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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20210073, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823666

RESUMO

Both anthropogenic impacts and historical climate change could contribute to population decline and species extinction, but their relative importance is still unclear. Emerging approaches based on genomic, climatic and anthropogenic data provide a promising analytical framework to address this question. This study applied such an integrative approach to examine potential drivers for the endangerment of the green peafowl (Pavo muticus). Several demographic reconstructions based on population genomes congruently retrieved a drastic population declination since the mid-Holocene. Furthermore, a comparison between historical and modern genomes suggested genetic diversity decrease during the last 50 years. However, climate-based ecological niche models predicted stationary general range during these periods and imply the little impact of climate change. Further analyses suggested that human disturbance intensities were negatively correlated with the green peafowl's effective population sizes and significantly associated with its survival status (extirpation or persistence). Archaeological and historical records corroborate the critical role of humans, leaving the footprint of low genomic diversity and high inbreeding in the survival populations. This study sheds light on the potential deep-time effects of human disturbance on species endangerment and offers a multi-evidential approach in examining underlying forces for population declines.

2.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 269-275, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825525

RESUMO

Basic medical laboratory courses (BMLCs) play an important role in medical educational courses helping the student acquire three important skills of surgical operating, collaborative learning, and problem solving. The outcome-based student assessment (OBSA) is a learning evaluation method that establishes specific evaluation points based on performance of students in three aspects: surgical operating, collaborative learning, and problem solving in the BMLC curriculum practices. The purpose of the present randomized controlled trial study is to explore the efficiency of OBSA program in BMLCs. The 233 students attending BMLCs were randomly divided into 2 groups, 118 in the OBSA group and 115 in the control group. We conducted multiple-choice examination questions (MCQs) test and two questionnaires with the method of two-sample t test for statistics. The results of MCQs in total eight BMLC blocks showed that the academic performance of the OBSA group was significantly better than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the average scores of direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) and mini-experimental evaluation exercise in OBSA group were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The majority of the medical students preferred the OBSA and considered OBSA could effectively improve their surgical operating skills (83.9%), collaborative learning skills (92.1%), and problem-solving skills (91.1%). From the above, OBSA is an effective evaluation method for the implementation of the BMLC curriculum.

3.
J Neuroimaging ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although ophthalmic complaints were mostly mentioned in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), emotional and psychological disturbances are increasingly concerned. We aimed to investigate the brain functional alteration in TAO patients by using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) with the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) methods. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive TAO patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs) underwent rs-fMRI scans. The fALFF, ReHo, and DC values were compared between groups. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, TAO group showed decreased fALFF values in bilateral calcarine/left lingual gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Moreover, TAO group had decreased ReHo values in left MOG/inferior occipital gyrus/fusiform gyrus, while increased ReHo values in bilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) than HCs. TAO group also showed decreased DC values in bilateral postcentral gyrus (PoCG)/precentral gyrus/superior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area, and increased DC values in left SFG/MFG and MFG. In TAO patients, ReHo value in left MOG was positively correlated with visual acuity (r = 0.524, p = 0.021), while ReHo values in bilateral MFGs were negatively correlated with cognitive scores (left/right: r = -0.476/-0.527, p = 0.039/0.020). DC value in left PoCG was negatively correlated with disease duration (r = -0.492, p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that TAO patients had brain functional alterations in the visual network, executive control network, sensorimotor network, and attention network, which may reflect potential visual and cognitive dysfunctions.

4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(4): 5, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821882

