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1.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.AimsTo investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia. METHOD: Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant. RESULTS: The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.Declaration of interestNone.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 253: 18-25, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many previous studies have revealed abnormal functional connectivity patterns between brain areas underlying the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, how to exactly characterize the voxel-wise whole brain functional connectivity pattern changes in MDD remains unclear, which will provide more convincing evidence for localizing the exactly functional connectivity abnormality in MDD. METHODS: In this study, we employed our newly developed whole brain functional connectivity homogeneity (FcHo) method to identify the voxel-wise changes of functional connectivity patterns in 27 medication-free MDD patients and 34 gender-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC). Furthermore, seed-based functional connectivity analysis was then used to identify the alteration of corresponding functional connectivity. RESULTS: Significantly decreased FcHo values in right ventral anterior insula (INS) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) were identified in MDD patients. The ensuing functional connectivity analyses identified decreased functional connectivity between MPFC and left angular gyrus (AG) in MDD patients. Moreover, both decreased FcHo values in INS, MPFC and functional connectivity between MPFC and left AG showed significant negative correlations with Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) scores. The FcHo values in INS were also negatively correlated with disease duration. Finally, meta-analysis based functional characterization found that these brain areas are mainly involved in emotion, theory of mind and reward processing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed abnormal whole brain FcHo in INS and MPFC and functional interactions between MPFC and AG in MDD and suggested that dysfunctions of INS and MPFC play an important role in the neuropathology of MDD.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of 'TNF-α × treatment' in the regions with between-group FC difference. RESULTS: Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of 'TNF-α × treatment' was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease. CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.

4.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 692, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356761

RESUMO

Mounting studies have applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to study major depressive disorder (MDD) and have identified abnormal functional activities. However, how the global functional connectivity patterns change in MDD is still unknown. Using rs-fMRI, we investigated the alterations of global resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns in MDD using weighted global brain connectivity (wGBC) method. First, a whole brain voxel-wise wGBC map was calculated for 23 MDD patients and 34 healthy controls. Two-sample t-tests were applied to compare the wGBC and RSFC maps and the significant level was set at p < 0.05, cluster-level correction with voxel-level p < 0.001. MDD patients showed significantly decreased wGBC in left temporal pole (TP) and increased wGBC in right parahippocampus (PHC). Subsequent RSFC analyses showed decreased functional interaction between TP and right posterior superior temporal cortex and increased functional interaction between PHC and right inferior frontal gyrus in MDD patients. These results revealed the abnormal global FC patterns and its corresponding disrupted functional connectivity in MDD. Our findings present new evidence for the functional interruption in MDD.

