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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127553, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688177

RESUMO

Rice is one of the most important cereals for human nutrition and is a basic staple food for half of the global population. The assessment of rice geographical origins in terms of its authenticity is of great interest to protect consumers from misleading information and fraud. In the present study, a head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) strategy for characterising volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles to distinguish rice samples from China, India and Vietnam is described. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model exhibited a good discrimination (R2 = 0.98182, Q2 = 0.9722, and Accuracy = 1.0) for rice samples from China, India and Vietnam. Moreover, Data-Driven Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (DD-SIMCA) and K-nearest neighbors shown good specificity 100% and accuracy 100% in identifying the origin of samples. The present study established VOC fingerprinting as a highly efficient approach to identify the geographical origin of rice.

2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127614, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711282

RESUMO

Pectin polysaccharide is an important phytochemical with potential biomedical applications. It is commonly measured by time-consuming destructive chemical methods. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques to rapidly measure pectin polysaccharides in intact mulberry fruits. Based on spatial information provided by HSI images, the representative spectrum of each whole mulberry was accurately extracted without background. The effects of storage temperature on two varieties of mulberries for model establishment were studied. The performances of two spectral ranges obtained by Si and InGaAs CCD detectors for pectin prediction were compared. The best predictions were obtained from dilute alkali soluble pectin and total soluble pectin in Dashi mulberry fruit stored at room temperature, with residual predictive deviation values of 2.317 and 1.935, respectively. Our results show that HSI is a promising alternative to the chemical method to rapidly and nondestructively measure the pectin content.

3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127974, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920274

RESUMO

Facile enrichment and determination of trace organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in foods has been a constantly pursuing goal in food safety field. Herein, Zr4+-immobilized covalent organic frameworks (Fe3O4@COF@Zr4+) have been first constructed and utilized as the powerful adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of OPPs. Owing to the π-π stacking interaction, hydrogen bonding and Zr4+-phosphate coordination reaction, the composites exhibited excellent selectivity and superior affinity to OPPs. Under optimized conditions, the proposed MSPE method coupled with GC-FPD showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9990) and yielded low limits of detection (0.7-3.0 µg kg-1) for OPPs. Moreover, the developed method was successfully employed for the quantitation of OPPs in spiked vegetable samples and obtained satisfactory recoveries in the range of 87-121% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 8.9%. These results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles hold unique advantages for trace OPPs analysis in foodstuffs.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104301, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011533

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely associated with the development of cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). LncRNA FAM201A has been identified as a key regulator in some cancers. However, its role has not been explored in TNBC. In this work, we investigated the biological role and regulatory mechanism of FAM201A in TNBC. The expression pattern of FAM201A was determined by RT-qPCR analysis. The biological effect of FAM201A on cellular process of TNBC was tested using colony formation, EdU, caspase-3 activity detection, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell assays. ChIP and luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the interaction between transcription factor 3 (TCF3) and FAM201A. The interaction among FAM201A, microRNA-186-5p (miR-186-5p), and tankyrase 1 binding protein 1 (TNKS1BP1) was evaluated by luciferase reporter and RIP assays. The results showed that FAM201A expression was significantly upregulated in TNBC tissues and cells. Functionally, FAM201A knockdown inhibited TNBC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and accelerated cell apoptosis. In mechanism, it was confirmed that FAM201A was transcriptionally activated by TCF3 and served as a sponge for miR-186-5p to upregulate TNKS1BP1 expression in TNBC cells. Collectively, our study revealed that TCF3-activated FAM201A promoted aggressive phenotypes of TNBC cells by upregulating TNKS1BP1 expression.

5.
Adv Mater ; 32(27): e1907498, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045137
6.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048316

RESUMO

Endometriosis (EMs) is defined as the presence of tissue which somewhat resembles endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, and elicits fibrosis. Fibrosis is the main factor resulting in pain and infertility, while the aetiology of endometrial fibrosis is unknown. There is strong evidence from numerous experiments showing that connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) plays a central role in fibrogenesis. Exosomal miR-214-3p can regulate the expression of CCN2 through binding to complementary sites in the 3' untranslated region. This study aimed to explore the role of exosomal miR-214-3p in endometriosis fibrosis and the relationship between CCN2 and miR-214-3p in endometriosis fibrosis. Our results demonstrated that miR-214-3p was significantly down-regulated and CCN2 was up-regulated in EMs ectopic lesion and stromal cells compared with EMs eutopic and endometrium of patients without endometriosis. Exosomal miR-214-3p can inhibit fibrosis in EMs through targeting CCN2. The results were explored and verified in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Cell co-culture was used to explore the contributions of exosomes to intercellular information transmission of miR-214-3p. The results showed that exosomes play a pivotal role in the transportation of miR-214-3p between cells. Furthermore, level of exosomal miR-214-3p in endometriosis patients' serum was lower than that in patients without endometriosis. In conclusion, exosomal miR-214-3p can inhibit fibrosis in EMs by targeting CCN2. MiR-214-3p may be considered as a bio-marker and has a potential therapeutic effect in EMs.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 864, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060569

