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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149630, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454137

RESUMO

Severe haze occurrence in the north of the North China Plain (NCP) is recognized as a consequence of the regional transport of pollutants initially from the south and then the rapid formation of secondary pollutants in the local air. However, the origin of pollutants causing haze in the southern NCP has not yet been elucidated even through careful data observation. Based on the contents of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 samples collected during two severe haze episodes in Zhengzhou, a mega city located on the southern edge of the NCP, we estimated the contributions of local primary emissions and secondary pollutants to haze occurrence. On average, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, and their anthropogenic fractions had proportions of 97.5%, 93.9%, and 76.5% in their respective total mass. Anions Cl- and SO42- substantially originated from not only produced substantially via secondary formation but also from primary emissions, and their primary proportions in their respective total mass were 51.1% and 30.8%. In contrast, NH4+ and NO3- were dominated by secondary formation. The increase in PM2.5 was mainly caused by the formation of secondary inorganic (29.1%) and organic species (57.2%) and the primary anthropogenic emissions (12.5%). These results indicated that the haze at the southern edge of the NCP was mainly caused by pollutants in the local areas. Compared to the haze in the northern NCP, the haze in the southern NCP edge had a higher PM2.5 mass concentration and a higher proportion of secondary species, but a lower proportion of primary species, indicating the high heterogeneity of winter haze over the NCP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Íons , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
Chembiochem ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850523

RESUMO

The discovery of a bioactive inhibitor tool for human polypeptide N -acetylgalactosaminyl transferases (GalNAc-Ts), the initiating enzyme for mucin-type O -glycosylation, remains challenging. In the present study, we identified an array of quinic acid derivatives, including four new glycerates ( 1 - 4 ) from Tussilago farfara , a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, as active inhibitors of GalNAc-T2 using a combined screening approach with a cell-based T2-specific sensor and purified enzyme assay. These inhibitors dose-dependently inhibit human GalNAc-T2 but did not affect O -linked N -acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), the other type of glycosyltransferase. Importantly, they are not cytotoxic and retain inhibitory activity in cells lacking elongated O -glycans, which are eliminated by the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool. A structure-activity relationship study unveils a novel quinic acid-caffeic acid conjugate pharmacophore that directs inhibition. Overall, these new natural product inhibitors could serve as a basis for developing an inhibitor tool for GalNAc-T2.

3.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738844

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this project is to identify prognostic features in resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma and use these features to develop a machine learning algorithm that prognosticates survival for patients pursuing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 93 patients who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The patients were analyzed in 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 38) comprised of patients who survived < 2 years, and Group 2 (n = 55) comprised of patients who survived > 2 years. After comparing the two groups, 9 categorical features and 2 continuous features (11 total) were selected to be statistically significant (p < .05) in predicting outcome after surgery. These 11 features were used to train a machine learning algorithm that prognosticates survival. Results: The algorithm obtained 75% accuracy, 41.9% sensitivity, and 97.5% specificity in predicting whether survival is less than 2 years after surgery. Conclusion: A supervised machine learning algorithm that prognosticates survival can be a useful tool to personalize treatment plans for patients with pancreatic cancer.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761514

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the susceptibility and consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We retrospectively collected data from 218 adult COVID-19 patients who showed no evidence of excessive alcohol consumption and underwent abdominal ultrasound examinations. Of these patients, 39.4% patients had been diagnosed with NAFLD, which indicates a much higher prevalence of NAFLD than that reported in the general population. Significantly elevated white blood cell count (p = 0.008), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.006) and C reactive protein (p = 0.012) were found in the patients with NAFLD. These patients also had significantly higher proportions of hypertension (p = 0.006) and diabetes (p = 0.049) than the non-NAFLD cases. No significant differences existed in the severity, mortality, viral shedding time and length of hospital stay between patients with or without NAFLD in the sample population. However, subgroup analyses found that in patients with normal body mass index (BMI), NAFLD sufferers were more likely to experience a severe event (30.0% vs 11.5%, p = 0.021). Kaplan-Meier curve (log-rank p = 0.017) and Cox regression (HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.17-9.04, p = 0.023) analyses confirmed that before and after adjusting for gender, age and comorbidities, NAFLD patients with normal BMI had a higher incidence of suffering severe events. People with NAFLD may have a higher proportion of COVID-19. NAFLD may be correlated with the severity of COVID-19 patients in the normal BMI group.

