Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
1.
Environ Int ; 158: 107018, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991270

RESUMO

In 2011, phthalates, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were found to have been added to a variety of foods in Taiwan, increasing the risk of microalbuminuria in children. Exposure to melamine perhaps modifies that risk. This prospective cohort study investigates whether renal injury resulting from exposure to DEHP-tainted foods from the 2011 Taiwan Food Scandal is reversed over time. The temporal and interactive effects of past daily DEHP intake, current daily DEHP intake, and urinary melamine levels on oxidative stress and renal injury were also examined. Two hundred possibly DEHP-affected children (aged < 18 years) were enrolled in the first survey wave (August 2012-January 2013), with 170 and 159 children in the second (July 2014-February 2015) and third waves (May 2016-October 2016), respectively. The first wave comprised questionnaires that were used to collect information about possible past daily DEHP intake from DEHP-tainted foods. One-spot first morning urine samples were collected to measure melamine levels, phthalate metabolites, and markers indicating oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine), and renal injury (albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase) in all three waves. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling revealed that both past daily DEHP intake and time might affect urinary ACR. However, most interactions were negative and significant correlation was observed only during the second wave (P for interaction = 0.014) in the group with the highest past daily DEHP intake (>50 µg/kg/day). Urinary melamine levels were found to correlate significantly with both urinary ACR and oxidative stress markers. The highest impact associated with exposure to DEHP-tainted foods in increasing urinary ACR of children was observed during the first wave, and the effect may partially diminish over time. These results suggest that continuous monitoring of renal health and other long-term health consequences is required in individuals who were affected by the scandal in 2011.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Rim/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan , Triazinas
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151261, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715222

RESUMO

The Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS) was launched with the aim to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on infant health. A total of 1102 pregnant women were enrolled in this study from 2012 to 2015. All participants completed a structured questionnaire, and provided urine specimens. The urinary concentrations of PAE metabolites in the third trimester were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and logistic regression models were employed to determine the risk for low birth weight (LBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant women exposed to PAEs. After adjustments for other covariates, each incremental unit of ln-transformed mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) for pregnant women increased the odds of SGA in male neonates by 1.44 (95% CI: 0.92-2.23). An inverse association between SGA and maternal MnBP exposure level was observed in female neonates. An increase in one ln-transformed MnBP concentration unit decreased the risk of female SGA to 0.50 (95% CI: 0.24-0.97). In the penalized regression splines, increased risks of LBW/SGA in male neonates were presented while pregnant women exposed to increased MnBP levels. However, an association in the opposite direction was observed between maternal MnBP and LBW or SGA for male and female neonates. This study indicated that high maternal MnBP exposure in the third trimester was associated with LBW or SGA for male infants. Adverse effects on susceptible populations exposed to high levels of PAEs should be of concern.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573096

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually causes devastating healthy impacts on patients. However, the causes affecting the decline of kidney function are not fully revealed, especially the involvement of environmental pollutants. We have revealed that exposure to melamine, a ubiquitous chemical in daily life, is linked to adverse kidney outcomes. Hyperoxaluria that results from exposure to excessive oxalate, a potentially nephrotoxic terminal metabolite, is reportedly associated with CKD. Thus, we explored whether interaction of these two potential nephrotoxicants could enhance kidney injury. We established a renal proximal tubular HK-2 cell model and a Sprague-Dawley rat model of coexposure to melamine with sodium oxalate or hydroxy-L-proline to investigate the interacting adverse effects on kidneys. Melamine and oxalate coexposure enhanced the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in the HK-2 cells and kidney tissues. The degrees of tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were elevated under the coexposed condition, which may result from the diminishment of Nrf2 antioxidative capacity. To conclude, melamine and oxalate coexposure aggravates renal tubular injury via impairment of antioxidants. Accumulative harmful effects of exposure to multiple environmental nephrotoxicants should be carefully investigated in the etiology of CKD progression.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112756, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507040