5.
Neuroimage ; 181: 16-29, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890329

RESUMO

This work presents an automatically annotated fiber cluster (AAFC) method to enable identification of anatomically meaningful white matter structures from the whole brain tractography. The proposed method consists of 1) a study-specific whole brain white matter parcellation using a well-established data-driven groupwise fiber clustering pipeline to segment tractography into multiple fiber clusters, and 2) a novel cluster annotation method to automatically assign an anatomical tract annotation to each fiber cluster by employing cortical parcellation information across multiple subjects. The novelty of the AAFC method is that it leverages group-wise information about the fiber clusters, including their fiber geometry and cortical terminations, to compute a tract anatomical label for each cluster in an automated fashion. We demonstrate the proposed AAFC method in an application of investigating white matter abnormality in emotional processing and sensorimotor areas in major depressive disorder (MDD). Seven tracts of interest related to emotional processing and sensorimotor functions are automatically identified using the proposed AAFC method as well as a comparable method that uses a cortical parcellation alone. Experimental results indicate that our proposed method is more consistent in identifying the tracts across subjects and across hemispheres in terms of the number of fibers. In addition, we perform a between-group statistical analysis in 31 MDD patients and 62 healthy subjects on the identified tracts using our AAFC method. We find statistical differences in diffusion measures in local regions within a fiber tract (e.g. 4 fiber clusters within the identified left hemisphere cingulum bundle (consisting of 14 clusters) are significantly different between the two groups), suggesting the ability of our method in identifying potential abnormality specific to subdivisions of a white matter structure.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 234: 297-304, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impairments in emotional and cognitive functions. Emerging studies have shown that cognition and emotion interact by reaching identical brain regions, and the insula is one such region with functional and structural heterogeneity. Although previous literatures have shown the role of insula in MDD,it remains unclear whether the insular subregions show differential change patterns in MDD. METHODS: Using the resting-state fMRI data in a group of 23 drug-free MDD patients and 34 healthy controls (HCs), we investigated whether the abnormal connectivity patterns of insular sub-regions or any behavioural correlates can be detected in MDD. Further hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify the functional connectivity-clustering patterns of insular sub-regions. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, the MDD exhibited higher connectivities between dorsal agranular insula and inferior parietal lobule and between ventral dysgranular and granular insula and thalamus/habehula, and lower connectivity of hypergranular insula to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, the three subregions with significant group differences were in three separate functional systems along anterior-to-posteior gradient. The anterior and middle insula showed positive correlation with depressive severity, while the posterior insular was to the contrary. LIMITATIONS: The small and unbalanced sample size, only included moderate and severe depression and the possible inter-individual differences may limit the interpretability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provided evidences for the MDD-related effects in functional connectivity patterns of insular subregions, and revealed that the subregions might be involved in different neural circuits associated with the contrary impacts on the depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
7.
Ophthalmology ; 124(5): 679-687, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28237427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship among eye shape, myopic maculopathy, and visual acuity in highly myopic eyes using 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 190 eyes of 95 participants with bilateral high myopia from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center-Brien Holden Vision Institute High Myopia Cohort Study, with spherical power ≤-6.00 diopters (D) in both eyes. METHODS: The participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, cycloplegic refraction, and ocular biometry. Posterior staphyloma was identified with 3D MRI, and ocular shapes were categorized into spheroidal, ellipsoidal, conical, nasally distorted, temporally distorted, and barrel shapes according to the inferior view from T2-weighted 3D MRI (Achieva 3.0T; Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). Myopic maculopathy was graded as C0 to C4 according to the International Photographic Classification and Grading System using fundus photography. The statistical significance of the differences in distribution of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in eyes with different ocular shapes was determined using Pearson's chi-square tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distributions of myopic maculopathy and BCVA in relation to different eye shapes. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent and axial length were -11.74±4.10 D and 28.18±1.73 mm in the right eyes, respectively. The same ocular shapes were observed in both eyes in 69 participants (72.6%). The predominant shape was spheroidal (53.7%), followed by nasally distorted and conical types (both 14.7%). C2 and above myopic maculopathy was observed in all barrel-shaped eyes, in 75% temporally distorted eyes, and in 71.4% nasally distorted and conical eyes. In eyes with posterior staphyloma (n = 22), 18 (81.8%) had C2 and above myopic maculopathy compared with 40 eyes (54.8%) without posterior staphyloma (n = 73). Eyes with temporal and nasal distortion, and eyes with staphyloma were more likely to have BCVA <20/40. CONCLUSIONS: Not all highly myopic eyes are deformed. Spheroid was the predominant ocular shape in this series of young patients with high myopia bilaterally. Barrel-shaped and temporally distorted eyes present significant myopic maculopathy, whereas eyes with posterior staphyloma display more severe chorioretinal atrophy. Eyes of more deformed shapes tend to have more severe myopic maculopathy and worse BCVA.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miopia Degenerativa/complicações , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Miopia Degenerativa/fisiopatologia , Países Baixos , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
8.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 36(3): 745-756, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893387

