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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151689

RESUMO

We report variable-temperature (VT) 17O solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra for three crystalline sulfonic acids: l-cysteic acid monohydrate (CA), 3-pyridinesulfonic acid (PSA), and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (TSA). We were able to analyze the experimental VT 17O NMR spectra to obtain the activation barriers for SO3- jumps in these systems. Using the density functional-based tight-binding (DFTB) method, we performed potential energy surface scans for SO3- jumps in the crystal lattice of CA, PSA, and TSA, as well as for three related crystalline sulfonic acids (taurine, homotaurine, and 4-aminobutane-1-sulfonic acid) for which relevant 17O solid-state NMR data are available in the literature. The calculated activation barriers are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. On the basis of the DFTB results, we hypothesized that activation barriers for SO3- jumps in the crystal lattice depend largely on the hydrogen bonding energy difference between the ground state and the transition state.

2.
Chem Rev ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136387

RESUMO

Electrocatalysts with single metal atoms as active sites have received increasing attention owing to their high atomic utilization efficiency and exotic catalytic activity and selectivity. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary on the recent development of such single-atom electrocatalysts (SAECs) for various energy-conversion reactions. The discussion starts with an introduction of the different types of SAECs, followed by an overview of the synthetic methodologies to control the atomic dispersion of metal sites and atomically resolved characterization using state-of-the-art microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. In recognition of the extensive applications of SAECs, the electrocatalytic studies are dissected in terms of various important electrochemical reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR), and nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). Examples of SAECs are deliberated in each case in terms of their catalytic performance, structure-property relationships, and catalytic enhancement mechanisms. A perspective is provided at the end of each section about remaining challenges and opportunities for the development of SAECs for the targeted reaction.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare erlotinib (E) and etoposide/cisplatin (EP) with concurrent radiotherapy (RT) for patients with stage IIIA/B unresectable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm+). METHODS: and patients: This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 2 trial conducted across 19 institutions in China (December 2012 to January 2016). Enrolled patients were randomized (1:1) to E+RT (oral erlotinib 150 mg/day for 2 years or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity and RT 200 cGy/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks from the first day of erlotinib) or EP+RT (etoposide 50 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1-5 and 29-33; cisplatin 50 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, 29 and 36; and RT as above). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients were screened and 20 patients with EGFRm+ in each group received the allocated E+RT or EP+RT treatment. Patient characteristics were well-balanced between groups. Compared with EP+RT, median PFS with E+RT was significantly longer (24.5 vs 9.0 months [hazard ratio, 0.104; 95% confidence interval, 0.028-0.389; P < 0.001]). ORR in the E+RT and EP+RT groups was 70% and 61.9%, respectively (P = 0.744). The incidence of adverse events (any grade) was similar between E+RT and EP+RT groups (88.9% and 84.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The primary endpoint of PFS was met, and the data showed that E+RT might provide PFS improvement compared with EP+RT, with similar tolerability. However, definitive statements regarding the efficacy of concurrent E+RT in patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC with activating EGFRm+ cannot be made, and slow patient accrual will likely make it infeasible to conduct a phase 3 study.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197100

RESUMO

Regulating the local environment and structure of metal center coordinated by nitrogen ligands (e.g., M-N4) to accelerate overall reaction dynamics of electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) has attracted extensive attention. Herein, we develop an axial traction strategy to optimize the electronic structure of M-N4 moiety and construct atomically dispersed nickel sites coordinated with four nitrogen atoms and one axial oxygen atom, which are embedded within the carbon matrix (Ni-N4-O/C). The Ni-N4-O/C electrocatalyst exhibited excellent CO2RR performance with a maximum CO Faradic efficiency (FE) close to 100% at -0.9 V. The CO FE could be maintained above 90% in a wide range of potential window from -0.5 to -1.1 V. The superior CO2RR activity is due to the Ni-N4-O active moiety composed of a Ni-N4 site with an additional oxygen ligand that induces an axial traction effect. The unique structure was evidenced by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations elucidate that the introduction of axial oxygen atom could optimize surface states of Ni-N4 moieties and enhance the charge polarization effect, therefore decreasing the potential barrier of intermediate COOH* formation, a key factor to accelerate the reaction kinetics and boost the CO2RR performance.