5.
Dig Surg ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Selecting the hub genes associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to construct a COX regression model for predicting prognosis in HCC patients. METHODS: Using HCC patient data from the ICGC and TCGA databases, screened for 40 core genes highly correlated with histological grade of HCC. Univariate and multivariate COX regression analysis were performed on the genes highly associated with HCC prognosis and the model was established. The expression of those genes was measured by immunohistochemistry in 110 HCC patients who underwent the surgery in The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The survival of HCC patients was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Eight genes (CDC45, CENPA, MCM10, MELK, CDC20, ASF1B, FANCD2 and NCAPH) were correlated with prognosis, and the same result was observed in 110 HCC patients. Using the regression model, the HCC patients in the training set were classified as high- and low-risk groups. The overall survival (OS) of patients in the high-risk group was shorter than that in the low-risk group, the same results were obtained in verification set. CONCLUSION: This study found that the risk model according to these eight genes can be used as a predictor of prognosis in HCC. These genes may become alternative biomarkers and therapeutic targets and provide new therapeutic strategies for HCC.

6.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1103-1106, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present detection of hypermethylation at H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) at amniocentesis in a fetus with overgrowth, distended abdomen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman was referred for genetic counseling at 22 weeks of gestation because of fetal overgrowth with fetal biometry equivalent to 24 weeks of gestation and a distended abdomen with an abdominal circumference equivalent to 26 weeks of gestation. She did not undergo any assisted reproductive technology during this pregnancy. Amniocentesis was performed at 23 weeks of gestation. Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Methylation analysis on the DNA extracted from amniocytes revealed hypermethylation at H19DMR [imprinting center 1 (IC1)] and normal methylation at KvDMR1 (IC2). The methylation test confirmed the diagnosis of BWS in the fetus. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy. At 36 weeks of gestation, a 4000-g female baby was delivered with macroglossia, ear tags and creases, and an enlarged liver, consistent with the phenotype of BWS. CONCLUSION: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal overgrowth should include a differential diagnosis of BWS, and methylation analysis of H19DMR (IC1) and KvDMR1 (IC2) is useful under such a circumstance.

7.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(6): 1107-1111, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with an abnormal first-trimester screening result, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal first-trimester screening result with maternal serum free ß-hCG of 1.474 multiples of the median (MoM), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) of 0.122 MoM and placental growth factor (PlGF) of 0.101 MoM, and a Down syndrome risk of 1/45. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [9]/46,XY [16] and an abnormal array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) result of arr (16) × 3 [0.54] compatible with 54% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. At 24 weeks of gestation, repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [4]/46,XY [16] and an aCGH result of arr 16p13.3q24.3 (96,766-90,567,357) × 2.25 with a log2 ratio = 0.2 compatible with 20-30% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 19.4% (12/62 cells) mosaic trisomy 16. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 36 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal baby was delivered with a body weight of 1900 g. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY. QF-PCR analysis confirmed biparentally inherited disomy 16 in the cord blood and maternal-origin of trisomy 16 in the placenta. When follow-up at age two months, FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 32 urinary cells revealed no signal of trisomy 16. CONCLUSION: Mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and an abnormal first-trimester screening result with low PAPP-A and low PlGF. Mosaic trisomy 16 without UPD 16 at amniocentesis can have a favorable outcome, and the abnormal triosmy 16 cell line may disappear after birth.

11.
Neurol Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the clinical features and outcomes of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in Northwestern China. METHODS: We retrospectively recruited 33 pediatric patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Northwestern China from December 2013 to April 2020. The demographics, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: 33 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were enrolled in this study (a median age of 6.8 years, 20 females and 13 males). The initial symptoms included seizures (42.4%), psychiatric symptoms (39.4%), speech dysfunction (12.1%), and paralysis (6.1%). During the course of the disease, 31 patients (93.9%) presented with psychiatric symptoms, 29 patients (87.9%) presented with speech dysfunction, 25 patients (75.8%) presented with movement disorders and 24 patients (72.7%) presented with sleep disorders followed by seizures, consciousness disturbance, autonomic nervous dysfunction, paralysis, and hypoventilation. 12 patients (36.4%) had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, 10 patients (30.3%) exhibited abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, and 29 patients (87.9%) showed abnormal Electroencephalography (EEG) findings. None of the patients had tumors. All patients received first-line immunotherapy and 8 patients both received first and second-line immunotherapy. 30 of the 33 patients achieved good outcomes (score on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS] of 0-2), whilst the other 3 patients had poor outcomes (mRS score of 3-6). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with higher CSF anti-NMDAR body titer were more likely to develop sleep disorders, consciousness disturbances and more severe disease states.