RESUMO

The fMRI signals are usually filtered before processing and analyzing. This process can result in the loss of information carried by the higher frequency in the low frequency fluctuation. ICA and CCA are two classical methods in fMRI. ICA finds the statistically independent components of the observed data, however these components are usually physiologically uninterpretable without auxiliary procedures. CCA decomposes two sets of data into component pairs in some order, however these components may be mixtures of real signals and noise. In order to obtain statistically independent components and avoid the loss of information in the process of filtering, we propose a mixed model based on ICA and CCA, which does not need to filter the data. It is shown by the experiments that the new model has some advantages compared with the classical ICA and CCA. The components obtained by the new model is statistically independent. The useful information included in the low frequency fluctuation can be preserved. Experiments on synthetic data show satisfying results. As an application, this new model is used to design an algorithm to discriminate the major depressions from normal controls, with encouraging experimental results.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 84: 237-242, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770743

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we adopted a structural covariance method based on gray matter volume to investigate the brain morphological abnormalities within the emotion regulation networks in a large cohort of 65 MDD patients and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A permutation test with p < 0.05 was used to identify the significant changes in covariance connectivity strengths between MDD patients and healthy controls. The structural covariance analysis revealed an increased correlation strength of gray matter volume between the left angular gyrus and the left amygdala and between the right angular gyrus and the right amygdala, as well as a decreased correlation strength of the gray matter volume between the right angular gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex in MDD. Our findings support the notion that emotion dysregulation is an underlying mechanism of MDD by revealing disrupted structural covariance patterns in the emotion regulation network.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Emoções , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Neuroanat ; 10: 120, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28018183

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age- and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs). Next, the two-sample t-test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and MDD patients and identified significant decrease of FCS in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) in MDD patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses of sgACC showed disruptions in functional connectivity with posterior insula, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and cerebellum in MDD patients. Furthermore, the changed FCS of sgACC and functional connections to sgACC were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores in MDD patients. The results of the present study revealed the abnormal hub of sgACC and its corresponding disrupted frontal-limbic-visual cognitive-cerebellum functional networks in MDD. These findings may provide a new insight for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 4168512, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403426

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that cirrhosis may affect functional connectivity among various brain regions in patients prior to onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, most investigators have focused mainly on alterations in functional connectivity strengths, and the changes in functional connectivity density (FCD) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated alterations in resting-state FCD in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt HE. Totally, 31 patients with HBV-RC without overt HE and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI examinations. FCD mapping was employed to compute local and global FCD maps. Then, short-range and long-range FCD values were calculated and voxel-based comparisons were performed between the two groups. The HBV-RC group showed significant decreases in FCD, including decreased short-range FCDs in the bilateral middle cingulum gyrus/precuneus, the bilateral cuneus, and the left lingual gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus and decreased long-range FCD in the bilateral cuneus/precuneus. In addition, the decreased long-range FCD in the bilateral cuneus/precuneus in the HBV-RC group was related to performance on the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) test. These findings suggest aberrant functional connectivity density in cirrhotic patients prior to overt HE onset, which may provide better insight into understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the cirrhotic-related cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Encefalopatia Hepática/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Front Neuroanat ; 10: 32, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27047351

RESUMO

The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

13.
Cereb Cortex ; 26(9): 3732-43, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26250778

RESUMO

Various brain structural and functional features such as cytoarchitecture, topographic mapping, gyral/sulcal anatomy, and anatomical and functional connectivity have been used in human brain parcellation. However, the fine-grained intrinsic genetic architecture of the cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we parcellated specific regions of the cortex into subregions based on genetic correlations (i.e., shared genetic influences) between the surface area of each pair of cortical locations within the seed region. The genetic correlations were estimated by comparing the correlations of the surface area between monozygotic and dizygotic twins using bivariate twin models. Our genetic subdivisions of diverse brain regions were reproducible across 2 independent datasets and corresponded closely to fine-grained functional specializations. Furthermore, subregional genetic correlation profiles were generally consistent with functional connectivity patterns. Our findings indicate that the magnitude of the genetic covariance in brain anatomy could be used to delineate the boundaries of functional subregions of the brain and may be of value in the next generation human brain atlas.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Gêmeos/genética , Conectoma/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 10(4): 1029-1037, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508314

