Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 162
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5323, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493722

RESUMO

The role of intestine clock in energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that mice with Bmal1 specifically deleted in the intestine (Bmal1iKO mice) have a normal phenotype on a chow diet. However, on a high-fat diet (HFD), Bmal1iKO mice are protected against development of obesity and related abnormalities such as hyperlipidemia and fatty livers. These metabolic phenotypes are attributed to impaired lipid resynthesis in the intestine and reduced fat secretion. Consistently, wild-type mice fed a HFD during nighttime (with a lower BMAL1 expression) show alleviated obesity compared to mice fed ad libitum. Mechanistic studies uncover that BMAL1 transactivates the Dgat2 gene (encoding the triacylglycerol synthesis enzyme DGAT2) via direct binding to an E-box in the promoter, thereby promoting dietary fat absorption. Supporting these findings, intestinal deficiency of Rev-erbα, a known BMAL1 repressor, enhances dietary fat absorption and exacerbates HFD-induced obesity and comorbidities. Moreover, small-molecule targeting of REV-ERBα/BMAL1 by SR9009 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice. Altogether, intestine clock functions as an accelerator in dietary fat absorption and targeting intestinal BMAL1 may be a promising approach for management of metabolic diseases induced by excess fat intake.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/deficiência , Animais , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
2.
Xenobiotica ; 51(10): 1101-1109, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382487

RESUMO

miR-199a-5p is an important regulator of many biological processes. However, whether and how CYP enzymes are regulated by miR-199a-5p are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of mmu-miR-199a-5p in regulating CYP2 enzymes.Regulatory effects of mmu-miR-199a-5p on CYP expression were assessed in mouse AML-12 hepatocytes. The metabolic activity of CYP2B10 was probed using cyclophosphamide (CPA) as a specific substrate. The regulatory mechanism was investigated using combined luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation.Of several important drug-metabolizing CYPs, mmu-miR-199a-5p significantly increased the mRNA levels of Cyp2a10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp2j5 in AML-12 cells with Cyp2a10 altered the most. Consistently, mmu-miR-199a-5p enhanced the expression of CYP2B10 protein and cellular metabolism of CPA. Based on database analysis, Cyp2b10 was not a direct target gene of mmu-miR-199a-5p. Thus, a mediator is necessary for the miRNA regulation of CYP2B10. We found that E4BP4 repressed Cyp2b10 transcription and expression through specific binding to a D-box element in the gene promoter. Moreover, mmu-miR-199a-5p inhibited the expression of E4bp4 at the posttranscriptional level by directly targeting the 59-65 nt segment in its 3'-UTR.In conclusion, mmu-miR-199a-5p positively regulates CYP2B10 expression through inhibiting its repressor E4BP4. Our findings may provide an increased understanding of the complex regulatory pathways for CYP2B10.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , MicroRNAs , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Hepatócitos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro
3.
Xenobiotica ; 51(9): 1019-1028, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311664