RESUMO

Purpose: Increasing evidence indicated that thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) might be a neural related disease more than an ocular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the alterations of structural brain connectome in patients with TAO. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with TAO and 27 well-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Graph theoretical analyses, including global (shortest path length, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, global efficiency, and local efficiency) and nodal (nodal betweenness, nodal degree, and nodal efficiency) topological properties and network-based statistics were performed to evaluate TAO-related changes in brain network pattern. Correlations were assessed between the network properties and clinical variables, including disease duration, visual acuity, neuropsychiatric measurements, and serum thyroid function indexes. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with TAO exhibited preserved global network parameters but altered nodal properties. We found decreased nodal betweenness and nodal degree in right anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri, decreased nodal degree and nodal efficiency in the right orbital part of middle frontal gyrus (ORBmid), whereas increased nodal degree and nodal efficiency in the left cuneus. Decrease of structural connectivity strength was found involving the right ORBmid, right putamen, left caudate nucleus, and left medial superior frontal gyrus. Significant correlations were also found between nodal properties and neuropsychological performances as well as visual acuity. Conclusions: Patients with TAO developed disruption of structural brain network connectome. Disrupted topological organization of the brain structural network may be associated with the clinical-psychiatric dysfunction of patients with TAO.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly population is considered at high risk for pneumococcal diseases. The pneumococcal vaccine coverage presents extremely low among elderly people in China. However, the serious event of COVID-19 drives interest in the pneumococcal vaccine, prompting us investigating the willingness to accept the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and influencing factors among people aged over 60 years during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was employed using a self-administered questionnaire in Shenzhen City of China, elaborating the willingness toward PPSV23 in the elderly persons. Binomial logistic analyses were performed to estimate the influencing factors using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Among 15,066 respondents, 91.5% presented a positive attitude toward PPSV23. Logistic analyses suggested the influencing factors included knowledge about pneumonia (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.391, 95%CI 1.214-1.593), perception of the seriousness of pneumonia (aOR 1.437, 95%CI 1.230-1.680) and preventing way for pneumonia (aOR 1.639, 95%CI 1.440-1.865), worried about getting pneumonia (aOR 2.751, 95%CI 2.444-3.096), understanding vaccine policy (aOR 1.774, 95%CI 1.514-2.079), and influenza vaccine (aOR 3.516 and 95%CI 2.261-5.468) and PPSV23 histories (aOR 3.199, 95%CI 1.492-6.860). CONCLUSIONS: The interest surge in pneumococcal vaccine coincided with the COVID-19 outbreak, foreshadowing higher demand for pneumococcal vaccine in the near future.

6.
Cartilage ; : 19476035211003324, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disorder, accompanied by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Reportedly, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in OA pathogenesis. However, the role of lncRNA FYVE, RhoGEF, and PH domain containing 5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1) in OA development is still not fully clarified. This study was aimed to clarify the role of FGD5-AS1 in OA. METHODS: FGD5-AS1 and miR-302d-3p expression levels were determined in cartilage tissues and chondrocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Chondrocytes (C20/A4 cells) were stimulated with interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) to mimic the inflammatory environment of OA. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assays. Cell apoptosis was measured by the caspase-3 activity assay and flow cytometry. Transforming growth factor beta receptors II (TGFBR2), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), and ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 5 expression levels were examined by qRT-PCR or Western blot. The regulatory relationships among FGD5-AS1, miR-302d-3p, and TGFBR2 were predicted by the StarBase v2.0, miRanda, miRDB, and TargetScan databases, and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: FGD5-AS1 and TGFBR2 expression levels were downregulated while miR-302d-3p expression was increased in cartilage tissues of OA patients. Knocking down FGD5-AS1 inhibited the viability of C20/A4 cells but induced apoptosis and ECM degradation, while FGD5-AS1 overexpression exerted opposite effects. MiR-302d-3p was identified as a target of FGD5-AS1, and TGFBR2 was identified as a target of miR-302d-3p. FGD5-AS1 positively regulated TGFBR2 expression by repressing miR-302d-3p expression, and miR-302d-3p inhibition or TGFBR2 restoration reversed the changes of cell viability, apoptosis, and ECM degradation induced by FGD5-AS1 knockdown. CONCLUSION: FGD5-AS1 can probably inhibit OA progression by regulating miR-302d-3p/TGFBR2 axis.