5.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146861

RESUMO

Intraoperative nerve action potential (NAP) recording permits direct study of an injured nerve for functional assessment of lesions in continuity. Stimulus artifact contamination often hampers NAP recording and interferes with its interpretation. In the present study, we evaluated the artifact reduction method using alternating polarity in peripheral nerve recording. Our study was conducted under controlled conditions in laboratory animals. NAPs were recorded from surgically exposed median or ulnar nerves. For the artifact reduction method with alternating polarity, two sequential recordings, one with normal and one with reversed stimulus polarity, were acquired and the signals from this recording pair were averaged. Simulation was also performed to further evaluate the effects of alternating polarity on the waveforms. The results are as follows: First, we found that this method worked for recordings with unsaturated electrical stimulus artifacts. Second, slightly unequal latencies occurred in an NAP pair, and this inequality contributed to a minimal loss of NAP amplitudes when averaging the two recordings. Third, perfect artifact cancelation and minimal signal loss were also demonstrated by simulation. Finally, we applied the method during nerve inching and demonstrated its usefulness in intraoperative NAP recordings as the method made the recording more resilient to short conduction distances. Thus, our findings demonstrate that this artifact reduction method can be used as a supplemental tool together with our previously described bridge grounding technique or the nonlifting nerve recording configuration to further improve intraoperative peripheral nerve recording. The method can be applied in clinical settings.

6.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186140

RESUMO

Weekly and triweekly cisplatin-alone concomitant chemoradiotherapy regimens after radical surgery were compared in stages IB-IIA cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors to identify the better therapeutic regimen. We retrospectively analyzed patients with stages IB-IIA cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy followed by concurrent adjuvant chemoradiotherapy to compare the efficiency between weekly and triweekly regimen groups. We evaluated between-group differences in survival, recurrence, compliance, and adverse effects. A total of 217 patients were included in this study (triweekly group vs. weekly group; 97 vs. 120). The mean follow-up was 47.2 months. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 84.4% or 76.5% for patients treated with triweekly cisplatin chemotherapy or the weekly regimen, respectively (P = 0.110). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 82.4 and 78.6% for the same treatment groups, respectively (P = 0.540). The DFS of the patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis were marginally better in triweekly regimen group compared with the weekly group (P = 0.031). Grades 3-4 leukopenia was significantly more common in the triweekly group (P = 0.028). The weekly cisplatin chemotherapy group experienced the same therapeutic effect as the triweekly cisplatin-alone chemotherapy group but with less toxicity. However, triweekly cisplatin regimen reduced the recurrence in patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis.

