium. Flow cytometric analysis of the drug­treated HCT116 cell­derived spheres revealed changes in the fraction of cells expressing markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), whereas the CSC phenotype of HT29 cell­derived colonospheres was affected to a lesser extent. All reagents enhanced the percentage of non­viable cells in the colonospheres despite the diminished fraction of active caspase­3­positive cells following treatment of the HT29 cell­derived spheres with anti­EGFR antibody. Increased autophagy, assessed by acridine orange staining, was noted following the incubation of the HT29­colonospheres with ASA and 5­FU in comparison to the control. Notably, the percentage of cyclooxygenase (COX)­2­positive cells was not affected by ASA, although its activity was markedly elevated in the colonospheres incubated with anti­EGFR antibody. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that all the tested drugs were involved in different cellular processes, which suggests that they should be considered for the combined therapeutic treatment of CRC, particularly for targeting the population of CSC­like cells. Thus, cancer cell­derived spheres may be used as a preferable model for in vitro anticancer drug testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/biossíntese , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Esferoides Celulares , Receptor fas/biossíntese
3.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(1): 1-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869153

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the lack of pancreatic ß-cells that had been destroyed as a result of an autoimmune response. Therefore, in patients with T1D, the replacement therapy with functional ß-cells derived from extrinsic sources could be a preferable option as compared to insulin treatment. Unfortunately, successful transplantation of whole pancreata or pancreatic islets into patients with diabetes is available only to a fraction of them due to the scarcity of donors. The rapid development of cell reprogramming methods made it possible to generate large numbers of human ß-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This review describes the basis of in vitro differentiaton protocols of ß-like cells that mimic changes of the main signaling pathways during the key stages of human and murine pancreas development, which are described first. During the last 15 years it was found that there are no important differences between hESCs and hiPSCs in their differentiation capacities into ß-like cells and the expression profiles of the key transcription factors. The in vitro produced ß-like cells are immature as demonstrated by functional tests in rodents and single-cell transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. After the transplantation of the ß cell progenitors into immunocompromised diabetic mice, a few weeks have to pass before the increased insulin levels in response to glucose load appear. There is a continuous progress in the development of open-type encapsulation devices which allow the vascularization of the transplanted cells and protect them against host's immune cells. The results of the first clinical trial of human partially differentiated endocrine progenitors of ß cells transplanted into patients with T1D will be published in the year 2019. It is hoped that further improvements in the techniques of large-scale generation of the ß-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells will bring us closer to their clinical application as a form of cause-directed therapy for people with diabetes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/transplante , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/embriologia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Neurotox Res ; 34(3): 388-400, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656349

RESUMO

Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells. We found that treatment of HT22 cells with this compound results in a concentration-dependent increase in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, 3-FMC induced concentration-dependent conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II and formation of autophagic vacuoles. Additionally, the level of p62/SQSTM1 protein decreased after 3-FMC treatment, suggesting that accumulation of autophagic vacuoles resulted from activation rather than inhibition of autophagy. Our results also showed that 3-FMC at millimolar concentration is able to induce caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT22 cells. Our findings suggest that abuse of 3-FMC may disturb neuronal homeostasis and impair functioning of the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Drogas Desenhadas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
5.
Oncol Rep ; 38(1): 427-439, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504812