RESUMO

Exposure to melamine, which is ubiquitous in daily life, is linked to adverse kidney outcomes. The melamine tolerable daily intake in humans is based on the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) established in a single-toxicant murine model. However, humans are often simultaneously exposed to multiple environmental nephrotoxicants. The NOEL of melamine during coexposure with other toxicants needs to be evaluated. Oxalate is a potentially nephrotoxic terminal metabolite, and hyperoxaluria is reportedly associated with chronic kidney disease. We explored whether these two potential nephrotoxicants can interact and enhance kidney injury. We established a Sprague-Dawley rat model of coexposure to the melamine NOEL (63 mg/kg/day) and 2% hydroxy-L-proline (HLP, an oxalate precursor) in drinking water to simulate human environmental melamine exposure. Melamine/oxalate coexposure increased proximal tubular cell mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. The degrees of mitochondrial damage, tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were elevated in coexposed rat kidneys. The evidence indicated that exposure to the melamine NOEL can cause renal tubular injury via oxidative stress and that this effect may be enhanced via interaction of melamine with other environmental factors, such as oxalate. Thus, melamine risk assessment and toxicity prevention should be conducted carefully in different susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Oxalatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Rim , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triazinas
5.
Environ Int ; 156: 106652, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034116

RESUMO

Environmental melamine exposure has been associated with deteriorating kidney function in early-stage chronic kidney disease patients. In this study, a benchmark dose (BMD) approach was used to establish melamine exposure threshold in 293 patients with eGFR≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The patients were enrolled 2006-2010 and followed-up for a median of 7.0 years to monitor kidney outcomes. Average daily intakes (AvDI) of melamine were estimated using one-spot urine samples collected at enrollment. BMDs and corresponding one-sided 95% lower bound (BMDLs) were derived using established dose-response models relating estimated AvDIs and dichotomous kidney outcomes: doubling of serum creatine levels, eGFR decreased > 3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, and >30% decline in eGFR during the first 2 years. In addition, survival time to doubling of serum creatinine and eGFR decline over time were assessed as continuous endpoints. Given a benchmark response of 0.10, BMDLs ranged from 0.74 to 2.03 µg/kg_bw/day after Bayesian model averaging, a range one to two orders lower than the current WHO recommended tolerable daily intake of 200 µg/kg_bw/day and the US FDA's 63 µg/kg_bw/day. Our results suggest that early-stage CKD patients should strictly refrain from using melamine tableware and related melamine-made products.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Rim , Triazinas/toxicidade
6.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(6): 1363-1373, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain many carcinogens. We investigated the association between COFs and incidence risk of colorectal cancer and female breast in chefs. METHODS: We identified Chinese food chefs and non-Chinese food chefs from Taiwan's national database of certified chefs in 1984-2007. In total, 379,275 overall and 259,450 females had not been diagnosed as having any cancer before chef certification. We followed these chefs in Taiwan's Cancer Registry Database (1979-2010) and Taiwan's National Death Statistics Database (1985-2011) for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and female breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of 4,218,135 and 2,873,515 person-years were included in our analysis of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer incidence, respectively. Compared to non-Chinese food chefs, the Chinese food chefs had an adjusted IRR for colorectal cancer of 1.65 (95% CI 1.17-2.33). The risk of colorectal cancer was even higher among female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted incident rate ratio (IRR) = 2.39, 95% CI 1.38-4.12). For female breast cancer, the risk was also significant (adjusted IRR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.78) and the risks were even higher in female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted IRR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.37-2.22). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that Chinese food chefs had an increased risk of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer, particularly female chefs who had worked for more than 5 years. Future human and animal studies are necessary to re-confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Culinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fumaça , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Res ; 195: 110815, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524332