RESUMO

1. Retrorsine (RTS) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid (distributed in many medicinal plants) that has significant hepatotoxicity. Here, we aimed to determine the daily variations in RTS hepatotoxicity (chronotoxicity) in mice, and to investigate the role of metabolism in generating RTS chronotoxicity.2. Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies were performed with mice after RTS administration at different times of the day. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) levels. mRNA and proteins were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Time-dependent in vitro metabolism of RTS was assessed by using mouse liver microsomes.3. We found that RTS toxicity was more severe in the dark phase (zeitgeber time 14 or ZT14 and ZT18) than in the light phase (ZT2 and ZT6). This chronotoxicity was associated with a dosing time difference in the systemic exposures of RTS and a pyrrolic ester metabolite (a cause of hepatotoxicity, measured by the levels of pyrrole-GSH conjugate and pyrrole-protein adducts due to a high chemical reactivity). Moreover, the CYP3A11 (a major enzyme for RTS bioactivation) inhibitor ketoconazole decreased the production of pyrrole-GSH conjugate and abrogated diurnal rhythm in RTS metabolism. In addition, E4bp4 (a circadian regulator of Cyp3a11) ablation abolished the rhythm of CYP3A11 expression and abrogated the dosing time-dependency of RTS toxicity.4. In conclusion, RTS chronotoxicity in mice was attributed to time-varying hepatic metabolism regulated by the circadian clock. Our findings have implications for reducing pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced toxicity via a chronotherapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Fígado , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade
4.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(1): 52-59, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize diurnal rhythms in CES1 expression and activity in mouse intestine, and to investigate a potential role of the core clock gene Bmal1 in generating diurnal rhythms. METHODS: The regulatory effects of intestinal Bmal1 on diurnal CES1 expression were assessed using intestine-specific Bmal1 knockout (Bmal1iKO) mice and colon cancer cells. The relative mRNA and protein levels were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Metabolic activity of CES1 in vitro and in vivo were determined by microsomal assays and pharmacokinetic studies, respectively. Transcriptional gene regulation was investigated using luciferase reporter assay. KEY FINDINGS: Total CES1 protein varied significantly according to time of the day in wild-type (Bmal1fl/fl) mice, peaking at ZT6. Of detectable Ces1 genes, Ces1d mRNA displayed a robust diurnal rhythm with a peak level at ZT6, whereas mRNAs of Ces1e, 1f and 1g showed no rhythms in wild-type mice. Loss of intestinal Bmal1 reduced the levels of total CES1 protein and Ces1d mRNA, and blunted their diurnal rhythms in mice. In vitro microsomal assays indicated that intestinal metabolism of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, a known CES1 substrate) was more extensive at ZT6 than at ZT18. ZT6 dosing of MMF to wild-type mice generated a higher systemic exposure of mycophenolic acid (the active metabolite of MMF) as compared with ZT18 dosing. Intestinal ablation of Bmal1 down-regulated CES1 metabolism at ZT6, and abolished its time-dependency both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Ces1d/CES1 rhythmicity and positive regulation of Ces1d/CES1 by BMAL1 were confirmed in CT26 and Caco-2 cells. Mechanistically, BMAL1 trans-activated Ces1d/CES1 probably via binding to the E-box elements in the gene promoters. CONCLUSIONS: Bmal1 controls diurnal rhythms in expression and activity of intestinal CES1. Our findings have implications for understanding the crosstalk between circadian clock and xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine.

5.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(4): 535-544, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identifying drugs with time-varying efficacy or toxicity, and understanding the underlying mechanisms would help to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. In this study, we uncovered that the therapeutic effect of Fuzi (the lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux) depended on the dosing time in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: The Fuzi efficacy was determined by biomarker measurements [i.e. plasma creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)], as well as inflammation, fibrosis and histological analyses. Circadian regulation of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy was evaluated using brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1)-deficient (Bmal1-/-) mice. KEY FINDINGS: The Fuzi efficacy was higher when the drug was dosed at ZT10 and was lower when the drug was dosed at other times (ZT2, ZT6, ZT14, ZT18 and ZT22) according to measurements of plasma CRE, BUN and urinary NAG. Consistently, ZT10 (5 PM) dosing showed a stronger protective effect on the kidney (i.e. less extensive tubular injury) as compared to ZT22 (5 AM) dosing. This was supported by lower levels of inflammatory and fibrotic factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, Tnf-α, Ccl2, Tgfb1 and Col1a1) at ZT10 than at ZT22. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values (reflective of systemic exposure) and renal distribution of aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine (three putative active constituents) for Fuzi dosing at ZT10 were significantly higher than those for herb dosing at ZT22, suggesting a role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy. Drug efficacy studies confirmed that aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine possessed a kidney-protecting effect. In addition, genetic knockout of Bmal1 in mice abolished the time-dependency of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy. This reinforced the existence of chronoefficacy for Fuzi and supported the role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of Fuzi against CKD depends on the dosing time in mice, which is associated with circadian pharmacokinetics of the three main active constituents (i.e. aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine). These findings highlight the relevance of dosing time in the therapeutic outcomes of herbal medicines.