12.
Vaccine ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785101

RESUMO

In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines were licensed in Taiwan but were not added to the national immunization schedule. National Health Insurance data from 2003 through 2017 were used to compare rotavirus-associated pediatric hospitalizations before and after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus hospitalization rates among children < 5 years of age significantly declined by 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23 - 25%) in post-vaccine compared to pre-vaccine rotavirus seasons. Rotavirus hospitalization rates declined by 42% (95% CI 39 - 44%) among infants < 12 months of age, and by 38% (95% CI 36 - 40%) among children 12 - 23 months of age. These findings suggest that, despite not being included in the national immunization schedule, rotavirus vaccines had a measurable impact on reducing rotavirus hospitalization burden among Taiwanese children.

13.
Int J Implant Dent ; 7(1): 115, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effects of concentrated growth factors (CGFs) combined with bone substitutes for alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in the maxillary molar area. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who underwent extraction of the upper molars were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: 1. Grafted with CGFs combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and covered with CGFs membrane (CGFs/DBBM group), 2. Grafted with DBBM alone and covered with collagen membrane (DBBM group), 3. Control group spontaneous healing. The area of the alveolar bone in center (C-), mesial (M-) and distal (D-) section was compared with preoperative in radiography. Bone cores were obtained for histopathology observation and comparison. RESULTS: In C-, M- and D-section, the alveolar ridge area in all three groups was significantly reduced at 8 months postoperatively compared to the baseline (P < 0.05). The alveolar ridge area declines in the CGFs/DBBM group (C-12.75 ± 2.22 mm2, M-14.69 ± 2.82 mm2, D-16.95 ± 4.17 mm2) and DBBM group (C-14.08 ± 2.51 mm2, M-15.42 ± 3.47 mm2, D-16.09 ± 3.97 mm2) were non-significant differences. They were significantly less than the decline in the control group (C-45.04 ± 8.38 mm2 M-31.98 ± 8.34 mm2, D-31.85 ± 8.52 mm2) (P < 0.05). The percentage of newly formed bone in the CGFs/DBBM group (41.99 ± 12.99%) was significantly greater than that in DBBM group (30.68 ± 10.95%) (P < 0.05). The percentage of residual materials in the CGFs/DBBM group (16.19 ± 6.63%) was significantly less than that in the DBBM group (28.35 ± 11.70%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined application of CGFs and DBBM effectively reduced the resorption of alveolar ridge and resulted in more newly formed bone than the use of DBBM with collagen membranes.

14.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(11)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829220

RESUMO

Auricularia has a worldwide distribution and is very important due to its edibility and medicinal properties. Morphological examinations and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of 277 samples from 35 countries in Asia, Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Oceania were carried out. Phylogenetic analyses were based on ITS, nLSU, rpb1, and rpb2 sequences using methods of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. According to the morphological and/or molecular characters, 37 Auricularia species were identified. Ten new species, A. camposii and A. novozealandica in the A. cornea complex, A. australiana, A. conferta, A. lateralis, A. pilosa and A. sinodelicata in the A. delicata complex, A. africana, A. srilankensis, and A. submesenterica in the A. mesenterica complex, are described. The two known species A. pusio and A. tremellosa, respectively belonging to the A. mesenterica complex and the A. delicata complex, are redefined, while A. angiospermarum, belonging to the A. auricula-judae complex, is validated. The morphological characters, photos, ecological traits, hosts and geographical distributions of those 37 species are outlined and discussed. Morphological differences and phylogenetic relations of species in five Auricularia morphological complexes (the A. auricula-judae, the A. cornea, the A. delicata, the A. fuscosuccinea and the A. mesenterica complexes) are elaborated. Synopsis data on comparisons of species in the five complexes are provided. An identification key for the accepted 37 species is proposed.