RESUMO

Uncontrolled cooking emissions from commercial kitchens are problematic due to their corresponding health effects and malodors. To reduce cooking emissions, medium and large commercial kitchens install air pollution control devices, such as electrostatic precipitators and wet scrubbers, while small-scale commercial cooking workplaces, such as street-food stalls, use smaller, simpler, and less costly filtration and absorption devices. However, these smaller devices may be poorly designed and recirculate cooking emissions in the workplace. The objectives of this study were to design and implement a novel fume collector and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing aldehydes and the corresponding environmental burden emitted by food stalls. Two stalls, which had malodor problems despite the use of fume collectors, volunteered to participate in the study. To increase the efficiency of the existing fume collectors, a new collector was designed comprising two buckets connected in series, each with pollutant absorption (NaClO-surfactant mixed solution) and particulate filtration (activated-carbon filters) components. Total aldehyde concentrations measured at the exhaust outlets of the original and new collectors were 342.2 and 80.8 µg/m3 for stall A, and 622.7 and 283.1 µg/m3 for stall B, respectively. The corresponding concentration reductions for stall A and B were 76% and 55%, and the emission rate reductions were 91% (from 749 to 71 g/yr) and 76% (from 1040 g/yr to 248 g/h), respectively. These results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the novel collector at removing cooking fumes was significantly improved. The high efficiency and low-cost nature of the collector make it highly applicable in small-scale commercial kitchens and street-food stalls.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aldeídos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Filtração , Gases , Emissões de Veículos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because there are no published biochemical reference intervals (RI) for pregnant Taiwanese women, we used an established islandwide birth cohort, the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study, to establish RIs for important biochemical parameters in women during their 3rd trimester in Taiwan. Additionally, we compared the differences in these biochemical parameters between early third trimester (weeks 28 to 31) and late third trimester (weeks 37 to 40) of pregnant women as well as the differences in them between the third trimester and after delivery. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, we recruited a total of 2,136 pregnant women from nine hospitals located in northern (n = 3), central (n = 3), southern (n = 2), and eastern Taiwan (n = 1) to receive regular prenatal health examinations during their third trimester (weeks 28 to 40). After exclusion, samples obtained from 993 eligible pregnant women were analyzed. RESULTS: There were increases in both lower and upper normal limits for blood neutrophil, thyroid profile (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and decreases for RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine (Cr) during their third trimesters. Women in their late third trimester (n = 378) had higher median RBC, Hb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Cr, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and lower median platelet and insulin, compared with those in their early third trimester (n = 490). Twenty-three of the women had both third trimester and post-pregnancy data. After delivery, the women had lower median AST, ALT, insulin, T3, T4, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and higher median Cr, free T4, FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH), compared to their third trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Gestation-related changes in important biochemical parameters should be considered when evaluating clinical laboratory values in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Testes de Química Clínica/normas , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/normas , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/normas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Gestantes , Valores de Referência , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/normas
9.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115204, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745991

RESUMO

A major health scandal involving DEHP-tainted (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan in 2011. We investigated temporal relationships between urinary DEHP metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in two cohorts of potentially affected children during that food scandal. One cohort was collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital in southern Taiwan between May and June of 2011 (the KMUH cohort). This cohort was followed up at 2, 6, and 44 months. The other cohort was collected from a nationwide health survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (the NHRI cohort) for potentially affected people between August 2012 and January 2013. Both cohorts only included children 10 years old and younger who had provided enough urine for analysis of urinary DEHP oxidative metabolites and two markers of oxidative stress: 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The KMUH cohort had a simultaneous and significant decrease in urinary DEHP metabolites, 8-OHdG, and MDA, with the lowest concentrations found at the 6-month follow up and maintained until the 44-month follow up, consistent with those from NHRI cohort at ∼15-18 months post-scandal (p > 0.05). There were decreases in both DEHP metabolites and oxidative stress markers across the populations, but no association was observed between DEHP metabolites and oxidative stress markers in individuals in the two cohorts. Continued follow-up is needed to determine long-term health consequences in these children.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Biomarcadores , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Taiwan
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110741, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497990