6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 398-409, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the circadian responses of mice to Semen Strychni and to investigate the role of pharmacokinetics in generating chronotoxicity. METHODS: Total extract of Semen Strychni was administered by oral gavage to wild-type (WT) and Bmal1-/- (a circadian clock-deficient model) mice at different circadian time points for toxicity (including survival) and pharmacokinetic characterization. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were evaluated by measuring plasma creatinine and creatine kinase BB (CK-BB), respectively. Drug metabolism and transport assays were performed using liver/intestine microsomes and everted gut sacs, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Semen Strychni nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity as well as animal survival displayed significant circadian rhythms (the highest level of toxicity was observed at ZT18 and the lowest level at ZT2 to ZT6). According to pharmacokinetic experiments, herb dosing at ZT18 generated higher plasma concentrations (and systemic exposure) of strychnine and brucine (two toxic constituents) compared with ZT6 dosing. This was accompanied by reduced formation of both dihydroxystrychnine and strychnine glucuronide (two strychnine metabolites) at ZT18. Bmal1 ablation sensitized mice to Semen Strychni-induced toxicity (with increased levels of plasma creatinine and CK-BB) and abolished the time dependency of toxicity. Metabolism of Semen Strychni (strychnine and brucine) in the liver and intestine microsomes of WT mice was more extensive at ZT6 than at ZT18. These time differences in hepatic and intestinal metabolism were lost in Bmal1-/- mice. Additionally, the intestinal efflux transport of Semen Strychni (strychnine and brucine) was more extensive at ZT6 than ZT18 in WT mice. However, the time-varying transport difference was abolished in Bmal1-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Circadian responses of mice to Semen Strychni are associated with time-varying efflux transport and metabolism regulated by the circadian clock (Bmal1). Our findings may have implications for optimizing phytotherapy with Semen Strychni via timed delivery.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1216, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619249

RESUMO

To design potentially more effective therapies, we need to further understand the mechanisms underlying epilepsy. Here, we uncover the role of Rev-erbα in circadian regulation of epileptic seizures. We first show up-regulation of REV-ERBα/Rev-erbα in brain tissues from patients with epilepsy and a mouse model. Ablation or pharmacological modulation of Rev-erbα in mice decreases the susceptibility to acute and chronic seizures, and abolishes diurnal rhythmicity in seizure severity, whereas activation of Rev-erbα increases the animal susceptibility. Rev-erbα ablation or antagonism also leads to prolonged spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and elevated frequency in the mouse hippocampus, indicating enhanced GABAergic signaling. We also identify the transporters Slc6a1 and Slc6a11 as regulators of Rev-erbα-mediated clearance of GABA. Mechanistically, Rev-erbα promotes the expressions of Slc6a1 and Slc6a11 through transcriptional repression of E4bp4. Our findings propose Rev-erbα as a regulator of synaptic function at the crosstalk between pathways regulating the circadian clock and epilepsy.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Convulsões/genética , Doença Aguda , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Excitação Neurológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Convulsões/patologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
8.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 426-444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391484

RESUMO

Background: Understanding the molecular events and mechanisms underlying development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is essential in an attempt to formulating a specific treatment. Here, we uncover Platr4 as an oscillating and NF-κB driven lncRNA that is critical to the pathological conditions in experimental steatohepatitis Methods: RNA-sequencing of liver samples was used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs. RNA levels were analyzed by qPCR and FISH assays. Proteins were detected by immunoblotting and ELISA. Luciferase reporter, ChIP-sequencing and ChIP assays were used to investigate transcriptional gene regulation. Protein interactions were evaluated by Co-IP experiments. The protein-RNA interactions were studied using FISH, RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation analyses Results: Cyclic expression of Platr4 is generated by the core clock component Rev-erbα via two RevRE elements (i.e., -1354/-1345 and -462/-453 bp). NF-κB transcriptionally drives Platr4 through direct binding to two κB sites (i.e., -1066/-1056 and -526/-516 bp), potentially accounting for up-regulation of Platr4 in experimental steatohepatitis. Intriguingly, Platr4 serves as a circadian repressor of Nlrp3 inflammasome pathway by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcription of the inflammasome components Nlrp3 and Asc. Loss of Platr4 down-regulates Nlrp3 inflammasome activity in the liver, blunts its diurnal rhythm, and sensitizes mice to experimental steatohepatitis, whereas overexpression of Platr4 ameliorates the pathological conditions in an Nlrp3-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Platr4 prevents binding of the NF-κB/Rxrα complex to the κB sites via a physical interaction, thereby inhibiting the transactivation of Nlrp3 and Asc by NF-κB. Conclusions: Platr4 functions to inactivate Nlrp3 inflammasome via intercepting NF-κB signaling. This lncRNA might be an attractive target that can be modulated to ameliorate the pathological conditions of steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunoprecipitação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/metabolismo
9.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(2): 328-345, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and critical illness, resulting in severe morbidity and a high mortality. There is a considerable interest in identifying novel molecular targets for management of AKI. We investigated the potential role of the circadian clock components Rev-erb-α/ß in regulation of ferroptosis and AKI. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: AKI model was established by treating mice with folic acid. Regulatory effects of Rev-erb-α/ß on AKI and ferroptosis were determined using single-gene knockout (Rev-erb-α-/- and Rev-erb-ß-/- ) mice, incomplete double-knockout (icDKO, Rev-erb-α+/- Rev-erb-ß-/- ) mice and cells with erastin-induced ferroptosis. Targeted antagonism of Rev-erb-α/ß to alleviate AKI and ferroptosis was assessed using the small-molecule antagonist SR8278. Transcriptional gene regulation was investigated using luciferase reporter, mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. KEY RESULTS: Loss of Rev-erb-α or Rev-erb-ß reduced the sensitivity of mice to folic acid-induced AKI and eliminated the circadian time dependency in disease severity. This coincided with less extensive ferroptosis, a main cause of folic acid-induced AKI. Moreover, icDKO mice were more resistant to folic acid-induced AKI and ferroptosis as compared with single-gene knockout mice. Supporting this, targeting Rev-erb-α/ß by SR8278 attenuated ferroptosis to ameliorate folic acid-induced AKI in mice. Rev-erb-α/ß promoted ferroptosis by repressing the transcription of Slc7a11 and HO1 (two ferroptosis-inhibitory genes) via direct binding to a RORE cis-element. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Targeted inhibition of Rev-erb-α/ß limits ferroptosis to ameliorate folic acid-induced AKI in mice. The findings may have implications for improved understanding of circadian clock-controlled ferroptosis and for formulating new strategies to treat AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Ferroptose , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Ácido Fólico , Camundongos , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética
10.
Sci Adv ; 6(42)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055157