7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 24, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antituberculosis-drug resistance is an important public health issue, and its epidemiological patterns has dramatically changed in recent decades. This study aimed to estimate the trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which can be used to inform health strategies. METHODS: Data were collected from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were calculated to assess the trends of MDR-TB burden at global, regional, and national level from 1990 to 2017 using the linear regression model. RESULTS: Globally, the age-standardized rate (ASR) of MDR-TB burden including incidence, prevalence, death and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) had pronounced increasing trends from 1990 to 1999, with the EAPCs were 17.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.77-24.92], 17.57 (95% CI 11.51-23.95), 21.21 (95% CI 15.96-26.69), and 21.90 (95% CI 16.55-27.50), respectively. Particularly, the largest increasing trends were seen in areas and countries with low and low-middle sociodemographic index (SDI). However, the trends in incidence, prevalence, death and DALYs of MDR-TB decreased globally from 2000 to 2017, with the respective EAPCs were - 1.37 (95% CI - 1.62 to - 1.12), - 1.32 (95% CI - 1.38 to - 1.26), - 3.30 (95% CI - 3.56 to - 3.04) and - 3.32 (95% CI - 3.59 to - 3.06). Decreasing trends of MDR-TB were observed in most regions and countries, particularly that of death and DALYs in Slovenia were - 18.96 (95% CI - 20.82 to - 17.06) and -19.35 (95% CI - 21.10 to - 17.55), respectively. Whereas the pronounced increasing trends of MDR-TB occurred in Papua New Guinea, Singapore, and Australia. CONCLUSIONS: The ASR of MDR-TB showed pronounced decreasing trends from 2000 to 2017. However, the MDR-TB burden remains a substantial challenge to the TB control globally, and requires effective control strategies and healthcare systems.

8.
Scand J Psychol ; 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719048

RESUMO

We investigated whether experienced regret influences risky decision making in future dissimilar situations and whether this effect is affected by risky degree. Therefore, participants (N = 39 and 54 in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) were asked to select one of the two options. In the experienced regret condition, the selected option was worse than the unselected option; in the control condition, the information about the unselected option was unknown to the participants. Subsequently, participants were required to either keep the selected option or to gamble. Additionally, Experiment 2 varied in risky degree of the gamble from low to high. Results showed that experienced regret enhanced possibilities of gamble under low risk (Experiment 1 and 2). Under high risk, however, the effect of experienced regret was reversed (Experiment 2). The findings might suggest that experienced regret affects risky decision making in future dissimilar situations dependently on risky degree.

9.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788065

RESUMO

Neonatal jaundice is a common symptom that occurs in neonates during the first month of their life and is generally divided into physiological and pathological subtypes. In serious cases, pathological neonatal jaundice frequently shows complications including seizures, cerebral palsy, and kernicterus. However, due to the unclear pathogenesis of pathological neonatal jaundice, effective drugs for this disease remain unsatisfied. In the present study, we first estimated the protective effects of folic acid (FA) on phenylhydrazine (PHA) or homocysteine (Hcy)-injected neonatal rats (2-3 days aged). Intriguingly, we found that FA significantly decreased the elevated total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) concentration, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in PHA- or Hcy-injected rats, indicating that FA improves liver functions. Meanwhile, our results also showed that the plasma Hcy level and N-homocysteinylation (N-Hcy) modification of albumin were significantly elevated in the jaundice rats, which were obviously reversed after FA administration. Furthermore, we identified a novel N-Hcy modification site K545 of human serum albumin (HSA) using LC-MS/MS, and the mutagenesis assay in HEK293 further validated these observations. Besides, we demonstrated that the N-Hcy modification of albumin functionally inhibits the bilirubin-binding ability of albumin without altering its protein level both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, we highlight a mechanism that FA reduces the plasma Hcy level and thereby enhance the bilirubin-binding ability of albumin, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pathological neonatal jaundice.

10.
Can J Microbiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769090

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. The external hyphae of AM fungi function as an extension of plant roots and may downregulate related functions in the roots. It is not clear whether the ability of AM fungi to mineralize organic P affects root phosphatase activities. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Funneliformis mosseae on soil organic P mineralization under phytate application and to explore root phosphatase activities, P uptake, and growth in Camellia oleifera Abel. The plants and their growth substrates were harvested 4 and 8 months after planting. The results showed that organic P application had no effect on the total dry mass of nonmycorrhizal plants, but differences in dry mass under P application were observed in mycorrhizal plants in both harvests. Inoculation with F. mosseae increased soil acid phosphatase, phytase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and reduced the soil organic P content. Mycorrhizal plants had higher root activity, shoot and root P contents and root acid phosphatase and phytase activities than nonmycorrhizal plants irrespective of organic P application. In conclusion, AM fungi enhanced the mineralization of soil organic P and positively affect root phosphatase activities.

