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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 745006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651001

RESUMO

Study Objectives: Smoking and sleep are modifiable factors associated with the chronic kidney diseases. However, the interaction of smoking and sleep on the renal function are still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the interactive impacts of smoking and sleep on the renal function. Methods: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study population were categorized into nine subgroups by smoking (smoking every day, sometimes, and non-smokers recently) and sleep duration (short duration ≤ 6 h, normal duration 6-9 h, and longer duration ≥ 9 h on the weekdays). Results: The study group with a short sleep duration had significantly higher serum cotinine and hydrocotinine levels compared with the other two sleep groups. After adjusting the demographic characteristics (age, race, body mass index, and marital status), sleep quality (snoring or breathing cessation), and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high cholesterol, anemia, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stroke), non-smokers with short or long sleep duration had significant lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels than the study group who smoked every day and slept ≤ 6 h. The effects of sleep duration on eGFR levels varied with smoking status. For the study group smoking every day, eGFR levels increased as sleep duration decreased, whereas for the study group smoking sometimes, eGFR levels increased as sleep duration increased. The U-shaped effects of eGFR levels were observed among non-smokers whose normal sleep duration was associated with better eGFR levels. Normal sleep duration was an important protective factor of the renal function for non-smokers than smokers. Conclusions: The effects of sleep duration on eGFR levels varied with smoking status. Normal sleep duration was a protective factor and more crucial for non-smokers than for smokers.

2.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573071

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to burden healthcare systems worldwide. COVID-19 symptoms are highly heterogeneous, and the patient may be asymptomatic or may present with mild to severe or fatal symptoms. Factors, such as age, sex, and comorbidities, are key determinants of illness severity and progression. Aging is accompanied by multiple deficiencies in interferon production by dendritic cells or macrophages in response to viral infections, resulting in dysregulation of inflammatory immune responses and excess oxidative stress. Age-related dysregulation of immune function may cause a more obvious pathophysiological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly patients and may accelerate the risk of biological aging, even after recovery. For more favorable treatment outcomes, inhibiting viral replication and dampening inflammatory and oxidative responses before induction of an overt cytokine storm is crucial. Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant with antiviral activity. Herein, we describe the reasons for impaired interferon production, owing to aging, and the impact of aging on innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, which leads to inflammation distress and immunosuppression, thereby causing fulminant disease. Additionally, the molecular mechanism by which resveratrol could reverse a state of excessive basal inflammatory and oxidative stress and low antiviral immunity is discussed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explanation of smoking cessation intentions consists of gender differences. The purpose of this study is to adopt the extended TPB to discuss factors influencing the smoking cessation intentions of young adult volunteer soldiers and to further compare the respective factors for both genders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 139 and 165 male and female volunteer soldiers who smoked, respectively. Research participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised items pertaining to the participants' demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, smoking cessation experiences, social environments, and TPB variables. RESULTS: Subjective norms (friends) are a positive key factor for young adult male (ß = 0.033, p = 0.012) and female (ß = 0.076, p < 0.001) volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intentions, and perceived behavioural control is a key factor for male young (ß = 0.226, p = 0.040) adult volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intention. The extended TPB accounted for 27.9% and 53.2% of the variance in the intention to quit smoking in the male and female volunteer soldiers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that smoking cessation strategies can reinforce gender-specific intervention strategies to assist young adult volunteer soldiers in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Militares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445700

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a new, highly pathogenic virus that has recently elicited a global pandemic called the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is characterized by significant immune dysfunction, which is caused by strong but unregulated innate immunity with depressed adaptive immunity. Reduced and delayed responses to interferons (IFN-I/IFN-III) can increase the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and extensive immune cell infiltration into the airways, leading to pulmonary disease. The development of effective treatments for severe COVID-19 patients relies on our knowledge of the pathophysiological components of this imbalanced innate immune response. Strategies to address innate response factors will be essential. Significant efforts are currently underway to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines, such as inactivated DNA, mRNA, and protein subunit vaccines, have already been applied in clinical use. Various vaccines display different levels of effectiveness, and it is important to continue to optimize and update their composition in order to increase their effectiveness. However, due to the continuous emergence of variant viruses, improving the immunity of the general public may also increase the effectiveness of the vaccines. Many observational studies have demonstrated that serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. Extensive evidence has shown that vitamin D supplementation could be vital in mitigating the progression of COVID-19 to reduce its severity. Vitamin D defends against SARS-CoV-2 through a complex mechanism through interactions between the modulation of innate and adaptive immune reactions, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). However, it remains unclear whether Vit-D also plays an important role in the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines. Based on analysis of the molecular mechanism involved, we speculated that vit-D, via various immune signaling pathways, plays a complementary role in the development of vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina D/imunologia
6.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21785, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314075