RESUMO

Metastasis is the main cause of laryngeal cancer-related death; its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we identify protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as a new metastasis-promoting factor in laryngeal carcinoma, and explore its underlying mechanism of action in regulating laryngeal cancer progression. We illustrated that PRMT5 expression was positively correlated with tumor stages, lymphatic metastasis, and unfavorable outcome. Functional assays revealed that PRMT5 promoted laryngeal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasive capacity in vitro, as well as lymph-node metastasis in vivo. The ectopic expression of PRMT5 induced EMT with downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin, snail, and MMP9. Mechanistic results revealed that the metastatic effects could be attributed to PRMT5-mediated activation of Wnt signaling, and Wnt4 is an important driver of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Wnt4 silencing could reverse PRMT5-induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion capacities. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway abolished the effect of PRMT5-induced proliferation, whereas activation of the pathway enhanced the effect of PRMT5 overexpression on cell proliferation. These results demonstrated that the oncogenic role of PRMT5 could be attributed to PRMT5/Wnt4 axis-mediated activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. PRMT5 may serve as a novel prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for lymphatic metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma.

8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2020: 8848363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061950

RESUMO

Detection of lane-change behaviour is critical to driving safety, especially on highways. In this paper, we proposed a method and designed a learning-based detection model of lane-change behaviour in highway environment, which only needs the vehicle to be equipped with velocity and direction sensors or each section of the highway to have a video camera. First, based on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) Interstate 80 Freeway Dataset, we analyzed the relevant features of lane-changing behaviour and preprocessed the data and then used machine learning algorithms to select the suitable features for lane-change detection. According to the result of feature selection, we chose the lateral velocity of the vehicle as the lane-change feature and used machine learning algorithms to learn the lane-change behaviour of the vehicle to detect it. From the dataset, continuous data of 14 vehicles with frequent lane changes were selected for experimental analysis. The experimental results show that the designed KNN lane-change detection model has the best performance with detection accuracy between 89.57% and 100% on the selected dataset, which can well complete the vehicle lane-change detection task.

9.
Mol Cell ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065002

RESUMO

Vesicular- or vacuolar-type adenosine triphosphatases (V-ATPases) are ATP-driven proton pumps comprised of a cytoplasmic V1 complex for ATP hydrolysis and a membrane-embedded Vo complex for proton transfer. They play important roles in acidification of intracellular vesicles, organelles, and the extracellular milieu in eukaryotes. Here, we report cryoelectron microscopy structures of human V-ATPase in three rotational states at up to 2.9-Å resolution. Aided by mass spectrometry, we build all known protein subunits with associated N-linked glycans and identify glycolipids and phospholipids in the Vo complex. We define ATP6AP1 as a structural hub for Vo complex assembly because it connects to multiple Vo subunits and phospholipids in the c-ring. The glycolipids and the glycosylated Vo subunits form a luminal glycan coat critical for V-ATPase folding, localization, and stability. This study identifies mechanisms of V-ATPase assembly and biogenesis that rely on the integrated roles of ATP6AP1, glycans, and lipids.

10.
Food Chem ; : 128252, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067044

RESUMO

This study tries to elucidate the different mechanisms of functional properties among pasteurized egg white (P-EW), spray-dried egg white (SD-EW) and fresh egg white (F-EW) via quantitative N-glycoproteomic analyses. The results showed that spray-drying increased the surface hydrophobicity (181.4%) and zeta potential (25.6%) of egg white, which contributed to the enhancement of emulsifying activity index (20.1%) and foaming capacity (35.2%). Pasteurization caused the disintegration of natural protein aggregates in F-EW and resulted in a "block-like" P-EW gel and higher water holding capacity (6.2%). Spray-drying caused formation of thermal aggregates and led to a "mesh-like" SD-EW gel and better cohesiveness (3.6%). Quantitative N-glycoproteomic analysis showed that the abundance of 32 N-glycosites from 18 N-glycoproteins (such as Mucin 5B) of SD-EW was significantly reduced comparing to F-EW, indicated that the N-glycans of egg white protein are likely to be covalently cross-linked during spray-drying and are involved in thermal aggregation.

