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1.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218373

RESUMO

Exposure to residues of antibiotics (e.g., sulfonamides) and insecticides (e.g., organophosphorus insecticides) in aquacultured food can adversely affect humans and animals and thus affect public health globally. Here, using a validated method, we examined the levels of residues of 12 sulfonamides as well as 18 organophosphorus insecticides in aquacultured fish in Taiwan. A total of 52 fish samples (i.e., 20 tilapia, 16 milk fish, and 16 perch samples) were obtained from Taiwanese aquafarms from June 2018 to October 2019. We detected 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg of sulfamethazine (a sulfonamide) in one tilapia and one milk fish, respectively, and 0.02, 0.05, and 0.03 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphorus insecticide) in one tilapia, one milk fish, and one perch, respectively; thus, among the samples, 3.85% and 5.77% contained sulfonamides and organophosphorus insecticide residues, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed human health risk based on the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of these residues: EDIs of sulfonamide and organophosphorus insecticide residues were <1.0% of the acceptable daily intake recommended by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The risk of exposure to sulfonamide and organophosphorus insecticide residue by consuming aquacultured fish in Taiwan was thus negligible, signifying no immediate health risk related to the consumption of fish. Our findings can constitute a reference in efforts geared toward ensuring food safety and monitoring veterinary drug and insecticide residue levels in aquacultured organisms. Residue levels in fish must be continually monitored to further determine possible effects of these residues on human health.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13802, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217986

RESUMO

Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is abundantly expressed in normal livers and plays a protective role against tumor formation. GNMT depletion leads to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the activity of ectopic GNMT delivered using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy in mouse models of liver cirrhosis and HCC. Injection of AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) vector carrying the GNMT gene (AAV8-GNMT) in Gnmt-/- mice increased GNMT expression and downregulated pro-inflammatory responses, resulting in reduced liver damage and incidence of liver tumors. Moreover, AAV8-GNMT resulted in the amelioration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in BALB/c mice. We showed that AAV8-GNMT protected hepatocytes from CCl4-induced liver damage.  AAV8-GNMT significantly attenuated the levels of pro-fibrotic markers and increased efficiency of hepatocyte proliferation. These results suggest that correction of hepatic GNMT by gene therapy of AAV8-mediated gene enhancement may provide a potential strategy for preventing and delaying development of liver diseases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética/métodos , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/biossíntese , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Metilação de DNA , Dependovirus/enzimologia , Dependovirus/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11551, 2017 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912423

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug. Our results revealed that FAEW significantly reduced both endogenous and H2O2-induced exogenous ROS levels in the human glioblastoma T98G and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. Transcriptome-wide microarray analysis indicated NRF2/HO-1 as the common target of FAEW and fluoxetine. Western blotting assay proved that the two drugs promoted NRF2 release from KEAP1 in the cytoplasm and translocation to the nuclei in a KEAP1-dependent manner, the expression of the protein HO-1 increased accordingly, suggesting the participation of KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway. The chemical constituents of FAEW (i.e. paeoniflorin, baicalin) bound to KEAP1 in silico, which hence might be the effective substances of FAEW. In conclusion, FAEW counteracted H2O2-induced oxidative stress through KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais
5.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 181, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428751

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder developing after exposure to traumatic events. Although psychotherapy reveals some therapeutic effectiveness, clinically sustainable cure is still uncertain. Some Chinese herbal formulae are reported to work well clinically against mental diseases in Asian countries, but the safety and their mode of action are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of Chinese remedy free and easy wanderer (FAEW) on PTSD. We used a reverse pharmacology approach combining clinical data to search for mechanisms of PTSD with subsequent in vitro verification and bioinformatics techniques as follows: (1) by analyzing microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiling of PTSD patients; (2) by investigating the effect of FAEW and the antidepressant control drug fluoxetine on the transcription factor NF-κB using reporter cell assays and western blotting; (3) by performing molecular docking and literature data mining based on phytochemical constituents of FAEW. The results suggest an involvement of inflammatory processes mediated through NF-κB in the progression of PTSD. FAEW was non-cytotoxic in vitro and inhibited NF-κB activity and p65 protein expression. FAEW's anti-inflammatory compounds, i.e., paeoniflorin, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside and ononin were evaluated for binding to IκK and p65-RelA in a molecular docking approach. Paeoniflorin, albiflorin, baicalin, isoliquiritin and liquiritin have been reported to relieve depression in vivo or in clinical trials, which might be the active ingredients for FAEW against PTSD.