11.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this review is to systematically summarize the consensus on best practices for different NP conditions of the two most commonly utilized noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technologies, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). METHODS: PubMed was searched according to the predetermined keywords and criteria. Only English language studies and studies published up to January 31, 2020 were taken into consideration. Meta-analyses, reviews, and systematic reviews were excluded first, and those related to animal studies or involving healthy volunteers were also excluded. Finally, 29 studies covering 826 NP patients were reviewed. RESULTS: The results from the 24 enrolled studies and 736 NP patients indicate that rTMS successfully relieved the pain symptoms of 715 (97.1%) NP patients. Also, five studies involving 95 NP patients (81.4%) also showed that tDCS successfully relieved NP. In the included studied, the M1 region plays a key role in the analgesic treatment of NIBS. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs), the 10-20 electroencephalography system (EEG 10/20 system), and neuro-navigation methods are used in clinical practice to locate therapeutic targets. Based on the results of the review, the stimulation parameters of rTMS that best induce an analgesic effect are a stimulation frequency of 10-20 Hz, a stimulation intensity of 80-120% of RMT, 1000-2000 pulses, and 5-10 sessions, and the most effective parameters of tDCS are a current intensity of 2 mA, a session duration of 20-30 min, and 5-10 sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematically reviewed the evidence for positive and negative responses to rTMS and tDCS for NP patient care and underscores the analgesic efficacy of NIBS in patients with NP. The treatment of NP should allow the design of optimal treatments for individual patients.

12.
Oncol Rep ; 45(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649822

RESUMO

Numerous studies have elucidated the impact of long non­coding (lnc)RNAs in carcinogenesis; however, the role and the mechanism of the lncRNA LOC284454 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In the present study, reverse transcription­quantitative PCR assay, χ2 analysis and Kaplan­Meier analysis were performed to assess the role of LOC284454 in HCC. Furthermore, MTT and Transwell assays were performed to measure the function of LOC284454 on HCC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. RNA immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA pull­down, fluorescence in situ hybridization and luciferase reporter assays were performed to explore the mechanism of LOC284454. The results revealed that LOC284454 expression was aberrantly elevated in HCC and increased LOC284454 expression was markedly associated with aggressive clinicopathological factors and shorter survival time in patients with HCC, suggesting that LOC284454 behaved as an oncogenic factor in HCC. Mechanistically, LOC284454 could bind with the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mRNA and subsequently inhibit E­cadherin expression by binding to its promoter region. The rescue assay demonstrated that E­cadherin was essential for the oncogenic function of LOC284454 in HCC cells. The present results suggested that the LOC284454/EZH2/E­cadherin axis may be an alternative therapeutic target for patients with HCC.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 247, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664254

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is prevalent in the world, accounting for a huge part of non-melanoma skin cancer. Most cSCCs are associated with a distinct pre-cancerous lesion, the actinic keratosis (AK). However, the progression trajectory from normal skin to AK and cSCC has not been fully demonstrated yet. To identify genes involved in this progression trajectory and possible therapeutic targets for cSCC, here we constructed a UV-induced cSCC mouse model covering the progression from normal skin to AK to cSCC, which mimicked the solar UV radiation perfectly using the solar-like ratio of UVA and UVB, firstly. Then, transcriptome analysis and a series of bioinformatics analyses and cell experiments proved that Rorα is a key transcript factor during cSCC progression. Rorα could downregulate the expressions of S100a9 and Sprr2f in cSCC cells, which can inhibit the proliferation and migration in cSCC cells, but not the normal keratinocyte. Finally, further animal experiments confirmed the inhibitory effect of cSCC growth by Rorα in vivo. Our findings showed that Rorα would serve as a potential novel target for cSCC, which will facilitate the treatment of cSCC in the future.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739924

RESUMO

Knowledge distillation, aimed at transferring the knowledge from a heavy teacher network to a lightweight student network, has emerged as a promising technique for compressing neural networks. However, due to the capacity gap between the heavy teacher and the lightweight student, there still exists a significant performance gap between them. In this paper, we see knowledge distillation in a fresh light, using the knowledge gap, or the residual, between a teacher and a student as guidance to train a much more lightweight student, called a res-student. We combine the student and the res-student into a new student, where the res-student rectifies the errors of the former student. Such a residual-guided process can be repeated until the user strikes the balance between accuracy and cost. At inference time, we propose a sample-adaptive strategy to decide which res-students are not necessary for each sample, which can save computational cost. Experimental results show that we achieve competitive performance with 18.04%, 23.14%, 53.59%, and 56.86% of the teachers' computational costs on the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Tiny-ImageNet, and ImageNet datasets. Finally, we do thorough theoretical and empirical analysis for our method.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125678, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765566