RESUMO

In the present study, acute onset of severe lupus nephritis was successfully treated in mice using a new, benzamide-linked, small molecule that targets immune modulation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Specifically, 6-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3H)-dione (Cf-02) (a) reduced serum levels of IgG anti-dsDNA, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, (b) inhibited activation of dendritic cells and differentially regulated T cell functions, and (c) suppressed the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis, targeting priming and activating signals of the inflammasome. Moreover, treatment with Cf-02 significantly inhibited secretion of IL-1ß in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, but this effect was abolished by autophagy induction. These results recommend Cf-02 as a promising drug candidate for the serious renal conditions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Future investigations should examine whether Cf-02 may also be therapeutic in other types of chronic kidney disease involving NLRP3 inflammasome-driven signaling.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome de Sjogren
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069451

RESUMO

The catastrophic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a critical global issue. One well-known complication of COVID-19 in severe cases is acute kidney injury, but no research has given a description of its impact on the kidney in patients with mild symptoms. We explore the renal function changes in mild COVID-19 patients. This retrospective, single-center study included 27 participants with laboratory-detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to the Tri-Service General Hospital from 4 February to 26 May 2020 and analyzed their clinical features, radiological findings, and laboratory data. Data collected upon admission and discharge showed a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 106.7 mL/min/1.732 m2 and 112.2 mL/min/1.732 m2, respectively, with a p-value of 0.044. A correlation between renal function and the severity of infection was also found and was statistically significant upon admission. Patients with a lower lymphocyte count or higher C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio presented with a decreased eGFR during their early infection phase. The biomarkers (CRP and NLR) may be linked with dynamic changes of renal function in COVID-19 patients who are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms.

8.
Am J Nephrol ; 52(4): 292-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) commonly have long-term morbidities. However, it is not known whether patients with COP exhibit an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) alters this risk. METHODS: This study identified 8,618 patients who survived COP and 34,464 propensity score-matched non-COP patients from 2000 to 2013 in a nationwide administrative registry. The primary outcome was the development of CKD. The association between COP and the risk of developing CKD was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model; the cumulated incidence of CKD among patients stratified by HBOT was evaluated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, the risk of CKD was 6.15-fold higher in COP patients than in non-COP controls. Based on the subgroup analyses, regardless of demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and comorbidities, the COP cohort exhibited an increased risk of developing CKD compared with the controls. The cumulative incidence of CKD in COP patients did not differ between the HBOT and non-HBOT groups (p = 0.188). CONCLUSIONS: COP might be an independent risk factor for developing CKD. Thus, clinicians should enhance the postdischarge follow-up of kidney function among COP patients.

9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 314-324, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390800

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the largest health crisis ever faced worldwide. It has resulted in great health and economic costs because no effective treatment is currently available. Since infected persons vary in presentation from healthy asymptomatic mild symptoms to those who need intensive care support and eventually succumb to the disease, this illness is considered to depend primarily on individual immunity. Demographic distribution and disease severity in several regions of the world vary; therefore, it is believed that natural inherent immunity provided through dietary sources and traditional medicines could play an important role in infection prevention and disease progression. People can boost their immunity to prevent them from infection after COVID-19 exposure and can reduce their inflammatory reactions to protect their organ deterioration in case suffering from the disease. Some drugs with in-situ immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity are also identified as adjunctive therapy in the COVID-19 era. This review discusses the importance of COVID-19 interactions with immune cells and inflammatory cells; and further emphasizes the possible pathways related with traditional herbs, medications and nutritional products. We believe that such pathophysiological pathway approach treatment is rational and important for future development of new therapeutic agents for prevention or cure of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Medicina Tradicional , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(3): 2023-2035, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730662