11.
J Control Release ; 328: 696-709, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010335

RESUMO

Although the newer antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are highly active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the body compartment, they often fail to effectively tackle the HIV reservoir in the brain because of inefficient penetration to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of incorporating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid essential for brain development, in lipid nanocarriers for facilitating the BBB passage of an ARV darunavir. The resulting nanocarriers (nanoARVs) containing 5-15% DHA were 90-140 nm in size, had high darunavir payload (~11-13% w/w), good stability and minimal cellular toxicity, and could be further decorated with transferrin (Tf) for Tf-receptor targeting. In BBB models of hCMEC/d3 cells, nanoARVs with higher DHA content achieved increased nanocarrier uptake and up to 8.99-fold higher darunavir permeation than free darunavir. In animals, nanoARVs were able to achieve 3.38-5.93-fold increase in brain darunavir level over free darunavir. Tf-conjugated nanoARVs also achieved significantly higher anti-HIV activity than free darunavir (viral titer 2 to 2.6-fold higher in latter group). Comparison of DHA incorporation and Tf-receptor targeting showed that while both strategies could enhance the cellular uptake and brain accumulation of the nanocarriers, DHA was more effective (P < 0.05) for improving BBB permeation and brain accumulation of the darunavir payload. Substituting DHA with another oil noticeably reduced the cellular uptake of nanoARVs. Overall, this proof-of-concept study has supported the development of DHA-based nanoARVs as an effective, safe yet technically simple strategy to enhance brain delivery of darunavir and potentially other lipophilic ARVs for treatment of HIV reservoir.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031442

RESUMO

Floral initiation plays a critical role for reproductive success in plants, especially fruit trees. However, little information is known on the mechanism of the initiation in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.). Here, we used transcriptomic, expression and functional analysis to investigate the candidate genes in floral initiation in loquat. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways of plant hormone signal transduction. The DEGs were mainly involved in the gibberellin, auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene signaling pathways. Meanwhile, some transcription factors, including MADS-box (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SRF), MYB (Myeloblastosis), TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA and PCF1), WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) and WRKY (WRKY DNA-binding protein), were significantly differentially expressed. Among these key DEGs, we confirmed that an AGL17 ortholog EjAGL17 was significantly upregulated at the flower bud transition stage. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that EjAGL17 was grouped into an AGL17 clade of MADS-box transcription factors. Protein sequence alignment showed that EjAGL17 included a distinctive C-terminal domain. Subcellular localization of EjAGL17 was found only in the nucleus. Expression levels of EjAGL17 reached the highest at the development stage of flower bud transition. Moreover, ectopic expression of EjAGL17 in Arabidopsis significantly exhibited early flowering. Our study provides abundant resources of candidate genes for studying the mechanisms underlying the floral initiation in loquat and other Rosaceae species.

13.
Arch Oral Biol ; 120: 104930, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA-152-3p (miR-152-3p) in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). DESIGN: HPDLSCs were isolated and identified using immunofluorescence staining, and their osteogenic differentiation capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase staining and Alizarin Red staining. HPDLSC viability was measured using cell counting kit-8. alkaline phosphatase level in hPDLSCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Target gene and potential binding sites between miR-152-3p and integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) were predicted using TargetScan and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Relative expressions of miR-152-3p and factors related to hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot as needed. RESULTS: Collected cells were observed and identified as hPDLSCs. MiR-152-3p expression was downregulated during hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation in a time-dependent manner, and downregulating miR-152-3p promoted cell viability, enhanced alkaline phosphatase level, and increased the expressions of genes related to hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation. ITGA5 was the target gene of miR-152-3p and ITGA5 expression was upregulated during osteogenic differentiation in a time-dependent manner. Silencing ITGA5 partially reversed the effects of downregulating miR-152-3p on hPDLSCs. CONCLUSION: Downregulating miR-152-3p may promote hPDLSC viability and osteogenic differentiation via targeting ITGA5, and have potential effects on periodontal and alveolar bone regeneration.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt A): 107073, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039967

RESUMO

Allergic asthma is the most common type of asthma which characterized by inflammatory responses of the airways. Alpinetin, a flavonoid compound derived from the ginger family of medicinal herbs, possesses various biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and other medical effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of alpinetin on OVA-induced allergic asthma, and further to examine its molecular mechanisms underlying these processes in vivo and in vitro. Mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to build allergic asthma model in vivo. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for inflammatory cells analysis and lung tissues were examined for histopathological examination. The levels of IL-5, IL-13, IL-4, IgE, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß were determined by the respective ELISA kits. The PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and HO-1 signaling pathways were examined by western blot analysis. The results showed that alpinetin significantly ameliorated OVA-induced pathologic changes of lungs, such as decreasing massive inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF. Alpinetin also decreased the OVA-induced levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IgE. Furthermore, alpinetin inhibited OVA-induced phosphorylation of p65, IκB, PI3K and AKT, and the activity of HO-1 in vivo. More importantly, these anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of alpinetin has also been confirmed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, above results indicate that alpinetin exhibites a potent anti-inflammatory activity in allergic asthma through modulating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and HO-1 signaling pathways, which would be used as a promising therapy agent for allergic asthma.

