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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2008235, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829563

RESUMO

Crosslinked polymers and gels are important in soft robotics, solar vapor generation, energy storage, drug delivery, catalysis, and biosensing. However, their attractive mass transport and volume-changing abilities are diffusion-limited, requiring miniaturization to avoid slow response. Typical approaches to improving diffusion in hydrogels sacrifice mechanical properties by increasing porosity or limit the total volumetric flux by directionally confining the pores. Despite tremendous efforts, simultaneous enhancement of diffusion and mechanical properties remains a long-standing challenge hindering broader practical applications of hydrogels. In this work, cononsolvency photopolymerization is developed as a universal approach to overcome this swelling-mechanical property trade-off. The as-synthesized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel, as an exemplary system, presents a unique open porous network with continuous microchannels, leading to record-high volumetric (de)swelling speeds, almost an order of magnitude higher than reported previously. This swelling enhancement comes with a simultaneous improvement in Young's modulus and toughness over conventional hydrogels fabricated in pure solvents. The resulting fast mass transport enables in-air operation of the hydrogel via rapid water replenishment and ultrafast actuation. The method is compatible with 3D printing. The generalizability is demonstrated by extending the technique to poly(N-tertbutylacrylamide-co-polyacrylamide) and polyacrylamide hydrogels, non-temperature-responsive polymer systems, validating the present hypothesis that cononsolvency is a generic phenomenon driven by competitive adsorption.

2.
Microb Pathog ; : 104849, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) has a broad spectrum of severity and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may be associated with AP severity. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the composition and functional effects of gut microbiota in different grades of AP severity. METHODS: We carried out shotgun metagenomic sequencing on rectal swab samples from three patients with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), three with moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP), three with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and three normal control persons (NOR). Differences analysis in gut microbiota composition and functional enrichment was performed. RESULTS: Gut microbiota in AP patients was characterized by decreased species richness. The most representative gut microbiota in mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP), and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was Streptococcus, Escherichia-coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Each of the three AP-associated genera could differentiate AP from healthy control population. Representative pathways associated with the glutathione metabolism, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism (valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation) were enriched in MAP, MSAP, and SAP, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a potential association of gut microbiome composition and function to the progression of AP severity.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124987, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757678

RESUMO

Food waste anaerobic digestion (FWAD) can be assisted with the co-digestion of manures, agricultural waste, and sewage sludge. Nevertheless, contaminants like mycotoxins, antibiotics, and microplastics (MPs) could be introduced and negatively affect the AD system. Over 180 literatures involved the occurrence, influence and removal strategies of these three types of pollutants in AD were summarized in this review. Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) as the most concerned mycotoxins were poorly degraded and brought about inhibitions in short-term. Considering methanogenesis inhibition and occurrence concentration, the risk of oxytetracycline and norfloxacin were identified as priority among antibiotics. Leaching toxic additives from MPs could be responsible for the AD inhibition, while their materials and sizes could also prolong the acidification and methanation processes in FWAD. Strategies of bioaugmentation technologies and bioreactors to enhance the removal were suggested. Perspectives were provided for a better understanding of the fates of reviewed contaminants and their elimination in FWAD systems.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos , Reatores Biológicos , Biossólidos , Alimentos , Metano , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 549: 54-60, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs act as crucial regulators of a diverse range of biological processes, including chemoresistance. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-324-3p on lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 resistant to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (DDP, aka cisplatin). METHODS: The miR-324-3p expression levels in cisplatin-sensitive A549(A549) and cisplatin-resistant A549 (A549/DDP) cells were determined by qRT-PCR assay. Cell proliferation was determined with the commercial kit CCK-8 and colony formation assay, whereas cell death was analyzed using flow cytometry. The target gene of miR-324-3p was identified and validated with the luciferase reporter and western blot assays. The role of miR-324-3p in modulating cisplatin resistance was evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: The expression of miR-324-3p was found to be significantly downregulated in the A549/DDP cells. Conversely, miR-324-3p overexpression reversed cisplatin resistance in the cells. With regard to the possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we identified the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) gene as the direct target of miR-324-3p, where overexpression of the gene reversed the miR-324-3p effect of sensitizing the A549/DDP cells to cisplatin. Furthermore, the GPX4 inhibitor RSL3 could mimic the effect of miR-324-3p upregulation in increasing the sensitivity of the cisplatin-resistant cells to the drug. Significantly, miR-324-3p enhanced cisplatin-induced ferroptosis in the A549/DDP cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed the role of the miR-324-3p-GPX4 signaling axis in A549/DDP cells and how the targeting of this axis could be a potential strategy for reversing cisplatin resistance in human non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