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of RCC (70-80%). Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) protein is a nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway and acts as a transcriptional co-activator of genes involved in the processes of growth and development of tissues. Hippo signaling, with its key kinases, MST2 and large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), plays a significant role in the negative regulation of the amount and activity of YAP1 protein. Components of the Hippo pathway and YAP1 levels are frequently dysregulated in a variety of tumors, suggestive of their possible involvement in carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate gene and protein expression profiles of YAP1, MST2 and LATS1 and the methylation status of MST2 and LATS1 promoters in ccRCC. mRNA levels of MST2, LATS1 and YAP1 genes were assessed in the tumor and matched normal kidney tissues of 86 patients, and in 12 samples of local metastases by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Proteins were semi-quantified in 58 patient samples by western blotting. Hypermethylation of LATS1 and MST2 promoters was measured by methylation­specific high­resolution-melting qPCR. We found that LATS1 promoter hypermethylation, decreased LATS1 mRNA/protein and increased YAP1 mRNA/protein levels in tumor samples were associated with higher TNM and Fuhrman's stages and patient survival. Higher YAP1 mRNA levels were associated with poor outcome (HR=4.03, p=0.036). No changes in MST2 (promoter/mRNA/protein) were found. We propose that deregulation of LATS1 and YAP1 expression is associated with ccRCC progression and poor patient survival. Measurement of YAP1 mRNA levels in paired tumor-normal kidney tissue samples may serve as a new prognostic factor in ccRCC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefrectomia , Oncogenes , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
6.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 54(3): 166-170, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27654017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent cancer in Poland and worldwide. This disease is characterized by distinct genetic alterations. p73 belongs to the p53 gene family; however, its role in the pathogenesis of CRC has not been completely understood. p73 gene encodes several mRNA variants and protein isoforms with its longest and fully functional p73a (mRNA) and TAp73a (protein) isoform. The aim of the study was to investigate p73 gene expression at the mRNA (p73a) and protein (TAp73a) levels in CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Small sections of the crc tumor tissue and macroscopically unchanged colon mucosa and submucosa from the dissection margin were collected from 23 patients diagnosed with CRC. p73 mRNA levels were measured by Real-time PCR (QPCR) method and the expression level of TAp73a protein was assessed by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. RESULTS: We found a 37% decrease in the level of p73a mRNA in neoplastically changed (tumor) compared with unchanged normal colon tissue from the surgical margin (p = 0.041). No correlations were found between mRNA levels in cancer tissue and clinical-pathological parameters. The semi-quantification of TAp73a protein revealed lower and higher TAp73a protein contents in 11/23 and 12/23 of tumor samples, respectively, when compared with the median value of TAp73a protein in normal colon tissue (p = 0.61). The level of TAp73a protein level was 5 times lower in poorly differentiated cancer cells (G3) in comparison to moderately differentiated ones (G2; p = 0.02). No statistically significant correlations were observed between the level of the TAp73a protein and clinical-pathological patients' characteristics. The IHC analysis of TAp73a protein presence in CRC samples showed decreased immunoreactivity when compared with matched sections of the unchanged colon wall in 4/9 patients, similar intensity of the IHC reaction in 4/9 patients and increased immunoreactivity in 1/9 patients. The TAp73a protein was localized mainly in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells. No statistically significant correlations between IHC results and clinical-pathological features of the patients were found. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that the p73 gene may play a role as a tumor suppressor in the CRC progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteína Tumoral p73/biossíntese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Western Blotting , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteína Tumoral p73/genética , Proteína Tumoral p73/metabolismo
7.
Gerontology ; 62(3): 304-10, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) have been implicated to mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction for healthy aging. While the physiological functions of SIRT7 are still poorly understood, SIRT7 has recently been shown to affect ribosome biogenesis, mitochondrial gene expression, and hepatic lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of age and short-term calorie restriction (SCR) and subsequent refeeding on SIRT7 expression in key metabolic tissues. METHODS: Four- and 24-month-old male Wistar rats were subjected to 40% SCR for 30 days, followed by ad libitum feeding for 2 or 4 days. Liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), heart and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting for SIRT7 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. RESULTS: Aging had diverse effects on SIRT7 levels in lipogenic tissues: both the mRNA and protein levels increased in the retroperitoneal depot (rWAT), did not change in the epididymal depot (eWAT), and decreased in the subcutaneous depot (sWAT) and the liver of old as compared to young animals. In the heart, extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) and soleus muscle (SOL), Sirt7 gene but not protein expression was lower in old than in young control rats. SCR did not affect SIRT7 expression in WAT and the liver in both age groups. In the heart of young animals, SCR did not affect SIRT7 mRNA or protein level. In EDL, SIRT7 protein but not mRNA levels decreased after SCR and remained reduced upon refeeding. In SOL, both SIRT7 mRNA and protein expression were inhibited by refeeding. In old rats, cardiac Sirt7 expression increased after SCR and refeeding. In old rats' EDL and SOL muscles, SIRT7 protein expression was inhibited by refeeding. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes of SIRT7 gene expression in key organs of energy homeostasis are tissue dependent.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Restrição Calórica , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Metabolismo Energético , Epididimo , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Espaço Retroperitoneal , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
8.
Int J Oncol ; 48(1): 55-66, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648328

