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1.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 181, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The imaging characteristics of sacral sacralalar-iliac (S2AI) screw trajectory in adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) patients will be determined. METHODS: S2AI screw trajectories were mapped on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) reconstructions of 40 ADS patients. The starting point, placement plane, screw template, and a circle centered at the lowest point of the ilium inner cortex were set on these images. A tangent line from the starting point to the outer diameter of the circle was selected as the axis of the screw trajectory. The related parameters in different populations were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The trajectory length of S2AI screws in ADS patients was 12.00 ± 0.99 cm, the lateral angle was 41.24 ± 3.92°, the caudal angle was 27.73 ± 6.45°, the distance from the axis of the screw trajectory to the iliosciatic notch was 1.05 ± 0.81 cm, the distance from the axis of the screw trajectory to the upper edge of the acetabulum was 1.85 ± 0.33 cm, and the iliac width was 2.12 ± 1.65 cm. Compared with females, the lateral angle of male ADS patients was decreased, but the trajectory length was increased (P < 0.05). Compared to patients without ADS in previous studies, the lateral angle of male patients was larger, the lateral angle of female patients was increased, and the caudal angle was decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is an ideal trajectory of S2AI screws in ADS patients. A different direction should be noticed in the placement of S2AI screws, especially in female patients.


Assuntos
Ílio , Sacro , Escoliose , Adulto , Parafusos Ósseos , Feminino , Humanos , Ílio/diagnóstico por imagem , Ílio/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Sacro/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacro/cirurgia , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 241-247, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829698

RESUMO

Objective: To synthesize three kinds of metal complexes of aloe-emodin and compare the antioxidant activities of the ligands and the complexes. Methods: Three kinds of aloe emodin metal complex, the aloe-emodin-iron (Ⅱ), the aloe-emodin-copper (Ⅱ) and the aloe-emodin-magnesium (Ⅱ) complexes, were synthesized by dissolving and stirring in anhydrous ethanol solvent, and their structures were characterized. The Fe 2+-H 2O 2-methylene blue method, the diphenyl bitter hydrazine radical method (DPPH method) and other assays were used to determine the clearance effect of ligands and complexes on superoxide radicals (O 2 -•), hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and phenyl bitter hydrazine radical (DPPH•). Results: Three kinds of aloe emodin metal complex, the aloe-emodin-iron (Ⅱ), the aloe-emodin-copper (Ⅱ) and the aloe-emodin-magnesium (Ⅱ) complexes, were successfully synthesized. According to the results of structural characterization, we speculated that the aloe-emodin metal complexes were formed at the site between the two molecules of aloe-emodin and one molecule of metal ions (Fe 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+) via the 9 th carbonyl and 8 th hydroxyl groups of the aloe-emodin molecules. Both the complex and the ligand have clearance effects on three kinds of free radicals, and the complex showed stronger effects than its ligand ( P<0.05). Conclusion: Coordination of aloe-emodin with metal ions, such as Fe 2+, Cu 2+, and Mg 2+, could enhance the antioxidant activity of the ligand itself.


Assuntos
Aloe , Complexos de Coordenação , Emodina , Antraquinonas , Antioxidantes
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1467-1476, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787145