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to melamine has been associated with early renal injury in urolithiasis patients even when urinary concentrations of melamine are low. The aim of this study was to derive a benchmark dose (BMD) for melamine for urolithiasis patients. To do this, one-spot urine sample from 309 participants was obtained to measure urinary melamine and N-acetyl ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), an early renal damage biomarker. The participants were then classified into four exposure groups based on the outcomes of melamine tableware usage questionnaire. A beta distribution of urinary excretion fraction for each group was assumed to estimate their average daily intakes (AvDIs) of melamine. The BMD and the corresponding one-sided 95% lower bound (BMDL) was then derived based on Bayesian model averaging of alternative regression models between the participants' NAG levels and their estimated AvDIs, adjusting for age, gender, and other covariates. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used for all the estimates. With a benchmark response of 0.10, the simulated BMDL of 4.89 µg/kg-bw/day for melamine exposure threshold was much lower than the WHO's current recommended tolerable daily intake of 200 µg/kg_bw/day and the US FDA's 63 µg/kg_bw/day. The current regulation level of melamine might not safeguard urolithiasis patients from further deterioration of renal function.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/toxicidade , Triazinas/urina , Urolitíase/urina , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Probabilidade , Urolitíase/fisiopatologia
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 396: 122726, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348942

RESUMO

Melamine contamination has remained pervasive in the environment even after the 2008 toxic milk scandal. Exposure to chronic low dosages of melamine is known to induce renal tubular damage, increasing the risk of stone formation and early kidney injury. This damage may come about via increased oxidative stress, but no studies of this possibility have been performed in humans. We conducted two human studies in 80 workers from melamine tableware factories (melamine workers) and 309 adult patients with calcium urolithiasis (stone patients) to evaluate the relationships between urinary melamine levels and two urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Both human studies showed urinary melamine levels to be significantly and positively correlated with urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, indicating melamine exposure can increase oxidative stress. Additionally, we used structure equation modeling to evaluate relative contribution of type of melamine-induced oxidative stress on renal tubular injury and found that MDA mediated 36 %-53 % of the total effect of melamine on a biomarker of renal tubular injury, N-Acetyl-ß-d Glucosaminidase (NAG). In conclusion, our findings suggest exposure to low-dose melamine can increase oxidative stress and increase the risk of early damage to kidneys in humans.


Assuntos
Rim , Triazinas , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Triazinas/metabolismo , Triazinas/toxicidade
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 603831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424850

RESUMO

The developmental origin of allergic diseases has been suggested, but the molecular basis remains enigmatic. Exposure to environmental factors, such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP; a common plasticizer), is suggested to be associated with increased childhood allergic asthma, but the causal relationship and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study explored the transgenerational mechanism of DEHP on allergic asthma and dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis through epigenetic modification. In a murine model, ancestral exposure of C57BL/6 mice to low-dose DEHP led to trans-generational promoter hypomethylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (Igf2r), concomitant with enhanced Igf2r expression and increased apoptosis prominently in CD8α+ DCs upon ligand stimulation, with consequent reduction in their IL-12 secretion and subsequent T cell-derived IFN-γ, thereby promoting a default Th2-associated pulmonary allergic response. Increased apoptosis was also noted in circulating IGF2Rhigh human DCs. Further, in human placenta, the methylation level at the orthologous IGF2R promoter region was shown to be inversely correlated with the level of maternal DEHP intake. These results support the importance of ancestral phthalate exposure in conferring the trans-generational risk of allergic phenotypes, featuring hypo-methylation of the IGF2R gene and dysregulated DC homeostasis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Padrões de Herança , Pulmão/imunologia , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/genética , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34 Suppl 1: e8599, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677293