5.
J BUON ; 26(1): 296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721481

RESUMO

The Editors of JBUON issue an Expression of Concern to 'Amarogentin secoiridoid inhibits in vivo cancer cell growth in xenograft mice model and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells (SNU-16) through G2/M cell cycle arrest and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway', by Jian-Guo Zhao, Ling Zhang, Xiao-Jun Xiang, Feng Yu, Wan-li Ye, Dong-Ping Wu, Jian-Fang Wang, Jian-Ping Xiong, JBUON 2016;21(3):609-617; PMID:27569081. Following the publication of the above article, readers drew to our attention that part of the data was possibly unreliable. We sent emails to the authors with a request to provide the raw data to prove the originality, but received no reply. Therefore, as we continue to work through the issues raised, we advise readers to interpret the information presented in the article with due caution. We thank the readers for bringing this matter to our attention. We apologize for any inconvenience it may cause.

6.
Opt Lett ; 46(6): 1401-1404, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720197

RESUMO

Three-dimensional helical microstructures are abundant in nature and can be applied as chiral metamaterials for advanced nanophotonics. Here we report a flexible method to fabricate double-helical microstructures with single exposure by recording the chirality of incident optical vortices. Two coaxial optical vortices can interfere to generate a helical optical field, confirmed by the numerical simulation. The diameters of double-helical microstructures can be tailored by the magnitude of topological charges. This fast manufacturing strategy provides the opportunity to efficiently yield helical microstructures. Finally, the chirality of double-helical microstructures can be reversibly read by optical vortices, demonstrating a strong chiroptical response.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672103

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered as a toxic gas, but as research progressed, the idea has been updated and it has now been shown to have potent protective effects at reasonable concentrations. H2S is an endogenous gas signaling molecule in mammals and is produced by specific enzymes in different cell types. An increasing number of studies indicate that H2S plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, and in most cases, H2S has been reported to be downregulated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Similarly, in preclinical studies, H2S has been shown to prevent CVDs and improve heart function after heart failure. Recently, many H2S donors have been synthesized and tested in cellular and animal models. Moreover, numerous molecular mechanisms have been proposed to demonstrate the effects of these donors. In this review, we will provide an update on the role of H2S in cardiovascular activities and its involvement in pathological states, with a special focus on the roles of exogenous H2S in cardiac protection.

8.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(4): 492-500, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709099