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) injured with hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). HUVEC injured with H_2O_2 were divided into 6 groups, namely blank group, model group, ginsenoside(TGG) group, total glucosides of Moutan Cortex(TGM) group, paeonol(P) group and TGG+TGM+P group. After 24 hours of co-culture with H_2O_2, the activities of succinate dehydrogenase(SDH) and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP were detected by microenzyme labeling. The apoptosis rate, intracellular Ca~(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species(ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential(JC-1) were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that H_2O_2 could significantly damage HUVEC, decrease the activity of SDH and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP(P<0.01), while could increase the apoptosis+necrosis rate, JC-1 decline rate, ROS increase rate and Ca~(2+) concentration increase rate(P<0.01). Serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex could increase the activities of SDH and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP to different degrees, decrease the apoptosis+necrosis rate, JC-1 decline rate, ROS increase rate and Ca~(2+) concentration increase rate(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and down-regulate the protein expressions of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2. The results showed that serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex has a protective effect on vascular endothelial cell injury induced by ROS, and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of mitochondrial function and the inhibition of the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax , Apoptose , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Paeonia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
4.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can protect rat primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) against oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the key factors mediating the protective effects of MSC-derived exosomes. METHODS: Rat primary BMECs were either pretreated or not pretreated with MSC-derived exosomes before exposure to OGD/R. Naïve cells were used as a control. After performing small RNA deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate microRNA (miRNA) expression. The effects of rno-miR-666-3p on cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammation in OGD/R-exposed cells were assessed by performing the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Moreover, the role of rno-miR-666-3p in regulating gene expression in OGD/R-exposed cells was studied using mRNA deep sequencing. Lastly, to evaluate whether mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) was the target of rno-miR-666-3p, western blotting and the dual-luciferase assay were performed. RESULTS: MSC-derived exosomes altered the miRNA expression patterns in OGD/R-exposed BMECs. In particular, the expression levels of rno-miR-666-3p, rno-miR-92a-2-5p, and rno-miR-219a-2-3p decreased in OGD/R-exposed cells compared with those in the control; however, MSC-derived exosomes restored the expression levels of these miRNAs under OGD/R conditions. rno-miR-666-3p overexpression enhanced cell viability and alleviated the apoptosis of OGD/R-exposed cells. Moreover, rno-miR-666-3p suppressed OGD/R-induced inflammation. mRNA deep sequencing revealed that rno-miR-666-3p is closely associated with the MAPK signaling pathway. Western blotting and the dual-luciferase assay confirmed that MAPK1 is the target of rno-miR-666-3p. CONCLUSION: MSC-derived exosomes restore rno-miR-666-3p expression in OGD/R-exposed BMECs. Moreover, this specific miRNA exerts protective effects against OGD/R by suppressing the MAPK signaling pathway.

5.
ACS Sens ; 6(3): 1348-1356, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657808

RESUMO

Herein, an interface-based DNA nanosieve that has the ability to differentiate ssDNA from dsDNA has been demonstrated for the first time. The DNA nanosieve could be readily built through thiol-DNA's self-assembly on the gold electrode surface, and its cavity size was tunable by varying the concentration of thiol-DNAs. Electrochemical chronocoulometry using [Ru(NH3)6]3+ as redox revealed that the average probe-to-probe separation in the 1 µM thiol-DNA-modified gold electrode was 10.6 ± 0.3 nm so that the rigid dsDNA with a length of ∼17 nm could not permeate the nanosieve, whereas the randomly coiled ssDNA could enter it due to its high flexibility, which has been demonstrated by square wave voltammetry and methylene blue labels through an upside-down hybridization format. After combining the transiently binding characteristic of a short DNA duplex and introducing a regenerative probe (the counterpart of ssDNA), a highly reproducible nanosieve-based E-DNA model was obtained with a relative standard deviation (RSD) as low as 2.7% over seven cycles. Finally, we built a regenerative nanosieve-based E-DNA sensor using a ligation cycle reaction as an ssDNA amplification strategy and realized one-sensor-based continuous measurement to multiple clinical samples with excellent allele-typing performance. This work holds great potential in low-cost and high-throughput analysis between biosensors and biochips and also opens up a new avenue in nucleic acid flexibility-based DNA materials for future applications in DNA origami and molecular logic gates.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144849, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736254