RESUMO

The downregulation of melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) is associated with a range of pathological conditions, including membranous nephropathy. Knowledge of the mechanism underlying MTNR1A expression has been limited to the transcriptional regulation level. Here, RNA interference screening in human kidney cells revealed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) upregulated MTNR1A RNA post-transcriptionally. hnRNPL knockdown or overexpression led to increased or decreased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, respectively. Molecular studies showed that cytoplasmic hnRNPL exerts a stabilizing effect on the MTNR1A transcript through CA-repeat elements in its coding region. Further studies revealed that the interaction between hnRNPL and MTNR1A serves to protect MNTR1A RNA degradation by the exosome component 10 protein. MTNR1A, but not hnRNPL, displays a diurnal rhythm in mouse kidneys. Enhanced levels of MTNR1A recorded at midnight correlated with robust binding activity between cytoplasmic hnRNPL and the MTNR1A transcript. Both hnRNPL and MTNR1A were decreased in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cells from experimental membranous nephropathy kidneys, supporting their clinical relevance. Collectively, our data identified cytoplasmic hnRNPL as a novel player in the upregulation of MTNR1A expression in renal tubular epithelial cells, and as a potential therapeutic target.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(23): 13609-13622, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135320

RESUMO

Tris (dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium (Tris DBA), a small-molecule palladium complex, can inhibit cell growth and proliferation in pancreatic cancer, lymphocytic leukaemia and multiple myeloma. Given that this compound is particularly active against B-cell malignancies, we have been suggested that it can alleviate immune complexes (ICs)-mediated conditions, especially IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The therapeutic effects of Tris DBA on glomerular cell proliferation and renal inflammation and mechanism of action were examined in a mouse model of IgAN. Treatment of IgAN mice with Tris DBA resulted in markedly improved renal function, albuminuria and renal pathology, including glomerular cell proliferation, neutrophil infiltration, sclerosis and periglomerular inflammation in the renal interstitium, together with (Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011, 6, 1301-1307) reduced mitochondrial ROS generation; (Am J Physiol-Renal Physiol. 2011. 301, F1218-F1230) differentially regulated autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome; (Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012, 7, 427-436) inhibited phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK signalling pathways, and priming signal of the NLRP3 inflammasome; and (Free Radic Biol Med. 2013, 61, 285-297) blunted NLRP3 inflammasome activation through SIRT1- and SIRT3-mediated autophagy induction, in renal tissues or cultured macrophages. In conclusion, Tris DBA effectively ameliorated the mouse IgAN model and targeted signalling pathways downstream of ICs-mediated interaction, which is a novel immunomodulatory strategy. Further development of Tris DBA as a therapeutic candidate for IgAN is warranted.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/etiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Testes de Função Renal , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 3/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia
12.
J Immunol ; 205(1): 202-212, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482710

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerular disorder, has a relatively poor prognosis yet lacks a pathogenesis-based treatment. Compound K (CK) is a major absorbable intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginsenosides, which are bioactive components of ginseng. The present study revealed promising therapeutic effects of CK in two complementary IgAN models: a passively induced one developed by repeated injections of IgA immune complexes and a spontaneously occurring model of spontaneous grouped ddY mice. The potential mechanism for CK includes 1) inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in renal tissues, macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, 2) enhancing the induction of autophagy through increased SIRT1 expression, and 3) eliciting autophagy-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition. The results support CK as a drug candidate for IgAN.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/imunologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
13.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(8): 842-853, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether concomitant use of amiodarone and sulfonylureas is associated with an increased risk of serious hypoglycemia. METHODS: We conducted two nested case-control studies by analyzing the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2008 to 2013 among diabetic patients continuously receiving sulfonylureas. Cases were defined as patients with severe hypoglycemia and those with a composite outcome of severe hypoglycemia, altered consciousness, and fall-related fracture in the first and second study, respectively. In both studies, each case was individually matched up to 10 randomly-selected controls. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified 1343 cases and 11 597 controls as well as 2848 cases of composite events and 24 808 controls among 46 317 sulfonylurea users. Concurrent use of amiodarone with sulfonylureas was associated with a 1.56-fold (95% CI: 0.98-2.46) increased risk of severe hypoglycemia, despite not statistically significant. Notably, an approximately 2-fold increased risk of severe hypoglycemia was observed with amiodarone therapy lasting for >180 days (adjusted OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01-4.30) or at a daily dose greater than 1 defined daily dose (adjusted OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.25-3.91) when concurrently administrating sulfonylureas. A significantly increased risk of hypoglycemia-related composite events was also found with amiodarone concurrently used with sulfonylureas (adjusted OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.13-2.24). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent use of amiodarone and sulfonylureas is associated with an increased risk of serious hypoglycemia among diabetic patients, with an elevated risk for amiodarone used in a long-term or at a high daily dose.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429048