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Melamine is ubiquitously present in our daily life. It has a known effect on the kidneys, but it may also adversely affect the reproduction system. We have developed an analytical method for measuring melamine levels in maternal placenta and correlated these levels with melamine concentrations in urine, a necessary step in finding out if melamine might cross the placenta and enter the circulation of the fetus. METHODS: We used liquid-liquid extraction, clean up by solid-phase extraction (SPE), and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to measure melamine in placenta specimens. The results of this method were assessed for linearity, limits of quantitation (LOQs), and intra- and inter-assay precision as well as accuracy, matrix effect, and recovery rate. RESULTS: Calibration curves indicated good linearity (r >0.995) over concentrations ranging from 5 to 500 ng/mL in placenta specimens, intra- and inter-assay precision from 0.89% to 27.07%, and accuracy from 92.4% to123.5%. Recovery ranged from 63.9 to 83.9%, and the LOQ was 5 ng/mL in placenta (0.2 g). Placental melamine levels ranged from 7.87 to19.64 ng/mL, all detectable (n = 8). Pregnant women with higher levels of urinary melamine had higher placenta melamine levels than those with non-detectable urinary melamine, though the results were not significantly different (p = 0.149, n = 4 in each group). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that pregnant women were exposed to low doses of melamine in their daily lives as measured in urine samples and placenta specimens. It is unclear whether placenta melamine concentrations can better represent long-term exposure than urine or whether melamine in the uterus can enter the fetus via this route.


Assuntos
Placenta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triazinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Gravidez , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Triazinas/urina
14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(8): 1133-1141, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CKD is a global public health problem. Some cross-sectional studies have associated environmental melamine exposure with kidney diseases, but evidence is limited. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted this prospective cohort study to enroll patients with eGFR≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in 2006-2010. Urinary corrected melamine levels (ratio of urinary melamine to urinary creatinine) were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry at enrollment. Kidney outcomes included doubling of serum creatinine levels, eGFR decline >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, and 30% decline in eGFR in the first 2 years. Subjects were followed until targeted kidney outcomes, cancer, death, last contact, or the end of observation in December 2016. RESULTS: In a total of 293 subjects, the median urinary corrected melamine level was 0.97 (interquartile range, 0.43-2.08) µg/mmol. Over a median follow-up period of 7.0 years, serum creatinine levels doubled in 80 subjects (27%). Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary melamine level 12.70 µg/mmol) had a 2.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.23; P<0.01) hazard risk for doubling of serum creatinine compared with those in the lowest tertile (0.02-0.58 µg/mmol). Similar significant dose-response results were found in eGFR decline >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year and 30% decline in eGFR in the first 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary melamine level is significantly associated with kidney function deterioration in patients with early-stage CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Triazinas/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 246, 2018 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of exposure to cooking oil fumes (COFs) on the development of non-malignant respiratory diseases in nonsmoking women. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to COFs and chronic bronchitis in female Taiwanese non-smokers. METHODS: Searching the 1999 claims and registration records maintained by Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program, we identified 1846 women aged 40 years or older diagnosed as having chronic bronchitis (ICD-9 code: 491) at least twice in 1999 as potential study cases and 4624 women who had no diagnosis of chronic bronchitis the same year as potential study controls. We visited randomly selected women from each group in their homes, interviewed to collect related data including cooking habits and kitchen characteristics, and them a spirometry to collect FEV1 and FVC data between 2000 and 2009. RESULTS: After the exclusion of thirty smokers, the women were classified those with chronic bronchitis (n = 53), probable chronic bronchitis (n = 285), and no pulmonary disease (n = 306) based on physician diagnosis and American Thoracic Society criteria. Women who had cooked ≥ 21 times per week between the ages of 20 and 40 years old had a 4.73-fold higher risk of chronic bronchitis than those cooking < 14 times per week (95% CI = 1.65-13.53). Perceived kitchen smokiness was significantly associated with decreased FEV1 (- 137 ml, p = 0.021) and FEV1/FVC ratio (- 7.67%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to COF may exacerbate the progression of chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Culinária , Óleos , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espirometria , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Pollut ; 235: 453-461, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310089