7.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 369-374, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thrombolytic effects of recombinant staphylokinase and compare it with those of recombinant streptokinase. METHODS: Thirty Chinese experimental miniature pigs were divided into five groups, namely, solvent control group, positive drug control group and three recombinant staphylokinase groups, six in each group. The thrombus of coronary artery was formed by surgical thoracotomy and direct current stimulation in anesthetized animals. Intravenous administration was started after the thrombus of coronary artery was formed for 30 minutes, and the method of first injection and then constant speed infusion by peristaltic pump was used. The solvent control group was injected intravenously with solvent, the positive drug control group was given recombinant streptokinase 4 mg·kg-1 intravenously, and the three recombinant staphylokinase groups were given recombinant staphylokinase at the doses of 4, 2 and 1 mg.kg-1 intravenously. The volume of intravenous injection was 5 ml, which was completed within 1 min, the speed of infusion was 0.5 ml·min-1, which was completed within 60 min, and the animals were sacrificed 120 minutes later. Before and 30, 60 and 120 min after administration, the venous blood samples were collected. At the end of the experiment, the coronary artery segments of the thrombosis site were taken, and the euglobulin dissolution time (ELT), blood fibrinogen content (FBG), fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) and wound bleeding volume were measured respectively. The coronary thrombolysis rate, myocardial ischemia degree and ischemia range were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the solvent control group, ELT in the experimental group was significantly shortened (P<0.05 or P<0.01), FBG degradation in a few experimental animals was more than 20%, FDP was significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and there was no significant effect on blood pressure and heart rate of small pigs. Compared with the control group, the maximum thrombus area was decreased by 34.3% and 15.4% (P<0.05) in the high and middle dose groups of the experimental group. Compared with the same dose of recombinant streptokinase, recombinant staphylokinase had stronger thrombolytic effect (P<0.05 or P<0.01) on the coronary thrombus caused by electrical stimulation, less bleeding side effects and the same effect on the degree and range of myocardial infarction as recombinant streptokinase. CONCLUSION: Compared with recombinant streptokinase, recombinant staphylokinase has faster thrombolysis speed, higher fibrin specificity and less bleeding side effects. In general, 2 mg.kg-1 recombinant staphylokinase has better efficacy and safety.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171812

RESUMO

Mechanical loading preserves bone mass and function-yet, little is known about the cell biological basis behind this preservation. For example, cell and nucleus morphology are critically important for cell function, but how these morphological characteristics are affected by the physiological mechanical loading of bone cells is under-investigated. This study aims to determine the effects of fluid shear stress on cell and nucleus morphology and volume of osteoblasts, and how these effects relate to changes in actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion formation. Mouse calvaria 3T3-E1 (MC3T3-E1) osteoblasts were treated with or without 1 h pulsating fluid flow (PFF). Live-cell imaging was performed every 10 min during PFF and immediately after PFF. Cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesions were visualized, and gene and protein expression quantified. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric analyses were made using MeasureStack and medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK) software. 2D-images revealed that 1 h PFF changed cell morphology from polygonal to triangular, and nucleus morphology from round to ellipsoid. PFF also reduced cell surface area (0.3-fold), cell volume (0.3-fold), and nucleus volume (0.2-fold). During PFF, the live-cell volume gradually decreased from 6000 to 3000 µm3. After PFF, α-tubulin orientation was more disorganized, but F-actin fluorescence intensity was enhanced, particularly around the nucleus. 3D-images obtained from Z-stacks indicated that PFF increased F-actin fluorescence signal distribution around the nucleus in the XZ and YZ direction (2.3-fold). PFF increased protein expression of phospho-paxillin (2.0-fold) and integrin-α5 (2.8-fold), but did not increase mRNA expression of paxillin-a (PXNA), paxillin-b (PXNB), integrin-α5 (ITGA51), or α-tubulin protein expression. In conclusion, PFF induced substantial changes in osteoblast cytoskeleton, as well as cell and nucleus morphology and volume, which was accompanied by elevated gene and protein expression of adhesion and structural proteins. More insights into the mechanisms whereby mechanical cues drive morphological changes in bone cells, and thereby, possibly in bone cell behavior, will aid the guidance of clinical treatment, particularly in the field of orthodontics, (oral) implantology, and orthopedics.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520973915, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of complete retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision (RLNU-BCE), which is performed to treat urothelial carcinomas in the renal pelvis or in the ureter higher than the crossing of the common iliac artery without patient repositioning. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 48 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent complete RLNU-BCE in our institution from May 2017 to September 2019. RESULTS: RLNU-BCE was successfully performed in all 48 patients. The median operation time was 110 minutes [interquartile range (IQR), 100-130 minutes], and the median postoperative anesthesia recovery time was 10 minutes (IQR, 7-15 minutes). The median postoperative hospitalization period was 5 days (IQR, 4-6 days). Pathologic examination revealed that the margin of all resected specimens was negative. After a median follow-up of 13 months (IQR, 7-20 months), no local recurrence or distant metastasis was found. No complications occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Based on our experience with this technique, RLNU-BCE deserves application and promotion in clinical practice. Long-term comparative studies are required to confirm its superiority over other techniques.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20646, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244072