RESUMO

We uncover a cycling and NF-κB-driven lncRNA (named Lnc-UC) that epigenetically modifies transcription of circadian clock gene Rev-erbα, thereby linking circadian clock to colitis. Cycling expression of Lnc-UC is generated by the central clock protein Bmal1 via an E-box element. NF-κB activation in experimental colitis transcriptionally drives Lnc-UC through direct binding to two κB sites. Lnc-UC ablation disrupts colonic expressions of clock genes in mice; particularly, Rev-erbα is down-regulated and its diurnal rhythm is blunted. Consistently, Lnc-UC promotes expression of Rev-erbα (a known dual NF-κB/Nlrp3 repressor) to inactivate NF-κB signaling and Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. Furthermore, Lnc-UC ablation sensitizes mice to experimental colitis and abolishes the diurnal rhythmicity in disease severity. Mechanistically, Lnc-UC physically interacts with Cbx1 protein to reduce its gene silencing activity via H3K9me3, thereby enhancing Rev-erbα transcription and expression. In addition, we identify a human Lnc-UC that has potential to promote Rev-erbα expression and restrain inflammations.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(4): 916-921, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819599

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complex pathophysiological process that often times occurs in liver transplantation, hepatectomy, and ischemic shock. Aberrant activation of inflammatory responses has been implicated in hepatic I/R injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of circadian clock gene Rev-erbα (a well-known regulator of inflammation) in hepatic I/R injury. We first showed that Rev-erbα ablation sensitized mice to hepatic I/R injury as evidenced by higher levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, an increased histological score, as well as enhanced hepatic myeloperoxidase activity in Rev-erbα-/- mice. More severe hepatic I/R injury in Rev-erbα-/- mice was accompanied by higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, exacerbated activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome, and more extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, pharmacological activation of Rev-erbα by SR9009 significantly alleviated the hepatic damage and inflammatory responses. In addition, I/R operation started at ZT18 (corresponding to low Rev-erbα expression) caused more severe liver damage and inflammatory responses in wild-type mice as compared to operation started at ZT6 (corresponding to high Rev-erbα expression), supporting a protective effect of Rev-erbα on hepatic I/R injury. Collectively, Rev-erbα protects hepatic I/R injury probably via repression of inflammatory responses, and targeting Rev-erbα may be a promising approach for management of hepatic I/R injury.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/imunologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/imunologia , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/deficiência , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/imunologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/imunologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 887: 173379, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758567