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) promotes the initiation, invasion, progression, and metastasis of cancer cells. However, its effects in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) remain undefined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AHR activation on malignant cells in patients with MDS/AML. We found that AHR was expressed aberrantly in patients with MDS/AML. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting AHR decreased the mitochondrial dehydrogenase content and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in MDS/AML cells. Activating AHR with L-kynurenine (Kyn) increased AHR expression, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenase content and MMP in MDS/AML cells. Moreover, the expression level of mitochondria-associated mitochondrial transcription factor A was increased after activating AHR with L-Kyn when compared with that in the control group but decreased after inhibiting the AHR signal. Activating AHR in MDS/AML cells enhanced the resistance to cytarabine. These findings indicated that activating the AHR signaling pathway reshaped the metabolism in MDS/AML cells, thus contributing to the resistance to cytarabine.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is debate among the hepatology community regarding the simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores (even it was developed for histological classification) in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether the presence of simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores could predict all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, and liver disease decompensation (liver failure, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or decompensated liver disease). METHODS: The pooled hazard ratio of prognostic factors and incidence rate per 1000 person-years in patients with NAFLD was calculated and further adjusted by two different models of handling the duplicated data. RESULTS: A total of 19 longitudinal studies were included. Most simple non-invasive scoring systems (Fibrosis-4 Score, BARD, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index ) and histological scores (NAFLD activity score, Brunt, and "steatosis, activity, and fibrosis" ) failed in predicting mortality, and only the NAFLD fibrosis score > 0.676 showed prognostic ability to all-cause mortality (four studies, 7564 patients, 118 352 person-years followed up, pooled hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.96). The incidence rate per 1000 person-years of all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, and liver disease decompensation resulted in a pooled incidence rate per 1000 person-years of 22.65 (14 studies, 95% CI 9.62-53.31), 3.19 (7 studies, 95% CI 1.14-8.93), 6.02 (6 studies, 95% CI 4.69-7.74), and 11.46 (4 studies, 95% CI 5.33-24.63), respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score showed promising prognostic value to all-cause mortality. Most present simple non-invasive scoring systems and histological scores failed to predict clinical outcomes.

10.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2007829, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554414

RESUMO

Hydrogels, exhibiting wide applications in soft robotics, tissue engineering, implantable electronics, etc., often require sophisticately tailoring of the hydrogel mechanical properties to meet specific demands. For examples, soft robotics necessitates tough hydrogels; stem cell culturing demands various tissue-matching modulus; and neuron probes desire dynamically tunable modulus. Herein, a strategy to broadly alter the mechanical properties of hydrogels reversibly via tuning the aggregation states of the polymer chains by ions based on the Hofmeister effect is reported. An ultratough poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as an exemplary material (toughness 150 ± 20 MJ m-3 ), which surpasses synthetic polymers like poly(dimethylsiloxane), synthetic rubber, and natural spider silk is fabricated. With various ions, the hydrogel's various mechanical properties are continuously and reversibly in situ modulated over a large window: tensile strength from 50 ± 9 kPa to 15 ± 1 MPa, toughness from 0.0167 ± 0.003 to 150 ± 20 MJ m-3 , elongation from 300 ± 100% to 2100 ± 300%, and modulus from 24 ± 2 to 2500 ± 140 kPa. Importantly, the ions serve as gelation triggers and property modulators only, not necessarily required to remain in the gel, maintaining the high biocompatibility of PVA without excess ions. This strategy, enabling high mechanical performance and broad dynamic tunability, presents a universal platform for broad applications from biomedicine to wearable electronics.

11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570819

RESUMO

Obesity is considered as a risk factor for chronic health diseases such as heart diseases, cancer and diabetes 2. Reduced physical activities, lifestyle, poor nutritional diet and genetics are among the risk factors associated with the development of obesity. In recent years, several studies have explored the link between the gut microbiome and the progression of diseases including obesity, with the shift in microbiome abundance and composition being the main focus. The alteration of gut microbiome composition affects both nutrients metabolism and specific gene expressions, thereby disturbing body physiology. Specifically, the abundance of fibre-metabolizing microbes is associated with weight loss and that of protein and fat-metabolizing bacteria with weight gain. Various internal and external factors such as genetics, maternal obesity, mode of delivery, breastfeeding, nutrition, antibiotic use and the chemical compounds present in the environment are known to interfere with the richness of the gut microbiota (GM), thus influencing weight gain/loss and ultimately the development of obesity. However, the effectiveness of each factor in potentiating the shift in microbes' abundance to result in significant changes that can lead to obesity is not yet clear. In this review, we will highlight the factors involved in shaping GM, their influence on obesity and possible interventions. Understanding the influence of these factors on the diversity of the GM and how to improve their effectiveness on disease conditions could be keys in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