RESUMO

The toxicity of arsenic (As) can be influenced by many nutrients in food. However, the combined effects and underlying mechanisms of As and palmitic acid (PA) are still unclear. Here, cell viability, oxidative stress, lipids accumulation, gene expression profiles, and metabolome profiles of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to As, PA, and As + PA were analyzed and compared. Results showed that co-exposure of 100 µM PA and 2 µM As induced lower cell viability, higher intracellular reactive oxygen species level, more lipid droplet accumulation, and more intracellular triglyceride contents than As alone or PA alone exposure. High-throughput quantitative PCR and 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis showed that co-exposure of As and PA caused all toxic effects on gene expression and metabolome profiles induced by As alone or PA alone exposure, and showed higher toxicities. Gene expression profiles in the As + PA group had higher similarity with those in the As group than the PA group. However, PA played a more important role in metabolism disorder than As in their interactive effects. Oxidative stress and lipid metabolism disorder were found to be the main toxic effects in the As + PA group. Several differentially expressed genes (such as OXR1, OXSR1, INSR, and PPARA) and changed metabolites (such as pyruvate, acetate, and L-phenylalanine) were involved in the combined toxicity of As and PA. This study provides basic information on the interactive effects of As and PA, which is useful for the health risk assessment of As and FFA.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146545, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752021

RESUMO

Emerging pollutants (such as micropollutants, microplastics) and pathogens present in wastewater are of rising concern because their release can affect the natural environment and drinking water resources. In this decade, with increasing numbers of small-scale decentralized wastewater systems globally, the status of emerging pollutant and pathogen mitigation in the decentralized wastewater treatment processes has received more attention. This state-of-the-art review aims to discuss the mitigation efficiencies and mechanisms of micropollutants, microplastics, and pathogens in single-stage and hybrid decentralized wastewater treatment processes. The reviewed results revealed that hybrid wastewater treatment facilities could display better performance compared to stand-alone facilities. This is because the multiple treatment steps could offer various microenvironments, allowing incorporating several mitigation mechanisms (such as sorption, degradation, filtration, etc.) to remove complicated emerging pollutants and pathogens. The factors (such as system operation conditions, environmental conditions, wastewater matrix) influencing the removals of emerging pollutants from wastewater in these systems have been further identified. Nevertheless, it was found that very limited research work focused on synergised or conflicted effects of operation conditions on various emerging pollutants naturally present in the wastewater. Meanwhile, effective, reliable, and rapid analysis of the emerging pollutants and pathogens in the complicated wastewater matrix is still a major challenge.

8.
Biomaterials ; 272: 120765, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780686

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke, and the consequent brain cell death, is a common cause of death and disability worldwide. Current treatments that primarily aim to relieve symptoms are relatively inefficient in achieving brain tissue regeneration and functional recovery, and thus novel therapeutic options are urgently needed. Although cell-based therapies have shown promise for treating the infarcted brain, a recurring challenge is the inadequate retention and engraftment of transplanted cells at the target tissue, thereby limiting the ultimate therapeutic efficacy. Here, we show that transplantation of preassembled three-dimensional (3D) spheroids of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) results in significantly improved cell retention and survival compared with conventional mixed-cell suspensions. The transplanted 3D spheroids exhibit notable neuroprotective, proneurogenic, proangiogenic and anti-scarring potential as evidenced by clear extracellular matrix structure formation and paracrine factor expression and secretion; this ultimately results in increased structural and motor function recovery in the brain of an ischemic stroke mouse model. Therefore, transplantation of MSCs and ECs using the 3D cell spheroid configuration not only reduces cell loss during cell harvesting/administration but also enhances the resultant therapeutic benefit, thus providing important proof-of-concept for future clinical translation.