6.
World J Cardiol ; 8(8): 464-71, 2016 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621774

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in a cohort of large voluntary arm forces in Taiwan. METHODS: The cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) is a retrospective cohort consisting of more than 4000 professional military members aged 18-50 years in Eastern Taiwan. All participants received history taking, physical examination, chest radiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests for cell counts and fasting glucose, lipid profiles, uric acid, renal function and liver function in the Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital during 2014. In addition, participants were required to undergo two indoor resistant exercise tests including 2-min push-up and 2-min sit-up, both scored by infrared sensing, and one outdoor endurance 3000-m none weight-bearing running test, the main indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in the Military Physical Training and Testing Center in Eastern Taiwan in 2014. RESULTS: Hospitalization events for cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, severe infectious disease, acute psychiatric illness, diabetes, orthopedic surgery and mortality will be identified in the National Insurance Research Database for 10 years. CONCLUSION: CHIEF will be among the largest Eastern Asian armed forces cohort, in which physical status was strictly evaluated to follow up the hospitalization events for severe illness.

7.
Am J Chin Med ; 44(4): 871-94, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222067

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) is a well-known Chinese herb that possesses numerous therapeutic activities, including anticancer effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the biological mechanisms of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) root extract on diverse resistant and sensitive cancer cell lines were investigated. CEM/ADR5000 cells were 1.68-fold resistant to CCRF-CEM cells, while HCT116 (p53[Formula: see text] and U87.MG[Formula: see text]EGFR cells were hypersensitive (collateral sensitive) compared to their parental cells. SM root extract stimulated ROS generation, cell cycle S phase arrest and apoptosis. The induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was validated by increased cleavage of caspase 3, 7, 9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). MAP kinases including JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 were obviously phosphorylated and nuclear P65 was downregulated upon SM treatment. Transcriptome-wide COMPARE analysis revealed that the expression of encoding genes with diverse functions were associated with the cellular response to cryptotanshinone, one of the main constituents of SM root extract. In conclusion, SM root extract exerted profound cytotoxicity towards various sensitive and resistant cancer cells and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Phytomedicine ; 23(2): 166-73, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biopiracy mainly focuses on the use of biological resources and/or knowledge of indigenous tribes or communities without allowing them to share the revenues generated out of economic exploitation or other non-monetary incentives associated with the resource/knowledge. METHODS: Based on collaborations of scientists from five continents, we have created a communication platform to discuss not only scientific topics, but also more general issues with social relevance. This platform was termed 'PhytCancer -Phytotherapy to Fight Cancer' (www.phyt-cancer.uni-mainz.de). As a starting point, we have chosen the topic "biopiracy", since we feel this is of pragmatic significance for scientists working with medicinal plants. RESULTS: It was argued that the patenting of herbs or natural products by pharmaceutical corporations disregarded the ownership of the knowledge possessed by the indigenous communities on how these substances worked. Despite numerous court decisions in U.S.A. and Europe, several international treaties, (e.g. from United Nations, World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, the African Unity and others), sharing of a rational set of benefits amongst producers (mainly pharmaceutical companies) and indigenous communities is yet a distant reality. In this paper, we present an overview of the legal frameworks, discuss some exemplary cases of biopiracy and bioprospecting as excellent forms of utilization of natural resources. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest certain perspectives, by which we as scientists, may contribute towards prevention of biopiracy and also to foster the fair utilization of natural resources. We discuss ways, in which the interests of indigenous people especially from developing countries can be secured.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Bioprospecção/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Etnofarmacologia , Propriedade , Plantas Medicinais , Roubo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Cooperação Internacional , Patentes como Assunto
9.
Phytomedicine ; 23(2): 174-80, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unfolded protein responses (UPR) determine cell fate and are recognized as anticancer targets. In a previous research, we reported that cryptotanshinone (CPT) exerted cytotoxic effects toward acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PURPOSE: In the present study, we further investigated the role of UPR in CPT-induced cytotoxicity on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by applying tools of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. METHODS: Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization. Potential transcription factor binding motifs were identified in the promoter regions of the deregulated genes by Cistrome software. Molecular docking on eIF-4A and PI3K was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of CPT on translation initiation. RESULTS: CPT regulated genes related to UPR and eIF2 signaling pathways. The DNA-Damage-Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3) gene, which is activated as consequence of UPR malfunction during apoptosis, was induced and validated by in vitro experiments. Transcription factor binding motif analysis of the microarrary-retrieved deregulated genes in the promoter region emphasized the relevance of transcription factors, such as ATF2, ATF4 and XBP1, regulating UPR and cell apoptosis. Molecular docking suggested inhibitory effects of CPT by binding to eIF-4A and PI3K providing evidence for a role of CPT's in the disruption of protein synthesis. CONCLUSION: CPT triggered UPR and inhibited protein synthesis via eIF-mediated translation initiation, potentially supporting CPT-induced cytotoxic effects toward acute leukemia cells.