12.
Surg Endosc ; 35(4): 1534-1543, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of endoscopic treatment for the non-polypoid dysplasia in patients with long-standing IBD. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and clinicaltrials.gov registry were comprehensively searched. Pooled estimates of curative, R0, en-bloc resection rates, CRC, metachronous dysplasia, and local recurrence rates were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to areas, lesion size, endoscopic resection techniques, and grades of dysplasia were conducted. Data synthesis was completed in R using the package "meta". RESULTS: Of the 973 studies initially identified, 7 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. These were all single-arm cohorts and included a total of 202 patients with IBD and non-polypoid dysplasia. The combined R0 and en-bloc resection rate were 0.70 (95% CI 0.55-0.81) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.65-0.95), respectively, with a recurrence rate of 0.08 (95% CI 0.05-0.13). CRC and metachronous dysplasia incidences were pooled as 32.53 (95% CI 12.21-86.67) and 90.24 (95% CI 44.91-181.33) per 1000 patient years. CONCLUSIONS: Non-polypoid dysplasia associated with IBD can be resected endoscopically, especially by ESD. However, these patients have higher CRC and metachronous dysplasia incidence rates than patients with polypoid dysplasia, indicating a closer endoscopic surveillance.

13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 120: 111722, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545873

RESUMO

Among various methods, the use of targeting nucleic acid therapy is a promising method for inhibiting gastric cancer (GC) cells' rapid growth and metastasis abilities. In this study, vitamin B12-labeled poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) and polyethylene glycol nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-VB12 NPs) were developed for microRNAs-532-3p mimics incorporating as targeting gene delivery systems (miR-532-3p@PLGA-PEG-VB12 NPs) to fight against transcobalamin II (CD320)-overexpressed GC cells' progression. The PLGA-PEG-VB12 NPs with appropriate particle sizes and good bio-compatibility could be selectively delivered into CD320-overexpressed GC cells, and significantly decrease the expression of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Following that, more pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) flowed from cytoplasm into mitochondria to form Bax oligomerization, thus induced mitochondrial damage, including mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMPs) loss and excessive production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS). Since that, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) was opened, followed by induced more cytochrome c (Cyto C) releasing from mitochondria into cytosol, and finally activated caspase-depended cell apoptosis pathway. Therefore, our designed miR-532-3p@PLGA-PEG-VB12 NPs showed enhanced GC targeting ability, and could induce apoptosis through activating ARC/Bax/mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway, finally remarkably suppressed proliferation of GC cells both in vitro and in vivo, which presented a promising treatment for GC.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560842

RESUMO

Manipulating underwater bubbles (UGBs) is realized on morphology-tailored or stimuli-responsive slippery lubricant-impregnated porous surface (SLIPS). Unfortunately, the volatile lubricants (e. g., silicone oil, ferrofluid) greatly decrease their using longevity. Designed is light-responsive paraffin-infused Fe3O4-doped slippery surface (LR-PISS) by incorporation of hybrid lubricants and superhydrophobic micropillar-arrayed elastometric membranes resulted from one-step femtosecond laser vertically scanning. Upon LR-PISS, the dynamic motion control bwteen pinning and sliding along free routes over UGB could be realized by alternately loading/discharging NIR-trigger. The underlying principle is that when the NIR was applied, UGB would be actuated to slide along the NIR trace because the irradiated domain melts for a slippery surface within 1.0 s. Once the NIR is removed, the liquefied paraffin would be reconfigured to solid phase for pinning a moving UGB within 0.5 s. Newly explored hydrokinetics imparts us with capability of steering UGBs to arrange any desirable patterns and switch light-path behaving as the light-control-light optical shutter. In comparison with previously reported SLIPS, current LR-PISS unfolds unparalleled ultrarobust antidisturbance ability even in flowing liquid ambient. More significantly, even subjected to physical damage, underwater LR-PISS is capable of in situ self-healing within 13 s under the assistance of remote NIR. The results here could inspire the design of robust bubble manipulator and further boost their applications in optofluidics and all-optical modulators.