RESUMO

The lateralization of visuospatial attention has been well investigated and demonstrated to be primarily resulting from unbalanced interaction between interhemispheric fronto-parietal networks in previous studies. Many recent studies of top-down attention have reported the neural signatures of its effects within visual cortex and identified its causal basis. However, the relationship between top-down networks and asymmetric visuospatial attention has not been well studied. In the current study, we aimed to explore the relationship between top-down connectivity and asymmetric visuospatial ability by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses. We used rTMS and RSFC to model the virtual lesion to assess the behavioral performances in visuospatial attention shifting and to identify the behavior-related top-down functional connectivities, respectively. Furthermore, we also investigated the top-down connectivity in neglect patients to validate the RSFC findings. RSFC analyses in healthy subjects and neglect patients consistently revealed that asymmetric visuospatial ability and visuospatial neglect were closely related to the bias of top-down functional connectivity between posterior superior parietal lobule (SPL) and V1. Our findings indicate that stronger top-down connectivity has stronger dominance on its corresponding visual field. We argue that an asymmetric top-down network may represent a possible neurophysiological substrate for the ongoing functional asymmetry of visuospatial attention, and its interhemispheric unbalanced interaction could contribute to the clinical manifestations of visuospatial neglect.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Descanso , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
15.
EBioMedicine ; 2(8): 919-28, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26425699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validating the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder (BP) may help enable early intervention strategies. METHODS: We followed up with 44 offspring of parents with BP, subdividing into the HR and UHR categories. The offspring were aged 8-28 years and were free of any current DSM-IV diagnoses. Our multilevel, integrative approach encompassed gray matter (GM) volumes, brain network connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and clinical outcomes. FINDINGS: Compared with the healthy controls (HCs) (n = 33), the HR offspring (n = 26) showed GM volume reductions in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with the HR offspring, the UHR offspring (n = 18) exhibited increased GM volumes in four regions. Both the HR and UHR offspring displayed abnormalities in the inferior occipital cortex regarding the measures of degree and centrality, reflecting the connections and roles of the region, respectively. In the UHR versus the HR offspring, the UHR offspring exhibited upwards-shifted small world topologies that reflect high clustering and efficiency in the brain networks. Compared with the HCs, the UHR offspring had significantly lower assortativity, which was suggestive of vulnerability. Finally, processing speed, visual-spatial, and general function were impaired in the UHR offspring but not in the HR offspring. INTERPRETATION: The abnormalities observed in the HR offspring appear to be inherited, whereas those associated with the UHR offspring represent stage-specific changes predisposing them to developing the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Substância Cinzenta , Rede Nervosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Front Neuroanat ; 9: 82, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106307

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) are associated with a varying degree of cognitive dysfunction. Several resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been conducted to explore the neural correlates of such cognitive deficits, whereas little effort has been made to investigate the cortical integrity in cirrhotic patients without OHE. Here, using cortical thickness, surface area and local gyrification index (lGI), this study performed a comprehensive analysis on the cortical morphometry of patients with HBV-RC without OHE (HBV-RC-NOHE) vs. matched healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, we found significantly increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual and parahippocampal gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, peri-calcarine sulcus and fusiform gyrus in patient with HBV-RC-NOHE, which may closely relate to be the low-grade brain edema. Cortical gyrification analysis showed significantly increased lGI in the left superior and inferior parietal cortex as well as lateral occipital cortex, which was speculated to be associated with disruptions in white matter connectivity and sub-optimal intra-cortical organization. In addition, the mean cortical thickness/lGI of the regions with structural abnormalities was shown to be negatively correlated with psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) of the patients with HBV-RC-NOHE. These morphological changes may serve as potential markers for the preclinical diagnosis and progression of HBV-RC-NOHE.