RESUMO

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of RCC (70-80%) and is associated with poor prognosis in 40% of cases mainly due to metastasis in the course of the disease. RASSF1, with its isoforms RASSF1A and RASSF1C, is a tumor suppressor gene which has not been fully analyzed in ccRCC yet. The epigenetic downregulation of RASSF1A is commonly associated with promoter hypermethylation. The aim of the present study was to compare the ccRCC outcomes with the expression of RASSF1A and RASSF1C. Tissues were obtained from 86 ccRCC patients. RASSF1A and RASSF1C mRNA levels were assessed in tumor and matched normal kidney tissue, and in 12 samples of local metastases by quantitative PCR (qPCR). RASSF1A and RASSF1C proteins levels were semi-quantified in 58 samples by western blot analysis and their tissue localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hypermethylation of RASSF1A promoter was measured by high-resolution-melting methylation-specific qPCR. RASSF1A mRNA levels were 4 and 5 times lower in 66% of tumor and 75% metastasized samples. RASSF1A hypermethylation was found in 40% of analyzed T cases. RASSF1A protein expression was 5 or 20 times decreased in 70% tumor and 75% metastatic samples, respectively. RASSF1A hypermethylation, mRNA and protein levels were associated with TNM progression and higher Fuhrman's grading. Decreased RASSF1A expression, hypermethylation, TNM and Fuhrman's grading were associated with poorer overall survival (OS). Cox hazard ratio (HR) analysis revealed predictor role of RASSF1A mRNA levels on OS and progression-free survival (PFS) in relation to Fuhrman's grading (OS HR=2.25, PFS HR=2.93). RASSF1C levels were increased in ccRCC; no correlations with clinicopathological variables were found. We conclude that RASSF1C gene is not involved in ccRCC progression and we propose that the measurements of RASSF1A mRNA levels in paired tumor-normal kidney tissue could serve as a new prognostic factor in ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
9.
Gerontology ; 61(5): 448-55, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25721559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the heterogeneity of white adipose tissue (WAT) in different anatomical sites is a well-known phenomenon, there are scarce data on aging-associated metabolic alterations in various WAT depots. OBJECTIVE: We used the model of fasting and refeeding to analyze the effect of aging on the activity of key lipogenic enzymes in retroperitoneal (rWAT), epididymal (eWAT), and subcutaneous (sWAT) adipose tissue depots. METHODS: 5- and 24-month-old male Wistar rats were fasted for 48 h or were fasted for 2 days and subsequently refed for 2 or 4 days. Control animals had ad libitum access to chow. Samples obtained from three WAT deposits were analyzed for the enzymatic activities of ATP citrate lyase (ACL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Concentrations of lipids and proteins were measured in the blood serum. RESULTS: Fasting for 2 days decreased the concentration of free fatty acids only in the young rats. The basal activities of ACL and FAS were lower in eWAT than in rWAT and sWAT of the young rats. In the young rats, fasting did not change ACL and FAS activities in any of the studied depots. Refeeding increased these activities more quickly in rWAT than in eWAT, while in sWAT no induction was observed. ACL and FAS activities were manifold lower in all WAT depots of the old than in those of the young rats. In the old animals fasting had no effect on ACL activity in any depot and decreased FAS activity only in sWAT. After 4 days of refeeding, FAS activity increased in rWAT and sWAT, but no change in ACL activity occurred. G6PD activity in the young rats was lower by 40% in eWAT than in rWAT. The induction of the enzyme by refeeding occurred faster in rWAT than in eWAT, while in sWAT no change in G6PD activity was observed. G6PD activity did not change with aging. Fasting of the old rats decreased G6PD activity in rWAT and sWAT. Refeeding failed to induce the enzyme in these depots, whereas in eWAT G6PD activity increased by 76% after 4 days of refeeding. CONCLUSION: Fasting and refeeding revealed WAT depot-specific, age-related changes of the activities of lipogenic enzymes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/enzimologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Lipogênese , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Jejum/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Tumour Biol ; 35(12): 12473-87, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25225161

RESUMO

There is no data on reference gene (RG) selection in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) for quantitative PCR (qPCR) data normalization. We aimed at selecting the most stable RG for further determination of new prognostic markers. Thirty-five nonmetastatic and 35 mccRCC patients undergoing radical nephrectomy were included. Paired primary tumor (T, n = 70) and normal (C, n = 70) kidney fragments were collected; from 12 out of 35 mccRCC cases, we also collected metastasized regional lymph nodes and adrenal gland tissues (M, n = 12). After RNA extraction, reverse transcription and qPCR were performed. Samples were divided into four analyzed groups. Fifteen candidate RGs were tested by RefFinder tool and manual statistics. To present the importance of RG selection, TP53 gene expression levels in samples were normalized with the use of RG data. RPL13 gene was the most stable RG in analysis of 35 primary tumor nonmetastatic versus 35 mccRCC samples and matched metastasized T/C/M samples (n = 12, each group). GUSB was the most suitable RG in total 152 samples and in paired T and C (n = 140) kidney samples. Expression of GUSB, RPL13, and the RPL13 + RPLP0 pair were independent of clinical/sample variables. Normalization of TP53 expression levels showed variability of GAPDH and ACTB assays. GUSB or RPL13 assays should be used in mccRCC for qPCR data normalization whereas GAPDH and ACTB assays should be avoided. Prior RG studies should precede each qPCR gene expression study since RG selection is associated with the origin and proportion of specimens.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/normas
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