RESUMO

Bufadienolides are cardioactive C24 steroids with an α-pyrone ring at position C17. In the last ten years, accumulating studies have revealed the anticancer activities of bufadienolides and their underlying mechanisms, such as induction of autophagy and apoptosis, cell cycle disruption, inhibition of angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness, and multidrug resistance reversal. As Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors, bufadienolides have inevitable cardiotoxicity. Short half-lives, poor stability, low plasma concentration and oral bioavailability in vivo are obstacles for their applications as drugs. To improve the drug potency of bufadienolides and reduce their side effects, prodrug strategies and drug delivery systems such as liposomes and nanoparticles have been applied. Therefore, systematic and recapitulated information about the antitumor activity of bufadienolides, with special emphasis on the molecular or cellular mechanisms, prodrug strategies and drug delivery systems, is of high interest. Here, we systematically review the anticancer effects of bufadienolides and the molecular or cellular mechanisms of action. Research advancements regarding bufadienolide prodrugs and their tumor-targeting delivery strategies are critically summarized. This work highlights recent scientific advances regarding bufadienolides as effective anticancer agents from 2011 to 2019, which will help researchers to understand the molecular pathways involving bufadienolides, resulting in a selective and safe new lead compound or therapeutic strategy with improved therapeutic applications of bufadienolides for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bufanolídeos/metabolismo , Bufanolídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico
13.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(12): 1854-1864, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the diurnal rhythm of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW) hepatotoxicity and to investigate a potential role of metabolism and pharmacokinetics in generating chronotoxicity. METHODS: Hepatotoxicity was determined based on assessment of liver injury after dosing mice with TW at different circadian time points. Circadian clock control of metabolism, pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity was investigated using Clock-deficient (Clock-/- ) mice. KEY FINDINGS: Hepatotoxicity of TW displayed a significant circadian rhythm (the highest level of toxicity was observed at ZT2 and the lowest level at ZT14). Pharmacokinetic experiments showed that oral gavage of TW at ZT2 generated higher plasma concentrations (and systemic exposure) of triptolide (a toxic constituent) compared with ZT14 dosing. This was accompanied by reduced formation of triptolide metabolites at ZT2. Loss of Clock gene sensitized mice to TW-induced hepatotoxicity and abolished the time-dependency of toxicity that was well correlated with altered metabolism and pharmacokinetics of triptolide. Loss of Clock gene also decreased Cyp3a11 expression in mouse liver and blunted its diurnal rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: Tripterygium wilfordii chronotoxicity was associated with diurnal variations in triptolide pharmacokinetics and circadian expression of hepatic Cyp3a11 regulated by circadian clock. Our findings may have implications for improving TW treatment outcome with a chronotherapeutic approach.

14.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 48(8): 681-689, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527940

RESUMO

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a family of phase II enzymes that play an important role in metabolism and elimination of numerous endo- and xenobiotics. Here, we aimed to characterize diurnal rhythm of Ugt1a9 in mouse liver and to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the rhythmicity. Hepatic Ugt1a9 mRNA and protein displayed robust diurnal rhythms in wild-type mice with peak levels at zeitgeber time (ZT) 6. Rhythmicity in Ugt1a9 expression was confirmed using synchronized Hepa-1c1c7 cells. We observed time-varying glucuronidation (ZT6 > ZT18) of propofol, a specific Ugt1a9 substrate, consistent with the diurnal pattern of Ugt1a9 protein. Loss of Rev-erbα (a circadian clock component) downregulated the Ugt1a9 expression and blunted its rhythm in mouse liver. Accordingly, propofol glucuronidation was reduced and its dosing time dependency was lost in Rev-erbα -/- mice. Dec2 (a transcription factor) was screened to be the potential intermediate that mediated Rev-erbα regulation of Ugt1a9. We confirmed Rev-erbα as a negative regulator of Dec2 in mice and in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Based on promoter analysis and luciferase reporter assays, it was found that Dec2 trans-repressed Ugt1a9 via direct binding to an E-box-like motif in the gene promoter. Additionally, regulation of Ugt1a9 by Rev-erbα was Dec2-dependent. In conclusion, Rev-erbα generates and regulates rhythmic Ugt1a9 through periodical inhibition of Dec2, a transcriptional repressor of Ugt1a9. Our study may have implications for understanding of circadian clock-controlled drug metabolism and of metabolism-based chronotherapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hepatic Ugt1a9 displays diurnal rhythmicities in expression and glucuronidation activity in mice. It is uncovered that Rev-erbα generates and regulates rhythmic Ugt1a9 through periodical inhibition of Dec2, a transcriptional repressor of Ugt1a9. The findings may have implications for understanding of circadian clock-controlled drug metabolism and of metabolism-based chronotherapeutics.