15.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 723-732, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a major international public health concern. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19-associated liver injury. METHODS: A fraction of 657 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were derived from electronic medical records and compared between patients with or without liver injury. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors for liver injury. RESULTS: Among 657 patients, 303 (46.1%) patients had liver injury with higher rate in severe/critically ill patients [148/257 (57.6%)] than those in moderate cases [155/400 (38.8%)]. The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission. Liver injury-related inflammations included increased white blood cells, neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes. More patients with liver injury than without had increased serum IL-2R, TNFα, ferritin, hsCRP, PCT, ESR, γ-GT, and LDH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increasing odds of liver injury were related to male, higher serum hsCRP (≥ 10 mg/L), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≥ 5). Moreover, more deceased patients (14/82 (17%)) had significantly elevated serum TBIL than discharged patients [25/532 (4.7%)]. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is a common complication in COVID-19 patients. The potential risk factors of liver injury include male, hsCRP and NLR score. A close monitor of liver function should be warned in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe/critical individuals.

16.
Behav Brain Res ; : 112949, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053385

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may modulate the link between childhood trauma experience and psychopathology by altering trophic signaling on neuroplasticity. However, few multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researches have investigated this gene-environment interaction on both structural and functional plasticity, thereby advancing knowledge about the etiology, prevention, and customized therapeutic directions of mental disease in individuals with childhood trauma experience. We recruited a large non-clinical sample of young adults that completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), behavioral scores, multimodal MRI scans, and genotyping. Morphometric similarity network (MSN) and independent component analysis were adopted to quantify brain structural and functional changes. Gene-environment-brain-behavior relationships were identified by multiple regression and mediation effect analysis. CTQ score was positively associated with depression and anxiety scores. We found interactions on MSN in sensorimotor, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortex. For intra-network connectivity, significant interaction was noted in clusters within sensorimotor network. For inter-network connectivity, connectivity between dorsal attention network and salience network showed an interactive effect. For mean connectivity strength of each network, we found a main effect of CTQ score on self-reference network that was an outstanding mediator supporting the relationship between CTQ score and anxiety. Our findings demonstrate that childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism are associated with brain plasticity involving emotion regulation, structurally and functionally, which may contribute to understanding psychotic mechanisms and predicting differential susceptibility. Imaging genetics may be useful as biomarkers to provide early assessment and guide cognitive interventions to avoid or decrease the risk of developing psychopathology.

18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 57, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics. METHODS: We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis. RESULTS: The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Internacionalidade
19.
Small ; : e2001782, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015965

RESUMO

Single-atom (SA) catalysis bridging homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis offers new opportunities for organic synthesis, but developing SA catalysts with high activity and stability is still a great challenge. Herein, a heterogeneous catalyst of Pd SAs anchored in 3D ordered macroporous ceria (Pd-SAs/3DOM-CeO2 ) is developed through a facile template-assisted pyrolysis method. The high specific surface area of 3DOM CeO2 facilitates the heavily anchoring of Pd SAs, while the introduction of Pd atoms induces the generation of surface oxygen vacancies and prevents the grain growth of CeO2 support. The Pd-SAs/3DOM-CeO2 catalyst exhibits excellent activity toward Suzuki coupling reactions for a broad scope of substrates under ambient conditions, and the Pd SAs can be stabilized in CeO2 in long-term catalytic cycles without leaching or aggregating. Theoretical calculations indicate that the CeO2 supported Pd SAs can remarkably reduce the energy barriers of both transmetalation and reductive elimination steps for Suzuki coupling reactions. The strong metal-support interaction contributes to modulating the electronic state and maintaining the stability of Pd SA sites. This work demonstrates an effective strategy to design and synthesize stable single-atom catalysts as well as sheds new light on the origin for enhanced catalysis based on the strong metal-support interactions.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037888, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has been widely performed as a safe and effective treatment for ACL injuries. As there is an increasing trend in the incidence of ACL injury, hospital readmission after ACLR has attracted renewed attention for the financial burden to both patients and the healthcare system. However, information about hospital readmission after ACLR remains fragmented. Therefore, we plan to systematically review the literature to investigate the rate of, causes and risk factors for hospital readmission after ACLR, and summarise interventions to reduce hospital readmission. This article is to provide the protocol for an upcoming systematic review and meta-analysis on this important issue. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Reporting of this protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) checklist. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, will be systematically searched from inception to June 2020. No language restrictions will be applied. Studies will be included if they reported hospital readmission or explored the associated potential causes and risk factors for hospital readmission after ACLR. The primary outcome will be the number and time frame of hospital readmission after ACLR. Secondary outcomes will be reasons for readmission, number and types of complications, risk factors for readmission and preventive measures for readmission after ACLR. Quality assessments will be performed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). If possible, study results will be summarised in a forest plot, and heterogeneity will be tested by using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required because our study is not related to patients or animals. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020058624.

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