RESUMO

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a chronic kidney disease (CKD)-specific renal osteodystrophy metabolite that affects the nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor promoting osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of NFATc1 by IS remain unknown. It is intriguing that the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis, since IS is an endogenous AhR agonist. This study investigates the relationship between IS concentration and osteoclast differentiation in Raw 264.7 cells, and examines the effects of different IS concentrations on NFATc1 expression through AhR signaling. Our data suggest that both osteoclastogenesis and NFATc1 are affected by IS through AhR signaling in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Osteoclast differentiation increases with short-term, low-dose IS exposure and decreases with long-term, high-dose IS exposure. Different IS levels switch the role of AhR from that of a ligand-activated transcription factor to that of an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We found that the AhR nuclear translocator may play an important role in the regulation of these dual functions of AhR under IS treatment. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the IS/AhR/NFATc1 signaling axis plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis, indicating a potential role of AhR in the pathology and abnormality of bone turnover in CKD patients.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Indicã/toxicidade , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 52, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute water intoxication after hysteroscopy is a rare, life-threatening condition, often accompanied with delayed diagnosis owing to masked symptoms because of general anesthesia. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein we presented a 39-year-old female who presented with cardiac arrest after hysteroscopic myomectomy because of acute water intoxication and survived after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, continuous venous-venous hemofiltration, and aggressive high sodium fluid resuscitation. CONCLUSION: Failure to recognize and treat this condition appropriately may lead to potentially lethal cardiopulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Hipocinesia/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Miomectomia Uterina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Intoxicação por Água/complicações , Adulto , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Gravidez , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Água , Intoxicação por Água/terapia
16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(5): 907-916, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has been lowered from 100 to 70 mg/dL in several clinical guidelines for secondary prevention. We aimed to assess whether initiating statin treatment in CAD patients with baseline LDL-C 70-100 mg/dL in Taiwan could be cost-effective. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to simulate a hypothetical cohort of CAD patients with a baseline LDL-C level of 90 mg/dL. The incidence and recurrence of MI and stroke related to specific LDL-C levels as well as the statin effect, mortality rate, and health state utilities were obtained from the literature. The direct medical costs and rate of fatal events were derived from the national claims database. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was calculated, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Moderate-intensity statin use, a treatment regimen expected to achieve LDL <70 mg/dL in the base case, resulted in a net gain of 562 QALYs but with an additional expenditure of $11.4 million per 10,000 patients over ten years. The ICER was $20,288 per QALY gained. The probabilities of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of one and three gross domestic product per capita ($24,329 in 2017) per QALY were 51.1% and 94.2%, respectively. Annual drug cost was the most influential factor on the ICER. CONCLUSION: Lowering the target LDL-C level from 100 to 70 mg/dL among treatment-naïve CAD patients could be cost-effective given the health benefits of preventing cardiovascular events and deaths.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , LDL-Colesterol , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
J Ren Nutr ; 30(3): 200-207, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has been demonstrated to lessen proteinuria severity in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Compared with healthy populations, patients with CKD may have lower serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2 D) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH) D). We investigated the effect of  oral low-dose active vitamin D (calcitriol at 0.25 µg, 3 times weekly) on urinary protein excretion. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nonblinded and non-placebo-controlled study. In total, 60 patients with CKD (average estimated glomerular filtration rate of >15 mL/min) who received a stable dose of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) were enrolled in this 24-week study. We randomly assigned these patients to the vitamin D group (oral calcitriol at 0.25 µg 3 times weekly with an ACEI or ARB) or the control group (ACEI or ARB). Change in the urine protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) was the primary endpoint in this study. RESULTS: The mean baseline uPCRs of the 2 groups were comparable (1.84 ± 0.83 g/g vs. 2.02 ± 0.97 g/g, control vs. vitamin D group; P = .46). After the 24-week treatment, the uPCRs were significantly lower than the baseline values in the vitamin D group (1.35 ± 0.64 g/g; P < .05) but not in the control group. The values of uPCR decreased significantly at 8, 16, and 24 weeks (P < .05 vs. baseline) in the vitamin D group. The values of uPCRs were significantly lower in the vitamin D group than in the control group at 8, 16, and 24 weeks (P < .05). A positive correlation was discovered between reduction in uPCRs at 24-week and baseline 25-(OH) D serum level in the vitamin D group (r = 0.738, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Supplementary low-dose active vitamin D could reduce proteinuria in CKD patients with low serum 25-(OH) D levels.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 524113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584251