15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 178: 114045, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446886

RESUMO

Dosing time accounts for a large variability in efficacy and/or toxicity for many drugs. Therefore, chronotherapy has been shown to effectively improve drug efficacy and to reduce drug toxicity. Circadian changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (drug target) are two essential sources of time-varying drug effects. Pharmacokinetics determines the drug and metabolite concentrations (exposure) in target tissues/organs, thereby impacting drug efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacokinetic processes are generally divided into drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (so-called "ADME"). Recent years of studies have revealed circadian (~24 h) rhythms in ADME processes, and clarified the underlying mechanisms related to circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that circadian pharmacokinetics can be translated to chronotoxicity and chronoefficacy. In this article, we review circadian rhythms in pharmacokinetic behaviors along with the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss the correlations of circadian pharmacokinetics with chronotoxicity and chronoefficacy.


Assuntos
Cronoterapia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia
16.
Xenobiotica ; 50(10): 1139-1148, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238093

RESUMO

Elucidating the mechanisms for circadian expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is essential for a better understanding of dosing time-dependent drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. CYP2B6 (Cyp2b10 in mice) is an important enzyme responsible for metabolism and detoxification of approximately 10% of drugs. Here, we aimed to investigate a potential role of nuclear receptor co-repressor RIP140 in circadian regulation of Cyp2b10 in mice.We first uncovered diurnal rhythmicity in hepatic RIP140 mRNA and protein with peak values at ZT10 (ZT, zeitgeber time). RIP140 ablation up-regulated Cyp2b10 expression and blunted its rhythm in mice and in AML-12 cells. Consistent with a negative regulatory effect, overexpression of RIP140 inhibited Cyp2b10 promoter activity and reduced cellular Cyp2b10 expression.Furthermore, RIP140 suppressed Car- and Pxr-mediated transactivation of Cyp2b10, and the suppressive effects were attenuated when the RIP140 gene was silenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that recruitment of RIP140 protein to the Cyp2b10 promoter was circadian time-dependent in wild-type mice. More extensive recruitment was observed at ZT10 than at ZT2 consistent with the rhythmic pattern of RIP140 protein. However, the time-dependency of RIP140 recruitment was lost in RIP140-/- mice.Additionally, we identified a D-box and a RORE cis-element in RIP140 promoter. D-box- and RORE-acting clock components such as Dbp, E4bp4, Rev-erbα/ß and Rorα transcriptionally regulated RIP140, potentially accounting for its rhythmic expression.In conclusion, RIP140 regulates diurnal expression of Cyp2b10 in mouse liver through periodical repression of Car- and Pxr-mediated transactivation. This co-regulator-driven mechanism represents a novel source of diurnal rhythmicity in drug-metabolizing enzymes.


Assuntos
Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Correpressor 1 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ativação Transcricional
17.
Theranostics ; 10(9): 4168-4182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226546

RESUMO

REV-ERBα (NR1D1) is a circadian clock component that functions as a transcriptional repressor. Due to its role in direct modulation of metabolic genes, REV-ERBα is regarded as an integrator of cell metabolism with circadian clock. Accordingly, REV-ERBα is first proposed as a drug target for treating sleep disorders and metabolic syndromes (e.g., dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and obesity). Recent years of studies uncover a rather broad role of REV-ERBα in pathological conditions including local inflammatory diseases, heart failure and cancers. Moreover, REV-ERBα is involved in regulation of circadian drug metabolism that has implications in chronopharmacology. In the meantime, recent years have witnessed discovery of an array of new REV-ERBα ligands most of which have pharmacological activities in vivo. In this article, we review the regulatory role of REV-ERBα in various types of diseases and discuss the underlying mechanisms. We also describe the newly discovered ligands and the old ones together with their targeting potential. Despite well-established pharmacological effects of REV-ERBα ligands in animals (preclinical studies), no progress has been made regarding their translation to clinical trials. This implies certain challenges associated with drug development of REV-ERBα ligands. In particular, we discuss the potential challenges related to drug safety (or adverse effects) and bioavailability. For new drug development, it is advocated that REV-ERBα should be targeted to treat local diseases and a targeting drug should be locally distributed, avoiding the adverse effects on other tissues.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Xenobiotica ; 50(9): 1052-1063, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118505