RESUMO

Ischemic strokes cause devastating brain damage and functional deficits with few treatments available. Previous studies have shown that the ischemia-hypoxia rapidly induces clinically similar thrombosis and neuronal loss, but any resulting behavioral changes are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate motor and cognitive deficits in adult HI mice. Following a previously established procedure, HI mouse models were induced by first ligating the right common carotid artery and followed by hypoxia. Histological data showed significant long-term neuronal losses and reactive glial cells in the ipsilateral striatum and hippocampus of the HI mice. Whereas the open field test and the rotarod test could not reliably distinguish between the sham and HI mice, in the tapered beam and wire-hanging tests, the HI mice showed short-term and long-term deficits, as evidenced by the increased number of foot faults and decreased hanging time respectively. In cognitive tests, the HI mice swam longer distances and needed more time to find the platform in the Morris water maze test and showed shorter freezing time in fear contextual tests after fear training. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that adult HI mice have motor and cognitive deficits and could be useful models for preclinical stroke research.

11.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185973

RESUMO

Microbial taxon-taxon co-occurrences may directly or indirectly reflect the potential relationships between the members within a microbial community. However, to what extent and the specificity by which these co-occurrences are influenced by environmental factors remains unclear. In this report, we evaluated how the dynamics of microbial taxon-taxon co-occurrence is associated with the changes of environmental factors in Nan Lake at Wuhan city, China with a Modified Liquid Association method. We were able to detect more than 1000 taxon-taxon co-occurrences highly correlated with one or more environmental factors across a phytoplankton bloom using 16S rRNA gene amplicon community profiles. These co-occurrences, referred to as environment dependent co-occurrences (ED_co-occurrences), delineate a unique network in which a taxon-taxon pair exhibits specific, and potentially dynamic correlations with an environmental parameter, while the individual relative abundance of each may not. Microcystis involved ED_co-occurrences are in important topological positions in the network, suggesting relationships between the bloom dominant species and other taxa could play a role in the interplay of microbial community and environment across various bloom stages. Our results may broaden our understanding of the response of a microbial community to the environment, particularly at the level of microbe-microbe associations.

12.
Early Hum Dev ; 152: 105247, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to prenatal sex steroids as indicated by the ratio of the second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) has been linked to the risk of onset of cancer, while sex steroids may expand the gender disparity in bladder cancer (BC) morbidity. AIM: To explore the association between 2D:4D ratio and BC risk. SUBJECTS: 307 bladder cancer patients and 321 cancer-free individuals. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationships between 2D:4D and incidence of bladder cancer. RESULTS: For males, a lower 2D:4D ratio of both hands was obtained in the BC group, relative to the control group (left hand: 0.940 ± 0.031 vs. 0.954 ± 0.024, t = -4.72, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.491 and right hand: 0.939 ± 0.031 vs. 0.952 ± 0.022, t = -4.493, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.511). In females, no differences in the 2D:4D ratio were observed between the BC and control groups (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis between 2D:4D ratio and pathological index found no correlation among the BC grade or stage (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Men with BC have a lower 2D:4D ratio compared with healthy men. Therefore, having a low 2D:4D ratio is a risk factor for BC in men. Prenatal exposure to sex steroids might play a role in the etiology of BC, which could partially explain the gender disparity in the prevalence of BC.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in the treatment of cancer. Unfortunately, RT alone is insufficient to control the disease in most cases, as regrowth after irradiation still occur. Thus, it would be meaningful to explore the underlying mechanism of tumor regrowth after irradiation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and hinder the therapeutic efficacy of RT. However, it is unclear whether MDSCs-mediated immune suppression contributes to local relapse after irradiation. In this article, we tried to figure out how MDSCs sabotage the therapeutic effect of RT, and tried to determine the potential synergistic effect of combination between targeting MDSCs and RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A syngeneic murine model of Lewis lung cancer was used. The abundance of tumor infiltrating MDSCs and tumor growth after irradiation was assessed. The percentage and functional state of CD8+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry, with or without PMN-MDSCs depletion. Arginase 1 (ARG1) expression and activity of MDSCs were examined by HE staining and flow cytometry. ARG1 inhibitor and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil were administered after RT to figure out the underlying mechanism of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression. RESULTS: We demonstrated that irradiation recruited MDSCs, especially the polymorphonuclear subset, into the TME. PMN-MDSCs inhibited the CD8+ T cell response by elevating ARG1 expression. Selective depletion of PMN-MDSCs or inhibition on ARG1 promoted the infiltration and activation of intratumoral CD8+ T cells, and delayed tumor regrowth after irradiation. We showed that sildenafil reduced the accumulation and ARG1 expression of PMN-MDSCs after irradiation, thus abrogating the MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have suggested that PMN-MDSCs participate in the irradiation-induced immune suppression through ARG1 activation. We have also found that sildenafil has the potential to facilitate antitumor immunity, which provides a new alternative to delay tumor recurrence after RT.