15.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand-1(PD-L1) inhibitor therapy have been approved for the treatment of many cancers, although their incidence of some side effects was high. We aim to fully investigate the incidence risk of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors-related pneumonia and diarrhea in NSCLC patients, as well as treatment-related deaths. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Clinical trials.gov databases were searched up to Sep 17, 2020, for clinical trials of PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 inhibitors in the treatment of NSCLC. Randomized controlled trials and their references were screened. RESULTS: Seventeen trials were included in our meta-analysis, including 11,363 patients. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors significantly increased the risk of developing all-grade and high-grade (grade ≥ 3) pneumonia (risk ratio [RR] = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.39-3.76; P < 0.01; RR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.72-3.29; P < 0.01, respectively). The use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor did not increase the risk of developing all-grade and high-grade diarrhea (RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62-1.01; P = 0.06; RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70-1.31; P = 0.78, respectively). There was no significant difference between the rate of death in PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors (P = 0.079). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors significantly increase the risk of all-grade and high-grade pneumonia in NSCLC patients and PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy increases the risk of all-grade pneumonia in NSCLC patients compared to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor combination regimens. Physicians should pay more attention to NSCLC patients who treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

16.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 26, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566218

RESUMO

Efficient broadband absorption of solar radiation is desired for sea water desalination, icephobicity and other renewable energy applications. We propose an idea of superimposing two high-loss resonances to broaden bandwidths of a few-layer absorber, which is made of dielectric/ metal/dielectric/ metal layers. Both the simulation and experiment show that the structure has an averaged absorption efficiency higher than 97% at wavelengths ranging from 350 to 1200 nm. The bandwidth of the absorption larger than 90% is up to 1000 nm (410-1410 nm), which is greater than that (≤ 750 nm) of previous MIM planar absorbers. Especially, the average absorption from 350 to 1000 nm is kept above 90% at an incidence angle as high as 65°, meanwhile still maintained above 80% even at an incident angle of 75°. The performance of angular insensitivity is much better than that of previous few-layer solar absorbers. The flexible 1D nonoble metasurface absorbers are fabricated in a single evaporation step. Under the illumination of a halogen lamp of P = 1.2 kW/m2, the flexible metasurface increases its surface temperature by 25.1 K from room temperature. Further experiments demonstrate that the heat localization rapidly melts the accumulated ice. Our illumination intensity (P = 1.2 kW/m2) is only half of that (P = 2.4 kW/m2) in previous solar anti-ice studies based on gold/TiO2 particle metasurfaces, indicating that our metasurface is more advantageous topractical applications. Our results illustrate an effective pathway toward the broadband metasurface absorbers with the attractive properties of mechanical flexibility, low cost of the no-noble metals, and large-area fabrications, which have promising prospects in the applications of solar heat utilization.

17.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to lacking evidence for confirming the efficacy of performing laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC). Therefore, this study aimed to compare the static and dynamic failure patterns after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) and open gastrectomy (OG) in LAGC. METHODS: A total of 1792 LAGC patients who underwent radical resection between January 2010 and January 2017 were divided into the LG group (n = 1557) and the OG group (n = 235). Propensity score matching was performed to balance the two groups. Dynamic hazard rates of failure were calculated using the hazard function. Early and late failure were defined as failure occurring before and after 2 years since surgery, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1175 patients with LAGC were included after matching (LG group, n = 940; OG, n = 235). The failure rate of the whole cohort was 43.2% (508/1175), accounting for 41.4% (389/940) and 50.6% (119/235) in the LG and OG groups, respectively. Although the two groups showed no significant differences in failure rate for any failure type, landmark analysis showed a lower early distant recurrence rate in the stage IIa-IIIb subgroup of the LG group (OG versus LG: 30.3% versus 21.1%, P = 0.004). The dynamic hazard rate peaked at 9.4 months (peak rate = 0.0186) before gradually declining. In stage IIa-IIIb patients, the hazard rate of the OG group remained significantly higher than that of the LG group within the first 2 years in terms of distant recurrence (peak rate: OG versus LG, 0.0091 versus 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Given the differences in early failure between LG and OG, more intensive surveillance for distant recurrence within the first 2 years should be considered for patients with stage IIa-IIIb after OG.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628017