RESUMO

Background: Sleeping disorder has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the correlation between sleeping pills use and CKD has not been investigated in-depth yet. This study elucidated the potential association of sleeping pill use with the risk of CKD and CKD progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. Methods: This study was based on a population-based cohort that included 209,755 sleeping pill users among 989,753 individuals. After applying the exclusion criteria, 186,654 sleeping pill users and 373,308 nonusers were enrolled to monitor the occurrence of CKD. Using a cumulative daily dose, we analyzed the types of sleeping pills related to the risk of CKD and ESRD. Propensity score matching and analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression were performed with adjustments for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results: Sleeping pill use was related to increased CKD risk after adjusting for underlying comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.806, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.617-2.105, p < 0.001). With the exception of hyperlipidemia, most comorbidities correlated with an increased risk of CKD. Persistent use of sleeping pills after CKD diagnosis increased the risk of concurrent ESRD (aHR = 7.542; 95% CI: 4.267-10.156; p < 0.001). After the subgroup analysis for sleeping pill use, brotizolam (p = 0.046), chlordiazepoxide (p < 0.001), clonazepam (p < 0.001), diazepam (p < 0.001), dormicum (p < 0.001), estazolam (p < 0.001), fludiazepam (p < 0.001), flunitrazepam (p < 0.001), nitrazepam (p < 0.001), trazodone (p < 0.001), zolpidem (p < 0.001), and zopiclone (p < 0.001) were found to have significant correlation with increased CKD risk. Conclusion: Sleeping pill use was related to an increased risk of CKD and ESRD. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these findings.

19.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(12): 1583-1592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839746

RESUMO

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) represents bone disorders related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several bone biomarkers are used clinically to predict ROD in CKD and hemodialysis (HD) patients. Serum albumin associates with inflammation other than nutritional status in these patients. Chronic inflammation is proved to relate with bone loss, however, the influence of hypoalbuminemia on bone biomarkers is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the pattern of bone biomarker changes and further studied the influence of hypoalbuminemia on these biomarkers. A total of 300 maintenance HD patients were evaluated and 223 HD patients were included in the study. The patients were grouped according to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (PTH ≤150 pg/mL, PTH 150-300 pg/mL, PTH 300-600 pg/mL and PTH >600 pg/mL). Bone biomarkers and inflammatory markers were measured and their relation with PTH levels was determined. Significantly increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lower albumin levels were noted among PTH>600 pg/mL group. Bone turnover markers were significantly higher in PTH >600 pg/mL group (p< 0.05). Hypoalbuminemia significantly increased the fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in PTH ≤150 pg/mL, PTH 150-300 pg/mL, PTH 300-600 pg/mL groups, whereas no such relation was noted among PTH> 600 ng/dL group. In conclusion, hypoalbuminemia represents a chronic inflammation which differently relates to bone turnover markers according to serum PTH levels in SHPT patients. Thus, serum albumin measurement should be considered in determining bone disorders among these patients.


Assuntos
Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo/sangue , Hipoalbuminemia/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/complicações , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo/patologia , Hipoalbuminemia/complicações , Hipoalbuminemia/patologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos/sangue , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16186, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261555

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan is 11.9%, and the incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is ranked first in the world. The severity of CKD progression to ESRD is dependent on glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. However, the risk factors for ESRD also include diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, age, sex, and so on, and predicting CKD progression using few variables is insufficient. Currently, there are no models with high accuracy and high explanatory power that could predict the risk of progression to dialysis in CKD patients in Taiwan. Our aim was to establish an optimal prediction model for CKD progression in patientsThis study was a retrospective cohort study, which reviewed data from the "Public health insurance Pre-ESRD preventive program and patient health education program" that was implemented by the National Health Insurance Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. From 2006 to 2013, data of CKD patients from the Tri-Service General Hospital in Neihu District, Taipei City was examined. The data collected in this study included demographic variables, past medical history, and blood biochemical values. After exclusion of variables with >30% missing data, the remaining variables were interpolated using multiple imputations and inputted into the prediction model for analysis. The Cox proportion hazard model was used to investigate the influence of CKD risk factors on progression to dialysis. The strengths of various models were evaluated using likelihood ratios (LR), in order to identify a model which uses the least factors but has the strongest explanatory power.The study results included 1549 CKD patients, of whom 1017 eventually had dialysis. This study found that in the prediction model with the best explanatory power, the influencing factors and hazard ratios (HR) were: age 0.95 (0.91-0.99), creatinine 1.03 (1.02-1.05), urea nitrogen 1.18 (1.14-1.23), and comorbid systemic diabetes 1.65 (1.45-1.88).A prediction model was developed in this study, which could be used to carry out predictions based on blood biochemical values from patients, in order to accurately predict the risk of CKD progression to dialysis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
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