RESUMO

Melamine and phthalate, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are ubiquitously present in the general environment. We investigated whether urine melamine levels can modify the relationship between DEHP exposure and markers of early renal damage in children. A nationwide health survey for Children aged ≤12 years possibly exposed to phthalates were enrolled between August 2012 and January 2013. They were administered questionnaires to collect details regarding past DEHP exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Urine samples were measured melamine levels, phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of renal damage, including urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), and ß2-microglobulin. The study included 224 children who had a median urine melamine level (µg/mmol creatinine) of 1.61 ranging 0.18-47.42. Positive correlations were found between urine melamine levels and urine ACR as well as urine NAG levels (both Spearman correlation coefficients r = 0.24, n = 224, p < .001). The higher the past DEHP exposure or urine melamine levels, the higher the prevalence of microalbuminuria. An interaction effect was also found between urine melamine levels and past DEHP exposure on urine ACR. Melamine levels may further modify the effect of past DEHP exposure on urine ACR in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Triazinas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos , Taiwan , Triazinas/metabolismo , Urinálise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 231(Pt 2): 1284-1290, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939127

RESUMO

Environmental low-dose melamine exposure has been associated with urolithiasis risk in adults, but it is unclear if this exposure can cause early renal damage. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of this exposure and early renal damage in patients with calcium urolithiasis. We recruited patients diagnosed with upper urinary tract calcium urolithiasis from three hospitals in southwestern Taiwan between November 2010 and January 2015. All patients completed a structured questionnaire and provided one-spot urine samples for the measurement of melamine level and markers of early renal injury, including N-acetyl b-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG), and microalbumin. We used urinary melamine levels as an indicator of environmental melamine exposure. A total of 309 patients (mean age of 54.7 ± 12.8 years) were studied. Median urinary melamine level (µg/mmol Cr) was 1.26 (interquartile range 0.48-3.29). A significant and positive correlation was found between urinary melamine concentration and urinary NAG levels (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.157, p = 0.006, n = 309). With urinary melamine levels categorized into quartiles, multivariate regression results showed the same relationship, particularly in those with first stone episode. In this group, patients with the highest quartile of urinary melamine concentration had a 3.95-fold risk (95% confidence interval = 1.43-10.94) of high NAG levels (dichotomized by median), compared to the lowest quartile after adjustment. No association was found between urinary melamine concentration and urinary microalbumin levels. In conclusion, urinary melamine is significantly associated with urinary marker of early renal tubular injury, NAG, in urolithiasis patients, especially ones with first stone episode.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Túbulos Renais/lesões , Triazinas/urina , Urolitíase/urina , Acetilglucosaminidase , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Cálcio , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Taiwan , Urolitíase/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6432, 2017 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729632

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 454, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352099

RESUMO

Phthalate exposure through skin is often neglected due to the small quantity and limited dermal absorption rate. However, free phthalate can be ingested by hand-to-mouth action or by contact with food. To evaluate the effectiveness in removing phthalate exposure on hand, we compare here the removal efficiency of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on hands by handwashing with soap-and-water versus water-only. In two three-day N-of-1 trials, residual DEHP was measured in a single female adult who washed exposed hands with soap-and-water or water-only. Subsequently, a crossover study was performed by randomly assigning another 28 subjects equally to wash with soap-and-water or with water-only, and then each one received the other treatment 24 hrs later. In the N-of-1 trials, mean DEHP removal rates range from 95.9% (SD = 0.1%) to 97.0% (SD = 2.5%) for soap-and-water handwashes, and 1.8% (SD = 0.1%) to 7.0% (SD = 0.3%) (n = 3) for water-only. In the crossover study, mean removal rate was 94.6% (SD = 6.5%) for handwashing with soap-and-water (n = 28) and 8.7% (SD = 5.7%) for water-only (n = 28). We concluded that handwashing with soap-and-water removes 80% more DEHP than handwashing with water alone, and may be a cost-effective way of removing other endocrine disruptors from hands.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...