RESUMO

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) catalyze a great number of metabolic reactions that have profound effects on the biological activities of xenobiotics and endobiotics. In this study, we aimed to characterize rhythmic expressions of drug-metabolizing CYPs using synchronized hepatoma cells, and to investigate the potential roles of cis-elements of circadian clock system (E-box, D-box and RevRE or RORE) in generating the rhythms.Serum was used to synchronize circadian cycles and to induce circadian gene expression in cultured hepatoma cells (HepRG and HepG2 cells). Regulation of CYP genes by circadian clock components was investigated by performing luciferase reporter, overexpression and knockdown experiments. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qPCR and Western blotting assays, respectively.Of ten major drug-metabolizing CYP genes, six are rhythmically expressed (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4), whereas other four are non-rhythmic (CYP1B1, 2A6, 2C9 and 2C19).The E-box binding protein BMAL1 directly controls the rhythmic expression of CYP1A2. Rhythmic expressions of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 are generated via both E-box and D-box elements. The RevRE binding protein REV-ERBα contributes to rhythmic oscillations in CYP2B6 and CYP2C8.In conclusion, rhythmic expressions of five human CYPs (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2E1 and 3A4) are generated and regulated by E-box-, D-box-, and/or RevRE-acting clock components. Our findings may have implications for understanding chronopharmacokinetic events in humans.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo
19.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 48(5): 395-406, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114506

RESUMO

Dependence of drug metabolism on dosing time has long been recognized. However, only recently are the underlying mechanisms for circadian drug metabolism being clarified. Diurnal rhythmicity in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is believed to be a key factor determining circadian metabolism. Supporting the notion that biological rhythms are generated and maintained by the circadian clock, a number of diurnal enzymes are under the control of the circadian clock. In general, circadian clock genes generate and regulate diurnal rhythmicity in drug-metabolizing enzymes via transcriptional actions on one or two of three cis-elements (i.e., E-box, D-box, and Rev-erb response element or RAR-related orphan receptor response element). Additionally, cycling or clock-controlled nuclear receptors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ are contributors to diurnal enzyme expression. These newly discovered mechanisms for each of the rhythmic enzymes are reviewed in this article. We also discuss how the rhythms of enzymes are translated to circadian pharmacokinetics and drug chronotoxicity, which has direct implications for chronotherapeutics. Our discussion is also extended to two diurnal transporters (P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) that have an important role in drug absorption. Although the experimental evidence is lacking in metabolism-based chronoefficacy, circadian genes (e.g., Rev-erbα) as drug targets are shown to account for diurnal variability in drug efficacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms for generation of diurnal rhythmicity in drug-metabolizing enzymes. In this article, we review the newly discovered mechanisms for each of the rhythmic enzymes and discuss how the rhythms of enzymes are translated to circadian pharmacokinetics and drug chronotoxicity, which has direct implications for chronotherapeutics.

20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109936, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006903

RESUMO

Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with poor health, including cardiovascular and brain diseases. Puerarin, initially isolated from Puerariae radix, has been shown to possess anti-hyperhomocysteinemia effect. However, the mechanism of puerarin action remains unknown. Here, we uncovered that puerarin targeted the circadian clock protein Rev-erbα to alleviate hyperhomocysteinemia in mice in a circadian time-dependent manner. We first identified puerarin as an antagonist of Rev-erbα based on luciferase reporter, Gal4 co-transfection and target gene expression assays. Consistent with an antagonistic effect, puerarin induced mRNA and protein expressions of Bhmt, Cbs and Cth (three enzymes involved in homocysteine catabolism and known targets of Rev-erbα) in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. These induction effects of puerarin were lost in Rev-erbα-deficient cells. Furthermore, puerarin dose-dependently alleviated methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in mice as evidenced by decreased levels of total homocysteine and triglyceride. This was accompanied by increased expressions of Bhmt, Cbs and Cth in the liver. Moreover, puerarin dosed at ZT10 generated stronger pharmacological effects than drug dosed at ZT22 consistent with diurnally rhythmic expression of Rev-erbα (a high expression at ZT10 and a low expression at ZT22). In conclusion, puerarin targets Rev-erbα to alleviate hyperhomocysteinemia in mice in a circadian time-dependent manner. The finding of a circadian gene as drug target encourages chronotherapeutic practices on puerarin and related medications for optimized efficacy.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/genética , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pueraria/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...