Assuntos
Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacogenética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 201: 292-7, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868579

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) Bunge is one of the widely-used Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, the chemical constituents and anticancer potential of SM stems and leaves were examined with those of respective callus cultures. The callus culture for stem and leaf explants was initiated in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Active constituents of respective extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD and MS (HPLC-DAD-MS). Rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were determined to be the main phenolic compounds. Quantitative analyses revealed that callus stem extracts produced higher amount of RA and Sal B (stem RA: 1.27±0.38%; stem Sal B: 0.87±0.20%) than callus leaf did (leaf RA: 0.28±0.02%; leaf Sal B: 0.07±0.03%). Stem and leaf callus extracts exerted cytotoxic effects towards CCRF-CEM cells (stem: 13.1±0.90 µg/ml; leaf: 18.1±0.33 µg/ml). As expected, stem extract with higher amount of RA and Sal B showed lower IC50 value than leaf extract. These findings suggest the possibility to isolate bioactive constituents with anticancer properties from in vitro callus cultures of stems and leaves of SM.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cinamatos/química , Depsídeos/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 398, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194107

RESUMO

Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF), a non-phenolic fraction (NPF), which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL), and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer. Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples toward human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro. The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy. PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 µg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC50 on AML12: 0.024 µg/mL, IC50 on HepG2: 2.103 µg/mL). We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement, and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of distinct tubulin filaments decreased upon treatment with green tea samples. We identified not only PF, but also glyceroglycolipids in NPF as contributing factors to the chemopreventive effects of green tea. Both PF and NPF of green tea inhibited cancer cell migration by the disassembly of microtubules, even though they were not cytotoxic.

13.
Arch Toxicol ; 90(9): 2275-2286, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564229

RESUMO

Cryptotanshinone, a well-known diterpene quinone from a widely used traditional Chinese herb named Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been reported for its therapeutical potentials on diverse activities. In this study, pharmacological effects of cryptotanshinone on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells were investigated. IC50 values of 5.0 and 4.8 were obtained in CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM. Microarray-based mRNA expression revealed that cryptotanshinone regulated genes associated with cell cycle, DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), NFκB signaling and cellular movement. The involvement of these pathways in the mode of action of cryptotanshinone was subsequently validated by additional independent in vitro studies. Cryptotanshinone stimulated ROS generation and induced DNA damage. It arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis as measured by annexin V-FITC-conjugating fluorescence. The induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by cryptotanshinone was proved by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cleavage of caspase 3/7, caspase 9 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). DNA-binding motif analysis of the microarray-retrieved deregulated genes in the promoter region revealed NFκB as potential transcription factor involved in cryptotanshinone's mode of action. Molecular docking and Western blotting provided supportive evidence, suggesting that cryptotanshinone binds to IKK-ß and inhibits the translocation of p65 from the cytosol to the nucleus. In addition, cryptotanshinone inhibited cellular movement as shown by a fibronectin-based cellular adhesion assay, indicating that this compound exerts anti-invasive features. In conclusion, cryptotanshinone exerts profound cytotoxicity, which is caused by multispecific modes of actions, including G2/M arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of cellular movement. The inhibitory activities of this compound may be explained by inhibition of NFκB, which orchestrates all these mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
World J Cardiol ; 7(11): 742-53, 2015 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26635922

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease and associated with long-term worse clinical outcomes in several populations. Age, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, known as traditional vascular risk factors, as well as diabetes, obesity, and systemic inflammation lead to both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting multiple modifiable risk factors has become the main therapeutic strategy to improve arterial stiffness in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Additionally to life style modifications, long-term ω-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation in diet may improve arterial stiffness in the population with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological treatment such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, metformin, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors were useful in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. In obese population with obstructive sleep apnea, weight reduction, aerobic exercise, and continuous positive airway pressure treatment may also improve arterial stiffness. In the populations with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, a use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha could work effectively. Other therapeutic options such as renal sympathetic nerve denervation for patients with resistant hypertension are investigated in many ongoing clinical trials. Therefore our comprehensive review provides knowledge in detail regarding many aspects of pathogenesis, measurement, and management of arterial stiffness in several populations, which would be helpful for physicians to make clinical decision.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 176: 55-68, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26476154