9.
Water Res ; 194: 116925, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609904

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role during initial biofilm formation, however the QS threshold and the response of biofilm formation towards N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) remains largely unknown due to the limitation of nondestructive online methods for monitoring bacterial adherence and the complexity of QS system, which limits the application of QS signal reagents in biofilm reactors. In this study, bacterial QS threshold and its response of biofilm formation to AHLs in purely cultured Sphingomonas rubra biofilm as well as in three different wastewater biofilms #1-3 were investigated via real time cell analysis (RTCA). The main perspective was to study the biomass adherence in response to 12 different forms of AHLs at different concentrations. Results showed that bacterial adhesion was significantly improved by exogenous AHLs with the maximum increase of 2.26-, 2.36-, 2.52-, and 2.80- times biomass production in the four respective biofilms. Although the preferred form of AHL differed for various biofilms, the long-chain AHLs (12-14 carbons) resulted in an overall improvement of bacterial adhesion due to their stronger hydrophobicity and hydrolysis resistance. In addition, bacterial QS threshold of AHLs was observed to have a wide range of concentration from 10 ng/L to 10 µg/L. Meanwhile, QS response time to AHLs also showed a significant difference in different biofilms. Biofilm #2 inoculated with bulking sludge had lower QS threshold of 10 ng/L and faster response to most AHLs that is less than 6 h. Thus, considering the improvement of biofilm adhesion by AHLs, 10 ng/L of C12-HSL, 10 ng/L of C12-HSL, and 10 ng/L of C6-HSL were preferentially selected for wastewater biofilms #1-3 respectively. Unexpectedly, adding high-concentration of AHLs detected in sludges did not significantly improved the bacterial adhesion. Infact the addition of these AHLs at low concentrations or even undetected concentrations substantially improved bacterial adhesion, which could be explained by bacterial communities composition. According to the Pearson correlation analysis, 62% of the top 50 most abundant genera in bacterial communities were significantly negatively related to the response time of multiple AHLs, representing their fast QS response. The QS bacteria, Dechloromonas and Nitrospira have fast QS response for C4-HSL and C8-HSL while, Comamonadaceae has fast QS response for 3OC8-HSL, 3OC10-HSL, 3OC12-HSL, and 3OC14-HSL. In contrast, the rest 38% of the top most abundant genera, such as Ferruginibacter, Hyphomicrobium, and Terrimonas quickly responded to only one AHL, showing significant negative relationship with the response time of C6-HSL. Overall, this study provides an effective and convenient means to select appropriate AHL reagents to promote bacterial adhesion in biofilm systems. Moreover, it also suggests that exogenous AHLs may be useful in improving the settling property of bulking sludge.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas , Percepção de Quorum , Biofilmes , Sphingomonas , Águas Residuárias
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3996-4006, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635627

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly toxic synthetic chemicals, which are considered the most persistent organic contaminants in the environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrated electron based techniques could completely destruct these compounds. However, in the reactions, alkaline and anaerobic conditions are generally required or surfactants are involved. Herein, we developed a simple binary composite, only including PFAS and hydrated electron source chemical. The system exhibited high efficiency for the utilization of hydrated electrons to decompose PFASs. By comparing the degradation processes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the presence of seven indole derivatives with different chemical properties, we could conclude that the reaction efficiency was dependent on not only the yield of hydrated electrons but also the interaction between PFOA and indole derivative. Among these derivatives, indole showed the highest degradation performance due to its relatively high ability to generate hydrated electrons, and more importantly, indole could form a hydrogen bonding with PFOA to accelerate the electron transfer. Moreover, the novel composite demonstrated high reaction efficiency even with coexisting humic substance and in a wide pH range (4-10). This study would deepen our understanding of the design of hydrated electron based techniques to treat PFAS-containing wastewater.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617590

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the specimen type that has high positivity and its proper sampling time for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing to promote diagnostic efficiency. All SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis in Zhoushan City were followed up for viral shedding in respiratory tract specimens and faecal samples. Positivity was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively by proper statistical approaches with strong testing power. Viral shedding in respiratory tract and faecal specimens was prolonged to 45 and 40 days after the last exposure, respectively. The overall positive rate in respiratory tract specimens was low and relatively unstable, being higher in the early-to-mid stage than in the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. Compared with respiratory tract specimens, faecal samples had a higher viral load, higher overall positive rate, and more stable positivity in different disease courses and varied symptomatic status. Faecal specimens have the potential ability to surpass respiratory tract specimens in virus detection. Testing of faecal specimens in diagnosis, especially for identifying asymptomatic carriers, is recommended. Simultaneously, testing respiratory tract specimens at the early-to-mid stage is better than testing at the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. A relatively small sample size was noted, and statistical approaches were used to address it. Information was missing for both specimen types at different stages of the disease course due to censored data. Our research extends the observed viral shedding in both specimen types and highlights the importance of faecal specimen testing in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Healthcare workers, patients, and the general public may all benefit from our study findings. Disposal of sewage from hospitals and residential areas should be performed cautiously because the virus sheds in faeces and can last for a long time.