14.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098074

RESUMO

Myh7 is a classic biomarker for cardiac remodeling and a potential target to attenuate cardiomyocyte (CM) hypertrophy. This study aimed to identify the dominant function of Myh7 after birth and determine whether its removal would affect CM maturation or contribute to reversal of pathological hypertrophy phenotypes. The CASAAV (CRISPR/Cas9-AAV9-based somatic mutagenesis) technique was used to deplete Myh6 and Myh7, and an AAV dosage of 5 × 109 vg/g was used to generate a mosaic CM depletion model to explore the function of Myh7 in adulthood. CM hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in Rosa26Cas9-P2A-GFP mice at postnatal day 28 (PND28). Heart function was measured by echocardiography. Isolated CMs and in situ imaging were used to analyze the structure and morphology of CM. We discovered that CASAAV successfully silenced Myh6 and Myh7 in CMs, and early depletion of Myh7 led to mild adulthood lethality. However, the Myh7 PND28-knockout mice had normal heart phenotype and function, with normal cellular size and normal organization of sarcomeres and T-tubules. The TAC mice also received AAV-Myh7-Cre to produce Myh7-knockout CMs, which were also of normal size, and echocardiography demonstrated a reversal of cardiac hypertrophy. In conclusion, Myh7 has a role during the maturation period but rarely functions in adulthood. Thus, the therapeutic time should exceed the period of maturation. These results confirm Myh7 as a potential therapeutic target and indicate that its inhibition could help reverse CM hypertrophy.

16.
Chembiochem ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058374

RESUMO

We report a general method for amino acid-type specific 17 O-labeling of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. In particular, we have prepared several [1-13 C,17 O]-labeled yeast ubiquitin (Ub) samples including Ub-[1-13 C,17 O]Gly, Ub-[1-13 C,17 O]Tyr, and Ub-[1-13 C,17 O]Phe using the auxotrophic E. coli strain DL39 GlyA λDE3 (aspC- tyrB- ilvE- glyA- λDE3). We have also produced Ub-[η-17 O]Tyr, in which the phenolic group of Tyr59 is 17 O-labeled. We show for the first time that 17 O NMR signals from protein terminal residues and side chains can be readily detected in aqueous solution. We also reported solid-state 17 O NMR spectra for Ub-[1-13 C,17 O]Tyr and Ub-[1-13 C,17 O]Phe obtained at an ultrahigh magnetic field, 35.2 T (1.5 GHz for 1 H). This work represents a significant advance in the field of 17 O NMR studies of proteins.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008068