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosmarinic acid (RA), a major hydrosoluble bioactive compound found in the Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: Guided by microarray hybridization and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we identified modes of action of rosmarinic acid (RA) isolated from S. miltiorrhiza on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray data were verified by independent methods: Real-time RT-PCR (mRNA expression), resazurin assay (cytotoxicity of RA towards parental CCRF-CEM, multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cells and normal lymphocytes), flow cytometry (cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, necroptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)), single cell gel electrophoresis (DNA damage), molecular docking and gene promoter binding motif analysis (NFκB), Western blotting (nuclear NFκB translocation, PARP cleavage, caspase 3/7/9 expression), and fibronectin-based cell adhesion assay. RESULTS: RA dose-dependently inhibited CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, but caused less cytotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes. RA simultaneously induced apoptosis and necrosis, as shown by cell morphology and annexin V-PI assay. DNA damage was dose-dependently induced without ROS generation, which subsequently led to cell cycle arrest. RA-stimulated MMP dysfunction activated PARP-cleavage and caspase-independent apoptosis. In accordance with molecular docking and gene promoter binding motif analyses, p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus was blocked by RA, indicating a mechanistic role of the NFκB pathway to explain RA's action. RA affected cellular movement as evaluated by ameliorating cell adhesion to fibronectin. CONCLUSIONS: RA induced apoptosis and necrosis in a ROS-independent DNA damage and caspase-independent manner. These results may contribute to the rationale use of S. miltiorrhiza and RA in traditional medicine of leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
World J Cardiol ; 7(6): 306-10, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26131334

RESUMO

According to a genome-wide association study, intronic SNPs within the human sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) gene was linked to 20% of the general population and may be associated with elevated blood pressure. As cell volume changes, mammalian SPAK kinases respond to phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled chloride co-transporter activity. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of upstream with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases would activate SPAK kinases. The activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK cascade on the kidneys and aortic tissue is related to the development of hypertension. Several regulators of the WNK pathway such as the Kelch kinase protein 3 - Cullin 3 E3 ligase, hyperinsulinemia, and low potassium intake to mediate hypertension have been identified. In addition, the SPAK kinases may affect the action of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on blood pressure as well. In 2010, two SPAK knock-in and knock-out mouse models have clarified the pathogenesis of lowering blood pressure by influencing the receptors on the kidneys and aortic smooth muscle. More recently, two novel SPAK inhibitors for mice, Stock 1S-14279 and Closantel were discovered in 2014. Targeting of SPAK seems to be promising for future antihypertensive therapy. Therefore we raised some viewpoints for the issue for the antihypertensive therapy on the SPAK (gene or kinase).

17.
J Nat Prod ; 78(6): 1339-47, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26035463

RESUMO

Miltirone (1) is a diterpene quinone extracted from a well-known Chinese traditional herb (Salvia miltiorrhiza). We investigated the cytotoxic effects of miltirone toward sensitive and multidrug-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Miltirone inhibited multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 cells better than drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM wild-type cells, a phenomenon termed collateral sensitivity. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that miltirone induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, miltirone stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption, which in turn induced DNA damage and activation of caspases and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Downregulation of CCNB1 (cyclin B1) and CDC2 mRNA and upregulation of CDKN1A (p21) mRNA were in accord with miltirone-induced G2/M arrest. Moreover, miltirone decreased cell adherence to fibronectin. Molecular docking revealed that miltirone bound to the ATP-binding site of IKK-ß. In conclusion, miltirone was collateral sensitive in multidrug-resistant P-gp-overexpressing cells, induced G2/M arrest, and triggered apoptosis via ROS-generated breakdown of MMP and DNA damage. Therefore, miltirone may be a promising candidate for cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0122860, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848942

RESUMO

The clinical outcomes of different limus-based drug-eluting stents (DES) in a real-world setting have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of three different limus-based DES, namely sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES) and everolimus-eluting stent (EES), using a national insurance claims database. We identified all patients who received implantation of single SES, E-ZES or EES between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 from the National Health Insurance claims database, Taiwan. Follow-up was through December 31, 2011 for all selected clinical outcomes. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points included acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease. Cox regression model adjusting for baseline characteristics was used to compare the relative risks of different outcomes among the three different limus-based DES. Totally, 6584 patients were evaluated (n=2142 for SES, n=3445 for E-ZES, and n=997 for EES). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in three DES groups (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.38, p=0.20 in E-ZES group compared with SES group; adjusted HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.54-1.10, p=0.15 in EES group compared with SES group). Similarly, we found no difference in the three stent groups in risks of acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease. In conclusion, we observed no difference in all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease in patients treated with SES, E-ZES, and EES in a real-world population-based setting in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Stents Farmacológicos , Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento
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