Assuntos
/métodos , Fezes/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo de Espécimes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107482, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639567

RESUMO

Heme is an important iron-containing porphyrin molecule expressed ubiquitously in organisms. Recently, this endogenous molecule has been widely reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases such as sepsis, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of heme during systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis has not been previously evaluated. Herein, we have measured the levels of heme in lupus-prone mice and explored the influence of heme on the pathogenesis of lupus. We revealed that heme levels in serum, kidney and spleen lymphocytes are all negatively associated with the levels of proteinuria in lupus-prone mice. Heme supplementation at 15 mg/kg could significantly ameliorate the syndromes of lupus in MRL/lpr mice, extending lifespan, reducing the level of proteinuria and alleviating splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Further study demonstrated that heme replenishment corrected the abnormal compartment of T cell subsets, plasma cells and macrophages in the spleen and alleviates inflammation and oxidative damage in kidney of MRL/lpr mice. Our study well defined heme as a relevant endogenous molecule in the etiology of SLE, as well as a potential therapeutic target for treating this autoimmune disease. Meanwhile, heme replenishment might be a new choice to therapeutically modulate immune homeostasis and prevent SLE.

13.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 8, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495449

RESUMO

Bacterial biofilms cause 65% of all human infections and are highly resistant to antibiotic therapy but lack specific treatments. To provide a human organoid model for studying host-microbe interplay and enabling screening for novel antibiofilm agents, a human epidermis organoid model with robust methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm was developed. Treatment of 1-day and 3-day MRSA and PAO1 biofilms with antibiofilm peptide DJK-5 significantly and substantially reduced the bacterial burden. This model enabled the screening of synthetic host defense peptides, revealing their superior antibiofilm activity against MRSA compared to the antibiotic mupirocin. The model was extended to evaluate thermally wounded skin infected with MRSA biofilms resulting in increased bacterial load, cytotoxicity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels that were all reduced upon treatment with DJK-5. Combination treatment of DJK-5 with an anti-inflammatory peptide, 1002, further reduced cytotoxicity and skin inflammation.

14.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22696, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421258

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Trelagliptin is an important member of the Gliptins family, which has been recently licensed for the treatment of T2DM. However, the pharmacological function of trelagliptin in NAFLD has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of trelagliptin in the development of NAFLD in a mouse model. To induce NAFLD disease, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Our results indicate that trelagliptin reduced plasma lipid levels in NAFLD mice by reducing triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Treatment with trelagliptin exhibited an improvement in insulin resistance. More important, trelagliptin improved liver function by reducing alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and total bile acid. In addition, trelagliptin ameliorated oxidative stress in the liver of NAFLD mice by reducing malondialdehyde and increasing the levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity. Also, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicate that trelagliptin-treated mice displayed anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the levels of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Hematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining show that trelagliptin treatment ameliorates liver tissue damage and hepatic lipid deposition. Mechanistically, we found that the administration of trelagliptin reduced the activity of hepatic nuclear factor-κB but increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase. These findings suggest that trelagliptin might become a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of NAFLD.