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many studies have shown that COPD often exists with thyroid dysfunction; however, the relationship between thyroid function and COPD is often ignored in clinical. We retrospectively analyze the serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and explore the association between thyroid function and AECOPD. Methods: The study included patients hospitalized for AECOPD in our institution between January 2018 and September 2020. Patients with AECOPD were divided into moderate-to-severe and very severe groups based on lung function, and into normal and abnormal thyroid function groups based on thyroid hormone levels. Collected data and compared data between groups to identify risk factors for thyroid dysfunction in patients with AECOPD. Results: The cohort included 97 in the moderate-to-severe group (72.39%) and 37 in the very severe group (27.61%). Compared with the very severe group, the moderate-to-severe group had higher triglyceride (P=0.017), high-density lipoprotein (P<0.05), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; P<0.05), and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; P<0.001). FEV1 as a percentage of the predicted value (FEV1%pred) was positively correlated with TSH and FT3 (r=0.329, r=0.192, respectively, both P<0.05). Duration of hospitalization was negatively correlated with TSH (r=-0.256, P=0.003). Among the 134 subjects, 98 (73.13%) had normal thyroid function and 36 (26.87%) had abnormal thyroid function. The two groups significantly differed regarding forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV1%pred, and albumin level. Logistic regression analysis showed that high FVC correlated with a low risk of thyroid dysfunction in AECOPD. Conclusion: In patients with AECOPD, TSH is related to lung function and duration of hospitalization, and high FVC reduces the risk of thyroid dysfunction.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631431

RESUMO

Piao chicken, a rare Chinese native poultry breed, lacks primary tail structures, such as pygostyle, caudal vertebra, uropygial gland, and tail feathers. So far, the molecular mechanisms underlying tail absence in this breed remain unclear. We comprehensively employed comparative transcriptomic and genomic analyses to unravel potential genetic underpinnings of rumplessness in the Piao chicken. Our results reveal many biological factors involved in tail development and several genomic regions under strong positive selection in this breed. These regions contain candidate genes associated with rumplessness, including Irx4, Il18, Hspb2, and Cryab. Retrieval of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and gene functions implied that rumplessness might be consciously or unconsciously selected along with the high-yield traits in Piao chicken. We hypothesize that strong selection pressures on regulatory elements might lead to changes in gene activity in mesenchymal stem cells of the tail bud. The ectopic activity could eventually result in tail truncation by impeding differentiation and proliferation of the stem cells. Our study provides fundamental insights into early initiation and genetic basis of the rumpless phenotype in Piao chicken.

20.
Pancreas ; 50(2): 160-166, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the clinical outcomes of all randomized controlled trials of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and treated with pre/pro/synbiotics. METHODS: A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, Embase, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients with SAP treated with pre/pro/synbiotics. RESULTS: Eleven trials comprising 930 patients were included. Patients treated with pre/pro/synbiotics had a significantly shorter hospital stay [weighted mean difference, -4.33 days; 95% confidence interval (CI), -7.71 to -0.95; P = 0.010; I2 = 66.9%] compared with control. In a subgroup analysis where only patients classified as SAP were included, those treated with pre/pro/synbiotics had lower risk of single- or multiple-organ failure (relative risk, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88; P = 0.995; I2 = 0.0%) and decreased hospital stay (weighted mean difference, -0.65 days; 95% CI, -0.90 to -0.41; P = 0.121; I2 = 45.3%) compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SAP treated with pre/pro/synbiotics did not have a worse clinical outcome and had lower risk of organ failure and duration of hospital stay. Further studies should examine the optimal timing, type, and dosages of these promising treatments.

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