RESUMO

With the successful completion of genomic sequencing for Brassica napus, identification of novel genes, determination of functions performed by genes, and exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying important agronomic traits were challenged. Mutagenesis-based functional genomics techniques including chemical, physical, and insertional mutagenesis have been used successfully in the functional characterization of genes. However, these techniques had their disadvantages and inherent limitations for allopolyploid Brassica napus, which contained a large number of homologous and redundant genes. Long intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs which contained inverted repeats of the target gene separated by an intron, had been shown to be very effective in triggering RNAi in plants. In the present study, the genome-wide long ihpRNA library of B. napus was constructed with the rolling circle amplification (RCA)-mediated technology. Using the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene as a target control, it was shown that the RCA-mediated long ihpRNA construct was significantly effective in triggering gene silence in B. napus. Subsequently, the resultant long ihpRNA library was transformed into B. napus to produce corresponding RNAi mutants. Among the obtained transgenic ihpRNA population of B. napus, five ihpRNA lines with observable mutant phenotypes were acquired including alterations in the floral model and the stamen development. The target genes could be quickly identified using specific primers. These results showed that the RCA-mediated ihpRNA construction method was effective for the genome-wide long ihpRNA library of B. napus, therefore providing a platform for study of functional genomics in allopolyploid B. napus.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22766, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120785

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight and severity, drug response, and clinical outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records of 240 COVID-19 patients admitted to Union Hospital in Wuhan, China, between December 24, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Physical, clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatment, and outcome data were abstracted. Patients who were obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m], underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m), under 18 years old, pregnant, or still in hospital were excluded. Disease severity was classified as moderate or severe pneumonia based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥24 kg/m and <28 kg/m. Patients were followed for discharge or death through April 10, 2020. We used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for severe disease, Cox proportional hazard models to explore associations between medications and patient outcomes (discharge or in-hospital death), and Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital death.One-half of patients (120, 50.0%) had severe pneumonia, while nearly one-half (114, 47.5%) were overweight. Among patients over 45 years old, overweight patients had significantly lower rates of fatigue, higher rates of headache, and higher median C-reactive protein levels. Patients under 45 years old had higher rates of cough and myalgia and higher proportions of increased alanine aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as more pulmonary lobes involved in the pneumonia revealed by chest computed tomography scans. Overweight patients were at higher risk of developing severe pneumonia. Although weight was not a risk factor for in-hospital death, overweight patients showed different responses to medications compared with normal weight patients. Intravenous interferon-α, intravenous glucocorticoids, and antifungal drugs were associated with reduced mortality in overweight patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin, oseltamivir, and ribavirin were associated with reduced mortality in normal weight patients.Overweight is a worldwide health problem. We found overweight to be related to the COVID-19 severity but not to in-hospital death. Clinicians should be aware that overweight COVID-19 patients require increased attention for different clinical features and treatment response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002266

RESUMO

Atomically dispersed FeN4 active sites have exhibited exceptional catalytic activity and selectivity for the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) to CO. However, the understanding behind the intrinsic and morphological factors contributing to the catalytic properties of FeN4 sites is still lacking. By using a Fe-N-C model catalyst derived from the ZIF-8, we deconvoluted three key morphological and structural elements of FeN4 sites, including particle sizes of catalysts, Fe content, and Fe-N bond structures. Their respective impacts on the CO2RR were comprehensively elucidated. Engineering the particle size and Fe doping is critical to control extrinsic morphological factors of FeN4 sites for optimal porosity, electrochemically active surface areas, and the graphitization of the carbon support. In contrast, the intrinsic activity of FeN4 sites was only tunable by varying thermal activation temperatures during the formation of FeN4 sites, which impacted the length of the Fe-N bonds and the local strains. The structural evolution of Fe-N bonds was examined at the atomic level. First-principles calculations further elucidated the origin of intrinsic activity improvement associated with the optimal local strain of the Fe-N bond.

20.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 25(8): 1065-1066, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067672

RESUMO

In the original article, few equations and units were published incorrectly.

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