15.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: we aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation with risk of all-cause mortality amongst oldest old people (aged ≥ 80 years). DESIGN: this was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, implemented in 23 provinces of China. PARTICIPANTS: a total of 28,643 community-dwelling oldest old people (mean age, 92.9 ± 7.5 years) were included. METHODS: in this community-based cohort study, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of smoking cessation with risk of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: during 136,585 person-years of follow-up from baseline to 1 September 2014, compared with never smokers, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality were 1.06 (1.02-1.10) for current smokers, 1.23 (1.09-1.39) for transient quitters (≤1 consecutive years since smoking cessation), 1.22 (1.12-1.32) for recent quitters (2-6 consecutive years since smoking cessation) and 1.11 (1.02-1.22) for long-term quitters (>6 consecutive years since smoking cessation). Cox models with penalised splines revealed an increased risk of all-cause mortality after smoking cessation; the highest mortality risk was observed within 2-4 years after smoking cessation and the risk gradually decreased with duration of smoking cessation. We further conducted subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses to reduce the impact of reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: smoking is harmful to health in all populations. Our study findings indicated smoking cessation in late life to be associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality amongst oldest old people who have smoked for a long time.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411278

RESUMO

Arsenic is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that is abundant in waters around the world. Previous studies have indicated that the toxicity of arsenic can be affected by co-exposure to chemicals. As a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial, graphene has received extensive attention in recent years. Owing to the wide application of graphene, its co-exposure with arsenic increases significantly. However, little information is available on the combined toxicity of graphene and arsenic. This study aimed to investigate the effects of graphene on arsenic-induced toxicity by oral exposure in mice. The results showed that the addition of graphene significantly reduced the toxicity of arsenic in the intestine and liver of mice, and the high-concentration graphene exhibited greater toxicity reduction effects. Graphene significantly decreased the bioavailability of arsenic because of its adsorption capability and spatial structure. In addition, graphene adhered to the intestinal tract may also prevent arsenic from passing through the intestinal epithelium freely. Moreover, graphene also affected arsenic toxicity through enhanced metabolism transformation by changing the gut microbiota. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the combined toxicity of graphene and arsenic.

17.
Eur J Radiol ; 136: 109504, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of IVIM and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in identifying pathologic complete response (pCR) and T stages after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHOD: Forty-two patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma, who underwent both pre-and post-CRT MRI with IVIM and DKI sequences on a 3 T scanner, were enrolled prospectively. According to the pathologic ypTNM stages and tumor regression grade (TRG), patients were grouped into pCR (TRG0) and non-pCR (TRG1-3) groups and low T stage (ypT0-2) and high T stage (ypT3-4) groups. IVIM parameters (the slow diffusion coefficient [D], fast diffusion coefficient [D*], perfusion fraction [f]), DKI parameters (mean diffusivity [MD] and mean kurtosis [MK]), and mono-exponential ADC were calculated and analyzed between groups. RESULTS: The pCR group had significantly higher post-CRT ADC, D*, f, and MD values than non-pCR group, and higher percent changes in the ADC, f, and MD values (all P < 0.05). The post-CRT MD values yielded the highest AUC (0.788) with higher sensitivity than post-ADC values (82.9 % vs. 77.1 %, respectively). Post-CRT ADC and MD values and the percent changes in the ADC and MD values were also negatively correlated with TRG (all P < 0.05). Besides, negative correlations were found among the pre-CRT MD, post-CRT ADC, D, f, and MD values and the ypT stages (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both IVIM and DKI parameters could provide more information when evaluating pCR and T stages after nCRT. In particular, the diagnostic performance of the MD values was more valuable than ADC values in being able to determine pCR.