RESUMO

The accuracy of mercury (Hg) dendrochemistry has been questioned because significant knowledge gaps exist in understanding the Hg translocation and mobility in tree-ring. In this study, we evaluated Hg concentrations and isotopic profiles in the tree-ring at a Hg artisanal mining site and a control site with the documented local Hg production inventory. Results show that the Hg concentration accumulated in tree-ring fails to reconstruct the temporal trend of Hg production due to confounded tree physiological and environmental factors, specifically, the radial translocation and tree age effects occurring during the fast-growing period. The temporal profiles of δ202Hg exhibit pronounced tree-specific variabilities due to the complexity of Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation during atmospheric Hg uptake and translocation in vegetation. The Hg odd-MIF (mass independent fractionation) profiles in tree-ring can reconstruct a decadal-scale temporal trend of the atmospheric Hg0 pollution level, and also be used as a tracer to distinguish the emission source shifts of atmospheric Hg0. However, the radial translocation would result in uncertainties at the higher resolution because of the mixing of odd-MIF signatures with active rings. Caution should be taken and additional supporting evidence collected from independent methods should be used for verifying the tree-ring records.

17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 53(4): 1282-1292, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been widely used in MRI. However, several studies have reported Gd deposition in the brain, which has raised concerns about safety. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ischemic stroke on Gd deposition in the brain after repeated administration of linear or macrocyclic GBCAs and to determine whether GBCAs aggravate astrocyte injury after stroke. STUDY TYPE: Animal study. ANIMAL MODEL: Twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to an exposure group (n = 24) and a healthy control group (n = 3). Half of the exposure group (n = 12) underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and half (n = 12) had a sham procedure. In each subgroup (tMCAO or sham), the rats had repeated gadopentetate (n = 6) or gadobutrol (n = 6) injections. Oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) was used as an in vitro model of stroke. ASSESSMENT: On day 3 and day 28 after the last injection (p.i.), the Gd concentration in the cerebrum was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed in vitro. STATISTICAL TESTS: One-way analysis of variance and two-sample t-tests were performed. RESULTS: The Gd concentration in the ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates of tMCAO group was significantly higher than that in the brain homogenates of the sham group on day 3 p.i. of either gadobutrol (0.065 ± 0.006 vs. 0.042 ± 0.007 µg/g, P < 0.05) or gadopentetate (0.093 ± 0.010 vs. 0.069 ± 0.008 µg/g, P < 0.05). Increased Gd deposition was also found in the ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates of the tMCAO group compared with the brain homogenates of the sham group on day 28 p.i. of gadopentetate (0.075 ± 0.012 vs. 0.044 ± 0.003 µg/g, P < 0.05), but not gadobutrol (0.012 ± 0.007 vs. 0.010 ± 0.001 µg/g, P = 0.80). The Gd concentration in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the tMCAO group was significantly higher for gadopentetate than gadobutrol on both day 3 p.i. (0.085 ± 0.006 vs. 0.049 ± 0.005 µg/g, P < 0.05) and day 28 p.i (0.075 ± 0.012 vs. 0.012 ± 0.007 µg/g, P < 0.05). Additionally, compared with gadobutrol, gadopentetate decreased viability, increased ROS accumulation, and decreased MMP in OGD/R-induced astrocytes (all P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: Administration of GBCAs after an animal model of ischemic stroke increased Gd deposition in the brain and aggravated astrocyte injury. The effect of gadopentetate appeared to be more pronounced than that of gadobutrol.