17.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 18(11): pyv059, 2015 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a key feature of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and can be related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an antidepressant intervention has increasingly been investigated in the last two decades. However, no studies to date have investigated the association between neurobiochemical changes within the anterior cingulate and executive dysfunction measured in TRD being treated with rTMS. METHODS: Thirty-two young depressed patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study [active (n=18) vs. sham (n=14)]. ACC metabolism was investigated before and after high-frequency (15 Hz) rTMS using 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The results were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Executive functioning was measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) among 34 subjects with TRD and 28 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Significant reductions in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing Compound levels in the left ACC were found in subjects with TRD pre-rTMS when compared with healthy controls. After successful treatment, NAA levels increased significantly in the left ACC of subjects and were not different from those of age-matched controls. In the WCST, more perseverative errors and fewer correct numbers were observed in TRD subjects at baseline. Improvements in both perseverative errors and correct numbers occurred after active rTMS. In addition, improvement of perseverative errors was positively correlated with enhancement of NAA levels in the left ACC in the active rTMS group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the NAA concentration in the left ACC is associated with an improvement in cognitive functioning among subjects with TRD response to active rTMS.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Função Executiva , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 14: 45, 2014 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24548345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, the relationships between childhood neglect, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude in depressed patients are still obscure. METHODS: The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood emotional neglect and physical neglect. Twenty-eight depressed patients with childhood neglect and 30 depressed patients without childhood neglect from Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital were compared with 29 age- and gender-matched control subjects without childhood neglect and 22 control subjects with childhood neglect. Cortisol awakening response, the difference between the cortisol concentrations at awakening and 30 minutes later, provided a measure of HPA axis functioning. The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale measured cognitive schema. RESULTS: HPA axis functioning was significantly increased in depressed patients with childhood neglect compared with depressed patients without childhood neglect (p < 0.001). HPA axis activity in the control group with childhood neglect was significantly higher than in the depressed group without childhood neglect (p < 0.001). Total scores of childhood neglect were positively correlated with HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude scores, but not with severity of depression. We did not find correlations with HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude or with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood neglect may cause hyperactivity of the HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude, but does not affect depression severity.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Atitude , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 28(8): 1372-5, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18753063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of multiple cerebral sclerosis (MS) for better understanding and diagnosis of this disease. METHODS: The MRI data of 32 patients with MS were reviewed. Conventional scanning with T1WI, T2WI, Flair sequence was performed, and 26 patients underwent Gd-DTPA enhanced scanning. The MS plaques were analyzed for their locations, sizes, shapes, MR signals and enhanced features, space-occupying signs, and the related corpus callosum changes and brain atrophy. Descriptive statistical method was used for all the data. RESULTS: MRI identified MS lesions in the brain in 30 cases, with the sensitivity of 93.75%. All the MS patients had multiple lesions with predilection sites of the cortical/juxtacortical and periventricle areas, the centrum semiovale, and the corpus callosum. Most of the MS plaques were round or oval of different sizes. Bilateral lesions were almost symmetrical in distribution. Twenty patients had "rectangular demyelination" and 12 had "dirty white matter" signs, and 11 had both manifestations. The lesions were isointense, slightly hypointense or hypointense on T1WI, and hyperintense on T2WI and Flair sequences. Most of the MS plaques presented no enhancement, with occasional nodular or circular enhancement. No or slight space-occupying effect was found in the plaques. Of the 28 MS patients undergoing sagittal scanning of the corpus callosum, 17 presented with abnormal signals, with the sensitivity of 60.71% (17/28). Five patients had corpus callosum atrophy, and 10 had brain atrophy of different degrees. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the corpus callosum is often compromised by the MS lesions to present diffusive, nodular, radiating signal abnormalities and irregular ependymal thickening, which can be most obvious with sagittal FLAIR imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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