18.
Eur J Radiol ; 136: 109550, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical performance of structured report (SR) for CT in patients with pre-operative staging of gastric cancer, compared to non-SR. METHODS: Retrospectively, 51 consecutive cases with primary gastric cancer staging were enrolled. Every SR or non-SR was performed by two GI radiologists (1 junior and 1 senior). Interobserver agreement was conducted between the junior and senior groups for both SR and non-SR. 10 key features required for lesion description and staging were assessed between SR and non-SR. Diagnostic content between SR and non-SR was also compared. Accuracy of SR and non-SR on T staging was measured. Subjective evaluation of SR vs. non-SR was also conducted in form of survey by 20 radiologists and 3 GI surgeons. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement showed excellent in SR (Kappa = 1, P < 0.001), but poor in non-SR (Kappa = 0.036, P = 0.455). For the 10 key features required for lesion assessment, non-SR showed 6.84 ±â€¯0.83 while SR reported all of them (P < 0.001). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the SR for parts of key features, especially for assessment of adjacent organs and vessels (P < 0.001). Accuracy comparison of T staging showed higher in SR for cohort of T4a (P = 0.028<0.05). The scores of subjective evaluation were higher (P < 0.05) in SR than in non-SR by both radiologists and surgeons. Meanwhile, the inter-observer agreement among surgeons was good in SR with significance (w=0.53, P = 0.005 for efficiency; w=0.638, P < 0.001 for integrity) but poor in non-SR. CONCLUSIONS: SR of gastric multiphasic CT ensured reliable detection of all relevant key features for staging along with reproducible documentation, which was not always the case for non-SR. In addition, SR has the potential in improving diagnostical accuracy of T staging and was welcomed by clinicians.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501579

RESUMO

Endothelial cell is one critical structure of blood vessels, and irregular migration and proliferation of endothelial cell might cause progression of several vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. We showed that TNF-α, PDGF-bb, and IL-1ß promote RNCR3 expression in a dose-dependent manner inhuman endothelial cell. RNCR3 level is higher in serum of atherosclerosis patients compared with those in control volunteers. Overexpression of RNCR3 promotes cell proliferation and three inflammatory cytokine secretion including IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in endothelial cell. We illustrated that overexpression of RNCR3 inhibits miR-185-5p expression in endothelial cell. Furthermore, we indicated that miR-185-5p level is lower in the serum of patients with atherosclerosis compared with those in control volunteers. There is a negative correlation between miR-185-5p and RNCR3 expression in serum of patients with atherosclerosis. Using Targetscan, it predicted that miR-185-5p may bind to cyclin D2 and miR-185-5p is one potential target of miR-185-5p. Luciferase reporter data indicated that miR-185-5p suppresses luciferase value of wild-type cyclin D2 while it has no influence of cyclin D2 mutant. Overexpression of RNCR3 enhances cyclin D2 expression in endothelial cell. Moreover, RNCR3 induces cell growth and enhances inflammatory cytokine secretion through modulating cyclin D2 expression in endothelial cell. These results suggested that RNCR3 may serve as one new target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

20.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 116-123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CYP27A1 is the disease-causing gene of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). As a treatable lipid storage disease, early treatment can improve the prognosis. However, CTX patients reported in the literature are mostly adult patients; the phenotype spectrum of CTX in the infantile population remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the phenotype spectrum of infants who carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the CYP27A1 gene and were suspected of having CTX. METHODS: From June 2014 to May 2020, infants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in CYP27A1 gene were enrolled, who underwent next-generation sequencing or Sanger sequencing in Children's Hospital of Fudan University. Patient characteristics, clinical treatments and outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients with an average onset age of 8 (1-42) days were found. The average diagnosis age was ten months. Cholestasis was the dominant symptom of these infants. Thirteen variants were detected, of which c.379C > T was a hotspot variant (26.5% alleles, 9/34). Cholestatic CTX is usually underestimated, but it could be severe or even fatal in infancy. For outcomes, 5 suffered from liver failure (36%, 5/14), 1 still showed cholestasis (7%, 1/14), 7 were asymptomatic (50%, 7/14), and 1 presented seizure and developmental delay in later childhood (7%, 1/14). CONCLUSION: Based on this infantile cohort, we concluded that it is necessary to consider the possibility of CTX caused by CYP27A1 gene variants for infants with cholestasis.

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