16.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669648

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to introduce the resistance mechanisms to osimertinib, discuss the therapeutic strategies, and make clinical updates in overcoming resistance to osimertinib. RECENT FINDINGS: Osimertinib has shown favorable efficacy on second-line and first-line treatments in EGFR-mutant advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the presence of primary and acquired resistance to osimertinib restricts its clinical benefits. The primary resistance mainly consists of BIM deletion polymorphism and EGFR exon 20 insertions. Meanwhile, the heterogeneous mechanisms of acquired resistance include EGFR-dependent (on-target) and EGFR-independent (off-target) mechanisms. EGFR C797S mutation, MET amplification, HER2 amplification, and small cell lung cancer transformation were identified as frequent resistance mechanisms. Recently, more novel mechanisms, including rare EGFR point mutations and oncogenic fusions, were reported. With the results of completed and on-going clinical trials, the emerging therapeutic strategies of postosimertinib progression are summarized. SUMMARY: The resistance mechanisms to osimertinib are heterogeneous and gradually perfected. The combination of osimertinib with bypass targeted therapy and other therapeutic approaches emerge as promising strategies.

17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 684070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692476

RESUMO

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important research topic. Despite the potential benefits of this approach, the inflammatory responses and adverse events associated with neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy can present technical challenges and compromise a planned resection. This study assessed the safety and feasibility of neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy followed by surgery for resectable NSCLC. Methods: The study was conducted from May 2019 to March 2021. Patients who were age 18 years or older, were diagnosed with stage Ib-IIIb NSCLC, and received neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy followed by surgery were included. Demographic information, clinical and pathologic characteristics, data about neoadjuvant therapy, and surgical details were collected by retrospective chart review. Toxicity profiles were collected retrospectively or by telephone follow-up. Results: Twenty patients were included in this study. The median age was 56 years (range, 48-72 years), and 18 patients (90%) were men. Squamous carcinoma (14/20, 70%) was the most common cancer type, followed by adenocarcinoma (4/20, 20%), adenosquamous carcinoma (1/20, 5%), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (1/20, 5%). All patients received two to four cycles of neoadjuvant therapy, and the median interval between final therapy and surgery was 49 days (range, 23-133 days). Computed tomography evaluation after neoadjuvant therapy showed partial response in 15 patients (75%) and stable disease in 5 (25%). Final pathologic examinations showed major pathologic response in eight patients, including pathologic complete response in five (25%). Most patients (18/20, 90%) had reduced pathologic staging. Twelve patients (60%) underwent open thoracotomy; the other eight patients underwent minimally invasive surgery, which was uneventful and without intraoperative conversion to open thoracotomy. No perioperative deaths occurred, and only seven patients (35%) developed postoperative complications. Most patients experienced only grade 1-2 adverse effects and laboratory abnormalities during neoadjuvant therapy, and no grade 3 or worse adverse effects or laboratory abnormalities occurred. No patients experienced surgical delays as a result of immune-related adverse events. Conclusions: Preoperative administration of chemoimmunotherapy for patients with resectable NSCLC was safe and feasible.

18.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical value of urine interleukin-18 (IL-8), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) related urosepsis. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in 157 patients with urosepsis after URL. The patients were divided into AKI group and non-AKI group according to the Kidigo guideline and urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after the surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of these three biomarkers for postoperative AKI. RESULTS: The level of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 in AKI group was significantly higher than that in non-AKI group at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h (p < 0.01). The ROC analysis showed the combined detection of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 at 12 h had a larger area under curve (AUC) than a single marker (0.997, 95% CI: 0.991-0.998), and the sensitivity and specificity were 98.2% and 96.7%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of urine NGAL at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h in AKI patients were positively correlated with the levels of urine KIM-1 and IL-18 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: AKI could be quickly recognized by the elevated level of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 in patients with URL-related urosepsis. Combined detection of the three urine biomarkers at 12 h after surgery had a better diagnostic performance, which may be an important reference for the early diagnosis of AKI.

19.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(5): 762-770, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction on the substantia nigra in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA). To further determine whether the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the action. METHODS: A rat model of PD was established by intracranial injection of 6-OHDA. Subsequently, three concentrations of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction were prepared and administered to rats by gavage therapy for 14 d. Behavioral changes were measured in PD rats. In vivo tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the substantia nigra were examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, gene and protein expression levels of members of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway were examined by Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, a Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor was used to investigate the mechanism of action in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )- treated MES23.5 cells in vitro. RESULTS: Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction improved performance in the stride and gait adjustment tests in PD rats. It also increased TH in the substantia nigra and altered the expression of genes and proteins in the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor reduced the effect of Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction in MPP +-treated MES23.5 cells. CONCLUSION: Roucongrong (Herba Cistanches Deserticolae) decoction may promote neuronal survival in PD in vivo and in vitro by increasing TH content in the substantia nigra and by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

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