18.
PLoS Med ; 18(2): e1003508, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether consumption of egg and cholesterol is detrimental to cardiovascular health and longevity is highly debated. Data from large-scale cohort studies are scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other causes in a US population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Overall, 521,120 participants (aged 50-71 years, mean age = 62.2 years, 41.2% women, and 91.8% non-Hispanic white) were recruited from 6 states and 2 additional cities in the US between 1995 and 1996 and prospectively followed up until the end of 2011. Intakes of whole eggs, egg whites/substitutes, and cholesterol were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cause-specific hazard models considering competing risks were used, with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted intake (per 2,000 kcal per day) as the reference. There were 129,328 deaths including 38,747 deaths from CVD during a median follow-up of 16 years. Whole egg and cholesterol intakes were both positively associated with all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. In multivariable-adjusted models, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with each intake of an additional half of a whole egg per day were 1.07 (1.06-1.08) for all-cause mortality, 1.07 (1.06-1.09) for CVD mortality, and 1.07 (1.06-1.09) for cancer mortality. Each intake of an additional 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day was associated with 19%, 16%, and 24% higher all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality, respectively. Mediation models estimated that cholesterol intake contributed to 63.2% (95% CI 49.6%-75.0%), 62.3% (95% CI 39.5%-80.7%), and 49.6% (95% CI 31.9%-67.4%) of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality associated with whole egg consumption, respectively. Egg white/substitute consumers had lower all-cause mortality and mortality from stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and Alzheimer disease compared with non-consumers. Hypothetically, replacing half a whole egg with equivalent amounts of egg whites/substitutes, poultry, fish, dairy products, or nuts/legumes was related to lower all-cause, CVD, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality. Study limitations include its observational nature, reliance on participant self-report, and residual confounding despite extensive adjustment for acknowledged dietary and lifestyle risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, intakes of eggs and cholesterol were associated with higher all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. The increased mortality associated with egg consumption was largely influenced by cholesterol intake. Our findings suggest limiting cholesterol intake and replacing whole eggs with egg whites/substitutes or other alternative protein sources for facilitating cardiovascular health and long-term survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00340015.

19.
Endocr Pract ; 27(3): 191-197, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of T2 mapping in detecting intraorbital optic nerve (ON) changes in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) before the onset of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with TAO and without DON (21 active, 14 inactive) and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived parameters of T2 relaxation time (T2RT) at the intraorbital ON, extraocular muscle (EOM), orbital fat, exophthalmos, summed thickness of EOMs, orbital fat thickness, and clinical variables were compared. Correlations between T2RT at the ON and other variables were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with TAO showed significantly higher T2RTs at the intraorbital ON than HCs (P < .001). Patients with active TAO had significantly higher T2RTs than those with inactive TAO and HCs (P < .001). Differences between patients with inactive TAO and HCs were insignificant (P > .05/3). T2RT at the intraorbital ON was positively correlated with clinical activity score, modified NOSPECS score, T2RT at EOM, exophthalmos, and summed thickness of EOMs in the TAO group (P ≤ .003) and negatively correlated with visual acuity (P = .033) and visual field indices (P = .030) in patients with active TAO. A T2RT cutoff of 82.9 ms for the intraorbital ON distinguished active TAO and healthy eyes optimally (area under the curve, 0.800; sensitivity, 85.7%; specificity, 64.3%). CONCLUSION: T2RT detects disturbance in the intraorbital ON in patients with TAO, especially active TAO, before DON develops. T2 mapping has a potential for noninvasive evaluation of ON changes in patients with TAO.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatia de Graves , Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Oftalmopatia de Graves/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4494, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627689

RESUMO

Simulated hypobaric hypoxia (SHH) training has been used to enhance running performance. However, no studies have evaluated the effects of a single SHH exposure on healthy mice performance and analyzed the changes of mitochondria-related genes in the central nervous system. The current study used a mouse decompression chamber to simulate mild hypobaric hypoxia at the high altitude of 5000 m or severe hypobaric hypoxia at 8000 m for 16 h (SHH5000 & SHH8000, respectively). Then, the mouse behavioral tests were recorded by a modified Noldus video tracking. Third, the effects of SHH on 8 mitochondria-related genes of Drp1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1, TFAM, SGK1, UCP2 and UCP4, were assessed in cerebellum, hippocampus and gastrocnemius muscles. The results have shown that a single mild or severe HH improves healthy mice performance. In cerebellum, 6 of all 8 detected genes (except Mfn2 and UCP4) did not change after SHH. In hippocampus, all detected genes did not change after SHH. In muscles, 7 of all 8 detected genes (except Opa1) did not change after SHH. The present study has indicated the benefit of a single SHH in healthy mice performance, which would due to the stabilized mitochondria against a mild stress state.

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